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# PART A

Surname Name

## American Academy Larnaca Year 4 Science

Semester 2 Unit P1 Topic 5 Test 4 Universal Physics Electricity

## Friday 19th May 2013

Part A
FORMULAE
You may find the following formulae useful. v=f

Time: 20 minutes

wave speed

## distance covered time taken

x t

electrical power = current potential difference cost of electricity = power time cost of 1 kilowatt-hour

P=IV

power

E t

efficiency

## (useful energy tra nsferred by thedevice) 100% (totalenergy supplied to thedevice)

Vp Vs Np Ns

primary vo ltage number of turns on primarycoil secondary voltage number of turns on secondary coil
Do not forget to include units in all your answers.

PART A

PART A 1. (a) Put a cross ( ) in the box next to the correct answer. [1 mark] Voltage is A B C D (b) the energy the rate of flow of charge the energy per coulomb the rate of flow of energy Below we see a graph of the energy provided to different amounts of charge by a photovoltaic cell working in bright light.
3

2 Energy (Joules) 1

a photovoltaic cell
0 0 2 4 6 Charge (Coulombs)

(i)

## Describe one disadvantage of using solar cells. [1 mark]

(ii)

Use the graph to show that the voltage provided by the solar cell is 0.6V. [2 marks]

Voltage = V (iii) The solar cell provides an average current of 1.5 A. Use your answer in (ii) to calculate the power produced by the solar cell. Dont forget the unit. [2 marks]

Power = PART A 2

PART A (iv) How much energy would the solar cell give in 1 minute? [2 marks]

Energy = J A solar cell generates direct current. (v) Describe the difference between direct current and alternating current.

[2 marks] (vi) State why a transformer cannot be used to increase this voltage.

[1 mark] (c) The table shows some information about the wind-powered generator. 2500 900 kWh

## cost (including installation) electrical energy produced in one year

Electricity from the National Grid costs 15 p per kWh. Calculate the payback time for the wind-powered generator. [3 marks]

## payback time = .............................................................................. years

[Total for Q1 = 14 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________

PART A

## PART A 2. Some students carry out investigations with an electric motor.

(a)

The students read the statement: All the energy supplied to the motor eventually ends up as thermal energy in the surroundings. This statement best describes the idea of [1 mark]

A B C D (b)

renewable energy energy efficiency sustainable energy sources conservation of energy The students use the electric motor to lift a weight. The diagram represents the energy transfers in the electric motor.

(i)

PART A

## PART A (ii) Calculate the efficiency of the motor. [2 marks]

efficiency = ....................................................................... (c) The case of the motor is painted black. Give a scientific reason why the case of the motor is painted black.

[2 marks] [Total for Q2 = 6 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ TOTAL FOR PART A = 20 MARKS END

PART A

PART B
Surname Name

## American Academy Larnaca Year 4 Science

Semester 2 Unit P1 Topic 5 Test 4 Universal Physics Electricity

## Friday 19th May 2013

Part B
FORMULAE
You may find the following formulae useful. v=f

Time: 20 minutes

wave speed

## distance covered time taken

x t

electrical power = current potential difference cost of electricity = power time cost of 1 kilowatt-hour

P=IV

power

E t

efficiency

## (useful energy tra nsferred by thedevice) 100% (totalenergy supplied to thedevice)

Vp Vs Np Ns

primary vo ltage number of turns on primarycoil secondary voltage number of turns on secondary coil
Do not forget to include units in all your answers. PART B

PART B 1. (a)

Scientists say that graph 1 shows an alternating current while graph 2 shows a direct current.

The two graphs differ in several ways. State the difference between the currents which makes one alternating and the other direct. [1 mark]

(b)

A transformer is 100% efficient. It has 200 turns on the primary coil and 3000 turns on the secondary coil. The input voltage is 55 V.

(i)

## Show that the output voltage is about 800 V. [3 marks]

PART B

PART B (ii) Calculate the current in the secondary coil when the current in the primary coil is 0.50 A. [2 marks]

## current in secondary coil =............................... A

*(c)

The diagram shows how electricity produced at a power station is transmitted to distant houses.

By using transformers, energy losses in the transmission lines are reduced. Explain how this reduction is achieved, even though some energy is wasted in the transformers themselves. [4 marks]

PART B

PART B

(d)

When an electric current flows through a transmission cable, a magnetic field is produced. The graph shows how the strength of the magnetic field varies with distance from both overhead and underground transmission cables that carry the same current.

(i)

## What conclusions may be drawn from this graph?

[2 marks]

PART B

PART B (ii)

Some people think that, because of the magnetic fields, living close to transmission cables is dangerous to health. Laboratory studies on mice and rats exposed to magnetic fields for two or more years found that the magnetic fields had no effect on the animals health. Draw a ring around the correct answer in the box to complete the sentence.

[1 mark] [Total for Q1 = 13 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The pie charts show the relative proportions of electricity generated in Japan from different energy sources in 1975 and 2005.

(a) Describe and suggest a reason for the differences in the energy sources used in 2005
compared with 1975. [1 mark]

PART B

PART B (b)

(i)

## A newspaper reported a scientist as saying:

What has been stated in the newspaper? Draw a ring around your answer.

a fact

a guess

a prediction
[2 marks]

Give a reason for your answer. ... ... [Total for Q2 = 3 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. A farmer has installed a biogas electricity generator on his farm. This device generates electricity by burning the methane gas produced from rotting animal waste. Methane is a greenhouse gas. When methane burns, carbon dioxide and water are produced. The animal waste rots in an anaerobic digester. The digester and the generator are kept inside a farm building and cannot be seen from the outside. (a) The animal waste used in the anaerobic digester is a renewable energy source. What is meant by an energy source being renewable? [1 mark] ... ... (b) Suggest one reason why farmers have been encouraged to install their own biogas generators. [1 mark] ... ...

PART B

PART B (c)

It would have been cheaper for the farmer to have bought and installed a small wind turbine. Give two advantages of using the biogas generator rather than a wind turbine, to generate the electricity used on the farm. [2 marks]

... ... ... ... [Total for Q2 = 4 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ TOTAL FOR PART B = 20 MARKS END

PART B

## Mark scheme Part A 1. (a) (b)

C (i)

(c)

2.

(a) (b)

(c)

no availability at night/cloudy days/etc. expensive to buy (ii) [V=E/Q=] 2.4/6 [or any other correct values from graph] =0.4[V] (iii) [P=IV=] 1.5x0.4 =0.6W (iv) [P=E/t => E=Pt=] 0.6x60 =36J (v) DC: current flows in one direction only AC: current flows backwards/forwards in both directions (vi) transformers only work with AC 900x15p=135 2500/135 = 18.5 years D (i) 150J (ii) 50/200 =0.25 or 25% black radiates heat well allowing motor to cool [more quickly]

(c)

(d)

2.

(a)

## (b) 3. (a) (b) (c)

In graph A the current flows in both directions but in B only one direction. (i) =825V (ii) 0.50/15 =0.033A X steps up V P=IV so high V means certain P can be transferred with small I small I over large distances means low energy/power losses due to heating [of air] Y steps down V lower V safer for consumers 1-2 marks states that X/Y steps up/down the voltage appreciates that this reduces energy/power losses 3-4 marks may use P=IV to reason that V means I and vice versa small I is reason for reduced energy/power losses high V more dangerous (i) field from underground cables is lower except for short distances [<5m] (ii) ethical reducing [rate of increase of] carbon emissions reducing dependence on fossil fuels etc. prediction saying what will happen in future can be replaced farmers have a large supply of animal waste Two from: biomass always available wind turbines take up a lot of space wind turbines are ugly biomass generator may meet more of demand for energy than small turbine