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Chapter 17 Work, Heat, and the First Law of


Thermodynamics
17.1 Its All about Energy
17.2 Work in Ideal-Gas Processes
17.3 Heat
17.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
17.5 Thermal Properties of Matter
17.6 Calorimetry
17.7 The Specific Heats of Gases
Internal Energy
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Heat
3
Work
4
Power
5
Energy & Power Units
6
Energy & Power Question
7
What wattage light bulb gives off about the same amount of heat as a
person eats who consumes 2500 Cal/day of food?
Energy & Power Question
8
A student who weighs 70 kg eats a bag of potato chips which have 350
Cal, then decides to work them off by walking up stairs. How many
flights of stairs (4 m high) must she climb to use up this number of
Calories, assuming the body has an efficiency of 25%?
Heat Capacity
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Heat Capacity Question
10
A potato has C = 2000 J/K, and starts at T = 20C (room temperature).
What is its temperature after it absorbs heat at a rate of 700 W (typical
microwave oven) for 2 minutes?
Specific Heat
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Specific Heat Question
12
A water heater is operated by solar power. If the solar collector has an
area of 6.00 m
2
and the power delivered by sunlight is 550 W/m
2
, how
long does it take to increase the temperature of 1.00 m
3
of water from
20C to 60C ?
Specific Heat Question
13
Two identical pots are placed on identical stove burners. Initially, one pot
has one cup of water at 20C and the other pot has two cups at the same
temperature. Both burners are turned on at the same time. At the moment
when the water in the first pot boils, approximately what is the
temperature of the water in the second pot?
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2
Latent Heat
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Heat of Fusion (L
F
)
Heat of Vaporization (L
V
)
Latent Heats for Water
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If the same amount of heat necessary to melt 1 kg of ice at 0C were
instead applied to warming up 1 kg of liquid water initially at 0C, what
would the final temperature of the liquid water be?
What if the heat necessary to boil 1 kg of water at 100C were applied to
liquid water initially at 0C?
Latent Heat Question
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Heat is added at a rate of 200 W to a beaker, which initially contains 200
grams of ice in 300 grams of liquid water. How long will it take for
(a) all the ice to melt?
(b) then for the water to reach boiling point?
(c) then all the water to boil away?
Latent Heat & Specific Heat
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Heating 0.0010 kg (1.0 cm
3
) Water
= SSS } = 226S }
= 419 }
I = 1uu
Latent Heat & Specific Heat Question
18
Two identical pots are placed on identical stove burners. Initially, one pot
has one cup of water at 20C and the other pot has two cups at the same
temperature. Both burners are turned on at the same time. At the
moment all of the water in the first pot has boiled away, what can be said
about the second pot?
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2
Latent Heat & Specific Heat Question
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An ice cube (m
1
= 10 g at 0C) is added to a glass of water (200 cm
3
, m
2
= 200
g) at room temperature (20C). Assume the system is thermally isolated (no
heat enters from the room). Does all the ice melt? What is the final
temperature?
Thermodynamic Systems
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T
- fixed amount of stuff (gas or other)
- in equilibrium a thermodynamic system has certain properties (state
variables)
Typical State Variables
p
piessuie =
foice
aiea
unit ~
N
m
2
= Pa
V volume unit ~ m
3
T absolute temperature unit ~ K
An equation of state (relevant to a given thermodynamic
system) relates p, V, and T.
Ex. pI = nRI
(IGL is equation of state for a gas.)
Other thermodynamic systems have
different equations of state.
The cylinder is generally
NOT part of system.
A gas in a cylinder
is a thermodynamic
system.
amount of stuff,
identifies the system
Heat and Work two ways to change the internal energy of a system
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Adiabatic Process
Q: heat flowing into system (E increases)
W: work done to system (E increases)
Work
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How can we calculate the work done on a thermodynamic system?
before
after
What is the work done at a constant
pressure?
Work Questions
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An air-filled balloon is placed in a warm spot. As a result, it expands.
What are the signs ( + or ) of the heat absorbed Q and the work done W
on the air in the balloon?
A cup of liquid water with ice cubes in it is left on the table. After a long
time the ice has melted and everything is at room temperature. Consider
the system to be all of the water (liquid & ice). What are the signs ( +
or ) of the heat absorbed Q and the work done Won the system?
w = -pI
Work Question
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0.200 moles of an ideal gas is enclosed in a cylinder with a movable
piston on top. The piston has a mass of 8000 g and an area of 5.00 cm
2
and is free to slide up and down, keeping the pressure of the gas
constant. How much work is done on the gas as the temperature of the
gas is raised from 20.0C to 300C?
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2
Work
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What is the sign (+ or ) of the work done on the systems below?
Work Question
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Below are three processes in which a given sample of gas goes from the
same original state to the same final state? How does the work done on
the system compare?
Work Question
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How much work is done on the system in case (a) below?
Work Question
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How much work is done on the system in case (b) below?
Work Question (assume IGL holds)
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How much work is done on the system in case (c) below if the
temperature T is constant?
Work in a Cyclic Process
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V
p
- system starts/stops in same
thermodynamic state
- ex. fridge, AC, engines
- in practical applications often interested
in work done by system. Note: This is
-w, not +w.
Sign Convention for Cyclic Processes
clockwise thermodynamic system does work -w > u [like moving a car]
counterclockwise work done to thermodynamic system w > u [refrigerator]
enclosed signed area
represents work
done by system.
First Law of Thermodynamics
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Q is heat energy going into system.
W is work energy going into system.
E is internal energy of system. (total KE + PE of system)
Conservation of Energy:
E = +w
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics Question
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A sample of stuff is compressed, which causes it to warm up above
room temperature. While keeping it at the new, small volume, it is
allowed to cool back to room temperature (by thermal conduction). What
relationship does the net change in energy E satisfies?
What if the sample above were an ideal gas?
E = + w
p
V
First Law of Thermodynamics Question
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How much work is done by 1.00 mol of water at 100C when it boils and
becomes 1.00 mol of steam at 100C and 1.00 atm pressure? Assuming
the steam to be an ideal gas, determine the change in internal energy of
the steam as it vaporizes.
E = + w
Adiabatic Process
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Isovolumetric (Isochoric) Process
E = + w
- no heat enters/leaves system
- volume constant
Cyclic Process
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Isothermal Process
E = + w
- system ends up in same thermodynamic state (p, V, T, E)
- process that occurs at constant temperature I = u
Mechanisms of Thermal Energy Transfer Q (or rate P)
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Conduction
Convection
Radiation
P =
J
Jt
Thermal Conduction
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x
Sample Thermal Conductivities
Material k (W/m-K)
P = kA
I
x
P = iate of heat tiansfei (watts)
I = I
2
-I
1
= temp. uiff. (K)
x = uistance between hot & colu siues (m)
A = cioss sectional aiea (m
2
)
k = theimal conuuctivity (
W
mK
)
(depends on material)
graphene ~5000
diamond 1000
steel 50
water (20C) 0.6
brick 0.6
air (0C) 0.024
Thermal Conduction Question
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Consider two aluminum rods, with the same cross section, but one rod
twice as long as the other one. One end of each rod is maintained at
400C by a flame, while the other ends are maintained at 0C by an ice
bath. The rate of heat conduction through the shorter rod is 50 W. What
is the rate of conduction through the longer rod?
P = kA
I
x
Convection
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- Time required for a temperature change to spread by
conduction is proportional to distance squared (relatively
slow). Its more efficient for the material carrying the heat
to do the moving (this is called convection).
- Often differences due to thermal expansion drive
convection currents. Most commonly, hot fluid is less
dense and so rises (natural convection).
Ex. Weather patterns
- Other times there is a circulator.
Ex. Refrigerator or forced heating
Thermal Radiation (Black-Body Radiation)
40
Objects at I = u K continuously emit EM radiation (in a spectrum of light)
P = coAI
4
A = suiface aiea of object (m
2
)
I = absolute tempeiatuie of object (K)
o = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = S.67 1u
-8

W
K
4
m
2
c = emissivity, unitless numbei between u anu 1
(depends on object)
Perfect absorber/emitter (black-body) has e = 1.
Perfect mirror (reflects all light) has e = 0.
Thermal Radiation Question
41
How many Calories per day must a person (surface area 2 m
2
, emissivity
0.5) eat to make up for the power he radiates thermally?
(a) Compute the answer ignoring absorbed radiation.
(b) Compute the answer assuming radiation is also absorbed from
surroundings at 20C
Thermal Radiation Question
42
An object is at room temperature. By approximately what percent does
the thermal radiation emitted by the object increase if the object is
warmed by 3C?