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By Andr Faizi Alves

Evolution of the Models of


Management Functions
This presentation compares the following three
explanations:
Fayols Model
Contemporary Model
Systemic Model

By Andr Faizi Alves


www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com

Fayols Model
Planning
(Forecasting)

Organizing
Commanding

Controlling

Coordinating

Henri Fayol (1841 1925) was the first person to present a clear
explanation of management functions (elements).
Fayol considered Forecast(ing) to be a cause and Plan(ning) the
effect; Organizing to be a cause and Coordinating the effect;
Commanding to be a cause and Controlling the effect.
By Andr Faizi Alves
www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com

Contemporary Model
Planning

Organizing

Controlling
Leading
(or Directing)

Forecasting has been merged with Planning.


Coordinating and Commanding have been replaced by Leading (or Directing).
Some academics and practitioners include Staffing as a fifth function.
Explanation about each function varies somewhat from author to author. Fayol already highlighted
this issue by saying that the term Management with somewhat ill-defined attributes and frontiers.
This model does not clearly and coherently explain how management supports organizations as
organic systems.
By Andr Faizi Alves
www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com

Systemic Model
The Systemic model relates the core management
functions to different characteristics of a system
A system is a group of interconnected elements that
contribute to and benefit from the whole
For a system to exist, it is necessary to have

Elements
Structure
Processes

The existence of healthy social systems are dependent

upon justice

By Andr Faizi Alves


www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com

Systemic Model
(Showing only core functions)

Planning
Coordinating

Organizing

Provisioning

This model has three groups of functions: Leadership, Core and


Complementary.
Provisioning includes Personnel and Resources.
This model provides a coherent explanation of how management facilitates
the creation and functioning of an organization as an organic system.
By Andr Faizi Alves
www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com

Management the facilitation of


organizations as organic systems
For a system to exist, elements must be arranged in a
specific structure that enables processes to take place.
Thus, management facilitates the creation and functioning
of social organic systems primarily through the execution
of the following core functions:
Planning - concerned with the design of a system;
Provisioning - particularly concerned with elements

(tangibles and intangibles);


Organizing - concerned with structure and the
"transformation" phase of a process; and
Coordinating - concerned with the "transfer" phase of a
process.
By Andr Faizi Alves
www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com

Definition of Management
Since management is a function of the division of
labor*, and organizations are organic social systems,
management can be defined as:
the endeavor of facilitating the collective
production of deliverables.
Andr Faizi Alves
*With the advent of and subsequent increase in the complexity of the
division of labor, a special occupation became necessary to assist the
divided work to function as a unit.
By Andr Faizi Alves
www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com

Other Management Definitions


To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to
command, to co-ordinate and to control. (Henri
Fayol)
"Management is the art of getting things done through
people. (Attributed to Mary Parker Follet) Note: through
people seems to be a deviation from Follets thinking. With people
seems more consistent with her work.

Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages


business and manages managers and manages workers
and work. (Peter Drucker)
By Andr Faizi Alves
www.TheScienceAndSpiritOfManagement.com