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CL 251: Chemical Engineering Lab I Experiment-10 Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficient

Sagar Chawla 12110081

Abstract:The purpose of this experiment is to determine the infinite dilution activity coefficient of a binary mixture of acetone and benzene by using differential ebullometry and the limiting slope method and to estimate the parameters in the activity coefficients correlations such as Vanlaar/Wilson. The experiment was done at atmospheric pressure. The activity coefficient of acetone at infinite dilution is 10.88 and that of benzene is 4.28. The corresponding values of Van Laars coefficient are 2.39 and 1.45. The actual values of these constants are 2.46 . Introduction:Degree of non-ideality of a solution can be defined by the infinite dilution activity coefficients, because the greatest deviation from ideal solution behavior occurs at infinite dilution. Phase equilibrium can also be calculated from the knowledge of infinite dilution activity coefficients and further it may be used to determine the parameters of the activity

coefficient model suitable for the binary mixture. The species is mixed with its concentration much higher than that of given species, then no molecules of initial species can interact with its own molecules. After assuming that the vapor phase is ideal and the Poynting factor is negligible then total pressure at vapor-liquid equilibrium is given by

P= 1P10X1 + 2P20X2

Pi is saturated vapour pressure of the ith species at given temperature.

iis the Activity coefficient of the ith species

X1 and X2 are mole fractions of component 1 and 2 in a mixture

By differentiated 1st equation at constant temperature

dP/dX1 = P1 [X1(d1 /dX1)+ X2] + P2 [X2(d2 /dX2)+2 ](dX2 /dX1) dX2 /dX1 = -1; At X1 = 0 (d1 /dX1) is finite;

2 1;
X2 1;

(d2 /dX2) 0; P2 P2

After substituting P in terms of saturation pressure in above equation and further solving, we get

Can be obtained by using Antoine equation.

Can be obtained from slope of the T vs. X1 curve when X1 0 by plotting solution

boiling temperature (T) vs. X1.

Procedure:Infinite dilution activity can be calculated using ebuilliometers. Three ebulliometers are connected to a manifold and common pressure control system. First ebulliometer is filled with full of concentration of pure solvent, second ebulliometer is filled with majority of pure solvent and 1 percent concentration of dilute species and third ebulliometer is filled with majority of pure solvent and 2 percent concentration of dilute species. Condensation of vapors of the solution is done by cooling system. Drop rate of each ebulliometers noted down. Same procedures as followed with initial solvent as the dilute species and vice-versa.

Result:Table 1: Temperatures and drop rates with acetone as dilute specie. Temperature (in 0C) Drop rate (in drops/min) Mole fraction of aceton

76 75 76

46 27 38

0.02 0.01 0.00

Temperature v/s mole fration

76.2 76 Temperature in oC 75.8 75.6 75.4 75.2 75 74.8 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 Mole fraction of acetone Series1

Figure 1: Plot of temperature v/s the mole fraction of acetone

Table 2: Temperatures and drop rates with benzene as dilute specie

Temperature (in 0C)

Drop rate (in drops/min)

Mole fraction of benzene

55 54 53

72 12 28

0.02 0.01 0.00

Temperature v/s mole fration

55.5 55 54.5 54 53.5 53 52.5 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 Temperature

Figure 2: Plot of temperature v/s the mole fraction of benzene

Discussion & conclusion:The boiling points of Benzene and Acetone obtained from experiment are 740C and 530C respectively and the theoretical values are 80.40C and 50.50C respectively. The temperature decreases as concentration of acetone is increases because acetone is more volatile component than benzene. Condensation drop rate of the system increases as temperature increases Activity coefficient is useful to determine the limit of non ideality and prediction of behavior of a solution. It is also useful in prediction of positive or negative deviation of solution that will be useful in making of design of chemical units.

There were several problems with set up, like temperature was not working effectively and this leads to error in the measurement. Appendix:-

= 4.27

References:1. 2. Lab Manual