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Ikatan Kimia

Konsep dalam Ikatan Kimia Simbol Lewis

Ikatan ionik dan Struktur Lewis


Ikatan kovalen dan struktur Lewis Jenis-jenis ikatan kovalen : tulen,

datif dan berkutub

Konsep asas dalam ikatan kimia


Sebatian ionik dan kovalen adalah dua sebatian yang umum dengan sifat fizik yang berbeza yang berasaskan kepada pembentukan ikatan masing2.

Kata kunci Sebatian Ionik terbentuk daripada interaksi kuat (daya elektrostatik) antara ion-ion. Ion-ion wujud hasil pendermaan dan penerimaan elektron atom-atom. Daya elektrostatik antara ion yang wujud menghasilkan perbezaan sifat fizik misalnya takat lebur atau kekonduksian elektrik.
Sebatian kovalen melibatkan perkongsian elektron antara atom-atom. Akibat perkongsian elektron, sifat fizik yang terhasil ialah takat lebur yang rendah dan kekonduksian elektrik yang rendah. *Selain ik ionik & kovalen, terdapat banyak lagi daya yang menghasilkan ikatan antara atom-atom.

SIMBOL TITIK LEWIS


Apabila suatu atom berinteraksi bagi membentuk ikatan kimia, hanya elektron valens sahaja yg berhubung. Ahli kimia menggunakan sistem titik untuk menunjukkan yang jumlah elektron bagi atom tidak berubah. 1 titik untuk 1 elektron valens.

Elektron Valens adalah elektron terluar (elektron di petala terluar) suatu atom. Hanya e valens yg terlibat dalam pembentukan ikatan.
Kumpulan 1A 2A 3A Konfigurasi e Cth: 2.1 Cth: 2.8.2 Cth: 2.8.3 Cth: 2.4 # e valens 1 2 3 4

4A
5A 6A 7A

Cth: 2.5
Cth: 2.8.6 Cth: 2.7

5
6 7

Contoh: Tulis simbol Lewis bagi atom natrium dan ion natrium. Jwpn: atom Na, Z = 11 konfigurasi e : 2.8.1 elektron valens : 1 atom natrium : Na ion natrium : [ Na ]+

Contoh
Tulis simbol Lewis bagi atom oksigen dan ion oksida. Jwpn : atom oksigen O, Z = 8 konfigurasi e : 2.6 elektron valens : 6 Atom oksigen :
ion oksida : [ ]2-

Ik. Ionik
Suatu sebatian ionik terbentuk drpd gabungan ion positif dan negatif. Ion-ion dalam sebatian ionik dipegang oleh daya elektrostatik

Pembentukan kation
Atom logam, M menyingkir elektron bagi membentuk ion positif (kation)
M Pembentukan anion Atom bukan logam, X menerima e valens bagi membentuk ion negatif (anion) X + e XM+ + e

Pembentukan sebatian ionik


Kation M+ dan anion X- bergabung dengan ikatan ionik bg membentuk sebatian ionik. M+ + X- MX

Ikatan kimia dalam MX adalah tarikan antara cas positif ion M dengan cas negatif ion X. Sebatian MX secara elektriknya neutral.

contoh

Tbls antara litium dan florin bagi membentuk litium florida. Li 2.1 Li e- + F F + F 2.7 2 [He] Li+ + eF Li+ F 2.8 [Ne] ( kation ) ( Anion ) Li+ F -

Li+ +

contoh

kalsium terbakar dalam oksigen dan membentuk kalsium oksida.

2Ca(p) + O2(g) 2CaO(p)

2.8.8.2

2.6

[Ar]

[Ne]

Latihan
Gunakan simbol titik Lewis utk menunjukkan pembentukan : (i) Magnesium nitrida, Mg3N2 (ii) Aluminium oksida, Al2O3

Ikatan kovalen
Ik kovalen ialah ik kimia di mana 2 atau lebih elektron dikongsikan.
Mengapa atom-atom berkongsi elektron? F 7e+ F 7eStruktur Lewis F2
Ik. Kovalen tunggal Psgn e sendiri

F F

8e- 8e-

Psgn e sendiri

Psgn e sendiri

F F

Psgn e sendiri

Ik. Kovalen tunggal

Str Lewis air H


+

Ik kov tunggal

H O H

or

2e- 8e-2eIk. berganda 2 atom berkongsi 2 pasang e O C O 8e- 8e- 8eIk ganda 3 2 atom berkongsi 3 pasang e N N 8e- 8e-

atau

C
Ik dubel

atau

Ik tripel

Melukis str Lewis sebat kovalen 1. Lukis str kerangka sebatian dengan atom jum minimum (atau paling elektropositif) di tengah (atom pusat). Letak atom2 lain di keliling atom pusat (atom hujung). 2. Hitung jum e valens. Tambah 1 pd setiap 1 cas negatif dan tolak 1 bagi setiap cas positif. 3. Lengkapkan oktet semua atom hujung terlebih dahulu, Oktet bg H ialah 2! 4. Jika struktur mengandungi lebihan e, bentukkan ik dubel atau tripel dgn atom pusat sebgmn perlu.

Penulisan struktur Lewis bagi nitrogen triflorida (NF3).


Lgkh 1 N kurang elektronegatif dari F, letak N di tengah Lgkh 2 Kira e valens bagi N - 5 (2s22p3) dan F - 7 (2s22p5) 5 + (3 7) = 26 e valens Lgkh 3 Lukis ik tunggal antara atom N dan F dan lengkapkan oktet bagi atom N dan F. Lgkh 4 - Semak, adakah e dalam struktur = bil e valens ? 3 ik. tunggal (32) + 10 e sendiri (102) = 26 e valens F N F F

Write the Lewis structure of the carbonate ion (CO32-).


Step 1 C is less electronegative than O, put C in center Step 2 Count valence electrons C - 4 (2s22p2) and O - 6 (2s22p4) -2 charge 2e4 + (3 x 6) + 2 = 24 valence electrons Step 3 Draw single bonds between C and O atoms and complete octet on C and O atoms. Step 4 - Check, are # of e- in structure equal to number of valence e- ? 3 single bonds (3x2) + 10 lone pairs (10x2) = 26 valence electrons

Step 5 - Too many electrons, form double bond and re-check # of e2 single bonds (2x2) = 4 1 double bond = 4 8 lone pairs (8x2) = 16 Total = 24
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C O

Struktur Lewis dan Cas Formal


1. Bagi molekul neutral, struktur Lewis dengan cas formal sifar adalah yang terbaik/paling stabil berbanding struktur dengan nilai cas formal. 2. Struktur Lewis dengan nilai cas formal yang besar adalah kurang stabil berbanding struktur dengan nilai cas yg kurang. 3. Jika terdapat lebih dari 1 struktur, yang lebih stabil ialah agihan cas (-) yang diletakkan pada atom elektronegatif. Struktur mana yang lebih mungkin untuk CH2O?

-1
H C

+1
O H

H H

0 C

0 O
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2 struktur kerangka bagi formaldehid (CH2O) H C O H H H C O

Cas formal suatu atom ialah perbezaan antara e valens bagi atom asal dengan bil e yang ditetapkan dalam struktur Lewis.

Cas formal satu atom dlm = struktur Lewis

Jum e valens dalam atom bebas

Jum e bukan ikatan

1 2

Jum e ikatan

Jum cas formal bagi semua atom dalam molekul atau ion = cas bersih molekul / ion.

-1
H C

+1
O H

C 4 eO 6 e2H 21 e12 e-

2 ik tunggal (22) = 4 1 ik dubel = 4 2 psg e sendiri (22) = 4 Total = 12

Cas formal suatu atom = dalam struktur Lewis

Jum e valens Jum e bukan dalam atom - ikatan bebas

2(

Jum e ikatan

Cas formal C = 4 - 2 - 6 = -1 Cas formal O = 6 - 2 - 6 = +1

H H

0 C

0 O

C 4 eO 6 e2H 2x1 e12 e-

2 single bonds (2x2) = 4 1 double bond = 4 2 lone pairs (2x2) = 4 Total = 12

formal charge on an atom in a Lewis structure

total number total number of valence of nonbonding electrons in electrons the free atom

total number of bonding electrons

formal charge = 4 - 0 - x 8 = 0 on C formal charge = 6 - 4 - x 4 = 0 on O

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9.7

Struktur resonans ialah satu atau lebih struktur yang boleh mewakili dengan tepat sesuatu struktur Lewis molekul.

Apakah struktur resonans bagi ion karbonat (CO32-)?

C O

C O -

C O -

Ik kovalen berkutub adalah ik kovalen dengan ketumpatan elektron yang tidak sekata antara 2 atom.

Kaw kurang elektron

Kaw kaya elektron

e- poor

e- rich

H d+

F d-

Ke-elektronegatifan ialah kebolehan suatu atom untuk menarik elektron kepadanya dalam suatu ikatan kimia. Afiniti Elektron boleh diukur, Cl tertinggi
X (g) + eX-(g)

Ke-Elektronegatifan - relatif, F tertinggi

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Klasifikasi ikatan yang bergantung kpd perbezaan keelektronegatifan

perbezaan 0 2 0 < dan <2

Jenis ikatan kovalen Ionik

Kovalen berkutub

Perbezaan keelektronegatifan meningkat kovalen kongsi eKovalen berkutub Ionik pemindahan e-

partial transfer of e-

Kelaskan yang berikut sebagai ionik, kov berkutub, atau kovalen: ik dlm CsCl; dalam H2S dan the NN bond in H2NNH2.
Cs 0.7 Cl 3.0 3.0 0.7 = 2.3 Ionik

H 2.1
N 3.0

S 2.5
N 3.0

2.5 2.1 = 0.4


3.0 3.0 = 0

Kovalen berkutub
Kovalen

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Lengths of Covalent Bonds


Bond Type Bond Length (pm)

C-C

154

CC
CC C-N

133
120 143

CN
CN
Bond Lengths Triple bond < Double Bond < Single Bond

138
116

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9.4

Dative Covalent Bond or Coordinate Covalent Bond Covalent bond forms between two atoms that donate an electron each.

However, it is possible for both electrons to come from the same atom. This is known as a dative covalent bond or a coordinate

covalent bond.

The atom that donate the electrons is known as the donor and it must have at least one lone pair of electrons.

The other atom that shares the electrons is known as the acceptor and it must have an incomplete octet.
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Example 1

Example 2

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Exceptions to the Octet Rule


The Incomplete Octet Be 2e2H 2x1e4e-

BeH2

Be

BF3

B 3e3F 3x7e24e-

B
F

3 single bonds (3x2) = 6 9 lone pairs (9x2) = 18 Total = 24

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9.9

Exceptions to the Octet Rule


Odd-Electron Molecules N 5eO 6e11e-

NO

The Expanded Octet (central atom with principal quantum number n > 2)

SF6

S 6e6F 42e48e-

F S

6 single bonds (6x2) = 12 18 lone pairs (18x2) = 36 Total = 48

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9.9

Hydrogen Bonding
A hydrogen atom in a polar bond (e.g. H-F, H-O or H-N) can experience an attractive force with a neighboring electronegative molecule or ion which has an unshared pair of electrons (usually an F, O or N atom on another molecule) Hydrogen bonds are considered to be dipole-dipole type interactions

A bond between hydrogen and an electronegative atom such as F, O or N is quite polar:

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The hydrogen atom has no inner core of electrons, so the side of the atom facing away from the bond represents a virtually naked nucleus This positive charge is attracted to the negative charge of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule Because the hydrogen atom in a polar bond is electron-deficient on one side (i.e. the side opposite from the covalent polar bond) this side of the hydrogen atom can get quite close to a neighboring electronegative atom (with a partial negative charge) and interact strongly with it (remember, the closer it can get, the stronger the electrostatic attraction)
Hydrogen bonds vary from about 4 kJ/mol to 25 kJ/mol so they are still weaker than typical covalent bonds. But they are stronger than dipole-dipole and or dispersion forces. They are very important in the organization of biological molecules, especially in influencing the structure of proteins
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Water is unusual in its ability to form an extensive hydrogen bonding network

As a liquid the kinetic energy of the molecules prevents


an extensive ordered network of hydrogen bonds When cooled to a solid the water molecules organize into an arrangement which maximizes the attractive interactions of the hydrogen bonds

This arrangement of molecules has greater volume

(is less dense) than liquid water, thus water expands when frozen The arrangement has a hexagonal geometry (involving six molecules in a ring structure) which is the structural basis of the six-sidedness seen in snow flakes Each water molecule can participate in four hydrogen bonds
- One with each non-bonding pair of electrons - One with each H atom
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Metallic Bond
Assume that a metallic lattice is composed of closely packed positive ions surrounded by an electron cloud. This happen when metal atoms lose their valence electrons, forming metal cations, and the valence electrons then make up the electron cloud. The attractive force between the electron cloud and the positive ions called the metallic bond.

The strength of the metallic bond is inversely proportional to the size of the ion and directly proportional to the number of valence electrons on the metal atom. The smaller the size of the cation and/or the more electrons supplied by the atoms to electron cloud, the stronger is the attractive force between the positively charged ion and the electron cloud. Hence, the stronger is the metallic bond formed.

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Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces are generally much weaker than covalent bonds. Only 16 kJ/mol of energy is required to overcome the intermolecular attraction between HCl molecules in the liquid state (i.e. the energy required to vaporize the sample) However, 431 kJ/mol of energy is required to break the covalent bond between the H and Cl atoms in the HCl molecule

Thus, when a molecular substance changes states the atoms within the molecule are unchanged
The temperature at which a liquid boils reflects the kinetic energy needed to overcome the attractive intermolecular forces (likewise, the temperature at which a solid melts).

Thus, the strength of the intermolecular forces determines the physical properties of the substance
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Attractive forces between neutral molecules


Dipole - dipole forces London dispersion forces Hydrogen bonding forces

Typically, dipole-dipole and dispersion forces are grouped together and termed van der Waals forces (sometimes the hydrogen bonding forces are also included with this group)

Attractive forces between neutral and charged (ionic) molecules ion - dipole forces

Note that all of these forces will be electrostatic in nature

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Ion-dipole
Involves an interaction between a charged ion and a polar molecule (i.e. a molecule with a dipole) Cations are attracted to the negative end of a dipole Anions are attracted to the positive end of a dipole Ion-dipole forces are important in solutions of ionic substances in polar solvents (e.g. a salt in aqueous solvent)

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Dipole-Dipole Forces
A dipole-dipole force exists between neutral polar molecules Polar molecules attract one another when the partial positive charge on one molecule is near the partial negative charge on the other molecule. The polar molecules must be in close proximity for the dipole-dipole forces to be significant. Dipole-dipole forces are characteristically weaker than ion-dipole forces. Dipole-dipole forces increase with an increase in the polarity of the molecule.

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London Dispersion Forces


Nonpolar molecules would not seem to have any basis for attractive interactions. However, gases of nonpolar molecules can be liquefied
indicating that if the kinetic energy is reduced, some type of attractive force can predominate. Fritz London (1930) suggested that the motion of electrons within an atom or non-polar molecule can result in a transient dipole moment.
A Model To Explain London Dispersion Forces: Helium atoms (2e) Consider the particle nature of electrons. The average distribution of electrons around each nucleus is spherically symmetrical. The atoms are non-polar and posses no dipole moment. The distribution of electrons around an individual atom, at a given instant in time, may not be perfectly symmetrical.

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Both electrons may be on one side of the nucleus The atom would have an apparent dipole moment at that instant in time (i.e. a transient dipole) A close neighboring atom would be influenced by this apparent dipole - the electrons of the neighboring atom would move away from the negative region of the dipole

Due to electron repulsion, a temporary dipole on one atom can induce a similar dipole on a neighboring atom

This will cause the neighboring atoms to be attracted to one another This is called the London dispersion force (or just dispersion force) It is significant only when the atoms are close together

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The ease with which an external electric field can induce a dipole (alter the electron distribution) with a molecule is referred to as the "polarizability" of that molecule. The greater the polarizability of a molecule the easier it is to induce a momentary dipole and the stronger the dispersion forces Larger molecules tend to have greater polarizability Their electrons are further away from the nucleus (any asymmetric distribution produces a larger dipole due to larger charge separation) The number of electrons is greater (higher probability of asymmetric distribution)

thus, dispersion forces tend to increase with increasing molecular mass


Dispersion forces are also present between polar/non-polar and polar/polar molecules (i.e. between all molecules)
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Exercise
1. Write Lewis symbols for the following: (a) P (b) Te (c) Br (g) Pb2+ (d) B (h) Pb4+

(e) Mn2+ (f) Mn3+

2. Use the octet rule and draw the Lewis structure of each of the following substances or ions, keeping in mind that one H atom in a compound cannot be bonded to another H atom. (a) OH - (b) H3O+ (c) NH4+ (d) NH2- (e) SH (f) H3S+

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3. Write Lewis structures for the following covalent molecules: (a) HNNN ( hydrazoic acid ) (b) H2NCN ( cyanamide ) (c) CH3NH2 ( methylamine )
4. Determine the formal charges for the following compounds, considering all possible Lewis structures if there are more than one. (a) SO2 (b) NH3 (c) H2SO4

5. Draw the possible structures of HNO2 and use formal charge to pick the most likely. The order of atoms is HONO.
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6. Write the Lewis structure for acetate ion ( CH3COO- ), including resonance structures if appropriate.
7. What happens to the valence shells of Rb and Cl when these elements react to form an ionic compound. What is the formula of this compound?.

8. Give the empirical formulas and names of the compounds formed from the following pairs of ions: (a) Rb+ and I(b) Cs+ and SO42(c) Sr2+ and N3(d) Al3+ and S29. Write the Lewis dot symbols of the reactants and products in the following reactions. ( First balance the equations.) (a) Sr + Se SrSe (b) Li + N2 Li3N
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10. The atom of element A has a nuclear charge of +11. Atom B requires two electrons to achieve an octet ( A and B are not the actual symbols of the elements).
(a) By using Lewis structures, show the formation of the compound formed when element A combine with element B. (b) Can the solid compound formed conduct electricity?. Explain briefly.

11. Phosphonium ion, PH4+ is formed when phosphene, PH3 combine with H+ ion via a type of bond. By using the Lewis structure show the formation of the PH4+ ion and label this new bond.

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12. Using Lewis structures, show the formation of a dative covalent bond between (i) NH3 molecule and H+ ion (ii) phosphorus chloride, PCl3 and oxygen, O.
13. With the aid of a suitable diagram, describe a metallic bond according to the electron cloud model. 14. Arrange the following substances, NaF, HF, F2 and CF4 in order of increasing boiling points. Explain briefly your answer.

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