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1. Define Data Processing Data Processing is defined by Encyclopedia Britannica as a manipulation of data by a computer.

It includes the conversion of raw data to machine-readable form, flow of data through the P! and memory to output devices, and formatting or transformation of output. "ny use of computers to perform defined operations on data can be included under data processing. In the commercial world, data processing refers to the processing of data re#uired to run organi$ations and businesses. %. Define Data Processing &ystem " data processing system ta'es raw data and, through the power of computer automation, produces information that a set of program applications has validated. Information includes te(t, arithmetic calculations, formulas and various other types of information and data based on the computer system. ). *peration in Data Processing +Define each, 1. -ecording In computer data processing, a record is a collection of data items arranged for processing by a program. .ultiple records are contained in a file or data set. /he organi$ation of data in the record is usually prescribed by the programming language that defines the record0s organi$ation and1or by the application that processes it. /ypically, records can be of fi(ed-length or be of variable length with the length information contained within the record. %. 2erifying Data verification is a systematic process for evaluating performance and compliance of a set of data when compared to a set of standards to ascertain its completeness, correctness, and consistency using the methods and criteria defined in the pro3ect documentation. ). Duplicating /his data processing pertains to the replication of records into numerous copies or files. 4. lassifying Data classification is the categori$ation of data for its most effective and efficient use. In a basic approach to storing computer data, data can be classified according to its critical value or how often it needs to be accessed, with the most critical or often-used data stored on the fastest media while other data can be stored on slower +and less e(pensive, media.

5. &orting /his data processing pertains to assembling or regrouping data in a preset order, such as an alphabetic or numeric arrangement. 6. alculating alculating is the method of applying arithmetic operations on data. 7. &ummari$ing 8 -eporting /his type of data processing wraps up a compilation of facts and provides conclusions that correspond to the significance of the data presented. 9. .erging .erging is to combine two files in such a way that the resulting file has the same organi$ation as the two individual files. :or e(ample, if two files contain a list of names in alphabetical order, merging the two files results in one large file with all the names still in alphabetical order. ;. &toring /o copy data from a P! to memory, or from memory to a mass storage device. 1<. -etrieving Data retrieval is e(tracting files or information from a database. 11. :eedbac' It is the process in which the effect or output of an action is 0returned= to modify the ne(t action. :eedbac' is utili$ed to ma'e necessary ad3ustments to the input and processing stages of the information system.


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