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Practice Exam 2

1. How does the Suns mass compare with that of the planets? a) It is a hundred times more massive than Earth b) It is a thousand times more massive than Earth c) It is a hundred times more than all the planets combined d) It is a thousand times more than all the planets combined e) It is about as massive as all the planets combined

2. Which planet has the highest average surface temperature, and why? a) Mercury, because it is closest to the Sun b) Mercury, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere c) Venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere d) Mars, because of its red color e) Jupiter, because it is so big 3. Which planet has a ring system? a) Uranus b) Neptune c) All of the above 4. The planet closest in size to Earth is a) Mercury b) Venus c) the Moon d) Mars e) Pluto 5. Greenhouse gases in our atmosphere trap just enough heat to keep the Earth's oceans liquid. a) True b) False 6. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the outer planets? a) They have very few, if any, satellites. b) They all have large quantities of gas. c) They are primarily made of hydrogen and helium. d) Their orbits are separated by relatively large distances. e) They all have rings. 7. When plates collide, they fuse together and come to rest. a) True b) False

8. The crust on the near side of the Moon is on average thinner than the crust on the far side, due to our tidal pull on the Moon. a) True b) False 9. Where are most of the known asteroids found? a) Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter b) In the Kuiper belt c) In the Oort cloud d) Between the orbits of the jovian planets e) Between the orbits of the terrestrial planets 10. Which of the following is furthest from the Sun? a) Pluto b) Neptune c) An asteroid in the asteroid belt d) A comet in the Kuiper belt e) A comet in the Oort cloud. 11. At what phase would you expect to find extremely high and low tides? a) new moon b) first and third quarter c) full moon d) both new and full moons e) Moon phases do not impact the tides. 12. The lithosphere of a planet is the layer that consists of a) material above the crust. b) material between the crust and the mantle. c) the rigid rocky material of the crust and uppermost portion of the mantle. d) the softer rocky material of the mantle. e) the lava that comes out of volcanoes. 13. Which of the following best describes convection? a) It is the process by which rocks sink in water. b) It is the process in which warm material expands and rises while cool material contracts and falls. c) It is the process in which warm material gets even warmer and cool material gets even cooler. d) It is the process in which a liquid separates according to density, such as oil and water separating in a jar. e) It is the process in which bubbles of gas move upward through a liquid.

14. Almost all of our atmospheric gases lie in the a) ionosphere. b) stratosphere. c) troposphere. d) ozone layer. e) Mesosphere 15. What are the circumstances under which convection can occur in a substance? a) when the substance is subjected to a strong magnetic field b) when dense material is being added to the substance c) when the substance is strongly shaken or disturbed by a strong wind d) when the substance is strongly cooled from underneath e) when the substance is strongly heated from underneath 16. Without the greenhouse effect operating in our atmosphere, a) we would not have to worry about any warming problems in the future. b) Earth would have an average temperature of -23 degrees Celsius. c) the ice in the polar regions would have melted long ago. d) the ozone layer would not be weakening. e) the Earth would have become much more like Venus long ago. 17. What are the conditions necessary for a terrestrial planet to have a strong magnetic field? a. a molten metallic core only b. fast rotation only c. a rocky mantle only d. both a molten metallic core and reasonably fast rotation e. both a metal core and a rocky mantle 18. Which of the following most likely explains why Venus does not have a strong magnetic field? a. It does not have a metallic core. b. Its rotation is too slow. c. It is too close to the Sun. d. It is too large. e. It has too thick an atmosphere. 19. The average rate of erosion on the Moon is far less than on Earth because a) the crust of the Moon is much denser than the Earth's crust. b) the Moon is much younger than the Earth. c) the Moon lacks wind, water, and an atmosphere. d) the Moon's magnetic field protects it from the solar wind better than ours does. e) the Moon's mare long ago dried up, so there is no more wave erosion there. 20. The relatively few craters that we see within the lunar maria

a) were formed by impacts that occurred before those that formed most of the craters in the lunar highlands. b) were formed by impacts that occurred after those that formed most of the craters in the lunar highlands. c) Were created by the same large impactor that led to the formation of the maria. d) are volcanic in origin, rather than from impacts. e) are sinkholes that formed when sections of the maria collapsed. 21. Volcanism is more likely on a planet that a) is closer to the Sun. b) is struck often by meteors and solar system debris. c) has high internal temperatures. d) doesn't have an atmosphere or oceans. 22. We determine the structure of the Earth's core using a) deep mine shafts. b) satellite imaging. c) radar and sonar. d) seismic wave data. e) magnetic resonance imaging. 23. Which of the following describes erosion? a) the excavation of bowl-shaped depressions by asteroids or comets striking a planet's surface b) the eruption of molten rock from a planet's interior to its surface c) the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses d) the wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water, ice, and other phenomena of planetary weather 24. In noting that the Earth is "differentiated," we mean that a) the density increases as you descend downward toward the core. b) the Earth is very different than any other planet we study. c) the Earth's magnetic field varies at different locations on the globe. d) the density of oceanic basalt is less than that of granite on the mountain tops. e) the radioactive heating in the core is increasing with time. 25. Which of the following describes impact cratering? a) the excavation of bowl-shaped depressions by asteroids or comets striking a planet's surface b) the eruption of molten rock from a planet's interior to its surface c) The disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses d) the wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water, ice, and other phenomena of planetary weather

26. The lunar mare are found a) uniformly all over the Moon. b) mainly on the near side. c) mainly on the far side. d) only in the dark areas of the lunar poles, where water is not boiled away. e) only as layered rocks, since the original water was lost long ago. 27. The Caloris Basin on Mercury covers a large region of the planet, but few smaller craters have formed on top of it. From this we conclude that a. erosion destroyed the smaller craters that formed on the basin. b. Mercury's atmosphere prevented smaller objects from hitting the surface. c. only very large impactors hit Mercury's surface in the past. d. the Caloris Basin formed toward the end of the solar system's period of heavy bombardment. e. the Caloris Basin was formed by a volcano. 28. Valles Marineris is a(n) a) large valley on the Moon. b) extensive plain on Mars. c) huge series of cliffs on Mercury. d) large canyon on Mars. e) large canyon on Venus. 29. There are no auroras on Venus because it a) lacks atmospheric oxygen. b) is too hot. c) lacks a strong magnetic field. d) lacks strong winds. 30. Compared to Earth, Venus spins very rapidly on its axis. a) True b) False 31. Why is Mars red? a) It is made primarily of red clay. b) Its surface rocks were rusted by oxygen. c) Its atmosphere scatters blue light more effectively than red light. d) Its surface is made of ices that absorb blue light. e) Its surface is made of ices that absorb red light. 32. Where is most of the water on Mars? a) in its clouds b) in its polar caps and subsurface ground ice c) frozen on the peaks of its tall volcanoes

d) in deep underground deposits e) distributed evenly throughout its atmosphere 33. The surface temperature of Venus is 750K, even hotter than Mercury. a) True b) False 34. What are greenhouse gases? a) gases that absorb visible light b) gases that absorb ultraviolet light c) gases that absorb infrared light d) gases that transmit visible light e) gases that transmit infrared light 35. Venus' rotation on its axis a) is the fastest of the terrestrial planets. b) is clockwise, unlike most other solar system objects. c) shows it is tidally locked in its orbit around the Sun. d) is highly tilted to its orbital plane, causing large seasonal changes. e) prevents us from seeing all of its surface features. 36. In what ways is Earth different from the other terrestrial planets? A) Its lithosphere is broken into plates that move around. B) It has oxygen in its atmosphere. C) Most of its surface is covered with liquid water. D) Life can be found almost everywhere. E) All of the above are true. 37. How fast do tectonic plates move on Earth? A) a few centimeters per year B) a few centimeters per century C) a few kilometers per century D) quite fast, but only during earthquakes E) about 1 mile per hour

38. Of the four gases CO2, H2O, N2, and O2, which are greenhouse gases? a) only CO2 b) CO2 and H2O c) CO2 and N2 d) all except O2 e) all four
39. Earth's atmosphere contains only small amounts of carbon dioxide because

a) the earth's volcanoes did not outgas as much carbon dioxide as those on Venus and Mars. b) most of the carbon dioxide was lost during the age of bombardment. c) chemical reactions with other gases destroyed the carbon dioxide and replaced it with the nitrogen that is in the atmosphere now. d) carbon dioxide dissolves in water, and most of it is now contained in the oceans and carbonate rocks. e) Earth doesn't have as strong a greenhouse effect as is present on Venus.

40. Without greenhouse gases, Earth's surface would be frozen over. a) True b) False 41. There is no erosion of surface features on the Moon. a) True b) False 42. Venus has a thicker atmosphere than Earth. a) True b) False 43. The atmospheric pressure on Venus a) shows an extreme change with the seasons. b) is much lower than on Earth. c) is about the same as on Mercury. d) is much higher than on Earth. e) causes variations in surface temperature. 44. The scarps on Mercury were probably caused by a) tectonic activity. b) meteorite bombardment. c) a tidal bulge. d) volcanism. e) the crust cooling and shrinking. 45. The main constituent of the Martian atmosphere is a) hydrogen. b) helium. c) methane. d) carbon dioxide. e) nitrogen.

46. Which statement is true of Venus' surface? a) There are two continent sized uplands. b) It has remained unchanged for billions of years. c) Atmospheric pressure is very low. d) There is an extensive hydrosphere. e) There are no shield volcanoes. 47. Like Olympus Mons, volcanoes on Venus a) form where continental plates collide. b) are much larger than typical volcanoes on Earth. c) have been extinct for billions of years. d) only form at the equator. e) are shield volcanoes. 48. Valles Marineris is the most striking example of a(n) a) impact crater. b) shield volcano. c) oceanic trench. d) rift valley. e) scarp. 49. Which of the following characterizes a shield volcano? a) It sits above a hot spot in the planet's mantle. b) It is formed by moving tectonic plates. c) It can erupt only briefly before being dragged off the hot spot. d) It cannot get as high as Mt. Everest before the thin crust starts slumping. e) It cannot grow very large, for it has a very short span of eruption. 50. That the Tharsis region on Mars has so few craters a) proves tectonic activity is taking place. b) is due to the very low elevation of the region. c) suggests it is the youngest region on the planet. d) suggests it is at the center of a particularly strong magnetic field. e) is due to annual flooding and water erosion. 51. The largest difference between Mars' northern and southern hemispheres is that a) the southern appears older, with more impact craters. b) the northern has all the outflows and must have been much hotter. c) the northern is higher overall, despite some high volcanoes in the south. d) the southern has a polar cap, but none ever forms in the north. e) the southern is much darker, with large mare-like basaltic lava flows.

52. Much of the water on Mars a) is thought to be in a layer of permafrost just below the surface. b) lies in shallow pools near the poles. c) is locked in the seasonal ice cap. d) is found in deep pools near the equator. e) is in the form of clouds. 53. If Jupiter were scaled to the size of a basketball, Earth would be the closest to the size of a) a pinhead. b) a marble. c) a baseball. d) a grapefruit. e) a basketball. 54. A gravitational assist, or slingshot, can be used to either speed up or slow down a spacecraft. a) True b) False 55. Galileo's early telescopes revealed the four large moons of Jupiter, the rings of Saturn, and its large moon Titan. a) True b) Fals 56. The spacecraft Cassini went into orbit around a) Jupiter. b) Saturn. c) Uranus. d) Neptune. e) Pluto. 57. Adams and Leverrier both predicted the position of Neptune, based on its effects on a) the Sun. b) Jupiter. c) Saturn. d) Uranus. e) Pluto. 58. Small deviations in a planet's orbital motion a) show we don't fully understand gravitational forces yet. b) indicate the presence of an extensive atmosphere. c) indicate the presence of a powerful magnetic field. d) imply the nearby presence of a massive body. e) show the planet's orbit isn't stable.

59. How many more times is the atmospheric pressure in Jupiter's core greater than the atmospheric pressure at Earth's surface? a) 10 thousand b) 100 thousand c) 1 million d) 10 million e) 100 million 60. How do the size and mass of Jupiter's core compare to the size and mass of Earth? a) It is the same size and mass. b) It is about 10 times larger both in size and mass. c) It is about 10 times larger in size and the same mass. d) It is about the same size but is 10 times more massive. e) Jupiter doesn't have a coreit is made entirely from hydrogen and helium. 61. Why is Jupiter denser than Saturn? a) It is made of a different composition than Saturn, including a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rocks. b) The extra mass of Jupiter compresses its interior to a greater extent than that of Saturn. c) Its core is much larger than Saturn's. d) It has a greater proportion of helium to hydrogen compared to Saturn. e) Scientists do not know why this is so. 62. At which planet can the pole remain in darkness for 42 years, then have 42 years of constant daylight? a) Jupiter b) Saturn c) Uranus d) Neptune e) Pluto 63. Jupiter and the other jovian planets are noticeably oblate because a) they all have strong magnetic fields that deform their shape. b) their powerful gravity acts stronger on the closer poles than the distant equator. c) they are fluid bodies that are spinning rapidly. d) they are tidally distorted by the pulls for their satellite systems. e) All of the above are correct. 64. What would Jupiter have needed to be a star? a) a larger satellite system b) more uranium to ignite nuclear fission chain reactions in its core c) enough more mass to make the planet hotter d) a slower spin, similar to the Sun's 25 days, instead of its present 10 hours

e) a different chemical composition 65. Compared to Saturn, Jupiter is about a) half as massive and denser. b) three times more massive and denser. c) 100 times more massive. d) twice the diameter, but less dense. e) half as dense, but the same mass since it is larger. 66. Essentially, the Great Red Spot is a) Neptune's largest atmospheric feature. b) a large cyclonic storm (hurricane). c) always located within 10 degrees of Jupiter's north pole. d) composed primarily of iron oxide. e) traveling north and south across Jupiter's face. 67. Alternating zones of rising and sinking gas in Jupiter's atmosphere a) create light and dark bands. b) cause Jupiter's magnetic field to ripple. c) produced the ring system discovered by Voyager. d) generate magnetic fields. e) circle the planet from pole to pole. 68. The two outer jovians appear bluish in color because a) methane gas in their atmospheres absorbs red light well. b) ammonia absorbs blue light well. c) hydrogen and helium are both blue in large concentrations. d) dust motes in their atmospheres scatter blue well, just as in our own blue sky. e) from their distance, the Sun would appear hotter and bluer than from Earth. 69. Which planet had the Great Dark Spot in 1989, but had lost it by 1995? a) Jupiter b) Saturn c) Uranus d) Neptune e) Mars 70. What is the source of Jupiter's intense radio waves and magnetism? a) charged particles trapped in Jupiter's solid iron core similar to Earth b) liquid metallic hydrogen swirling in the rapidly spinning mantle c) the ionized sulfur ejected into a torus around Jupiter by Io d) the auroral displays in the polar regions, just like with the Earth e) a liquid iron and nickel outer core, just like the Earth's magnetic field

71. What is thought to lie at the center of Jupiter? a) a hot sea of liquid metallic hydrogen b) a solid core of crystalline helium c) a massive core of rocky materials with some iron mixed in d) gaseous hydrogen and helium, for Jupiter is not differentiated like Earth e) a fusion core like the Sun's, with hydrogen being turned into helium 72. Triton and Pluto both probably originated in the Kuiper Belt. a) True b) False 73. Which element is critical to the formation of the volcanic surface of Io? a) iron b) silicon c) sulfur d) phosphorus e) carbon 74. What is thought to be the cause of Io's volcanoes? a) Jupiter's magnetosphere and its charged particles b) energy emitted by Jupiter c) gravitational tidal stresses from both Jupiter and Europa d) solar radiation focused by Jupiter's gravity e) radioactive decay in Io's interior 75. Which of the Galilean moons is densest and most geologically active? a) Io b) Europa c) Ganymede d) Callisto e) Titan 76. Which are the four Galilean moons of Jupiter? a) Europa, Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto b) Io, Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan c) Europa, Ganymede, Io, and Triton d) Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto e) Io, Titan, Triton, and Charon 77. The surface of Europa is most like the Earth's a) tundra. b) deserts. c) Arctic Ocean. d) Himalayan peaks.

e) South Pole. 78. In terms of dark, smoother mare and cratered highlands, which Jovian moon most resembles the near side of our own? a) Io b) Europa c) Ganymede d) Triton e) Titan

79. Of the Jovian satellites, which shows the oldest, most cratered surface? a) Enceladus b) Callisto c) Triton d) Ganymede e) Miranda 80. The largest moon in the solar system, bigger but not as massive as Mercury, is a) Europa. b) Ganymede. c) Callisto. d) Titan. e) Triton. 81. A moon with a smooth, uncratered surface would imply a) meteorites have never struck the moon. b) a strong magnetic field surrounds the moon. c) the surface is very young. d) the moon lies within the planet's Roche Limit. e) the surface is completely liquid. 82. Which of these moons has the densest atmosphere? a) Io b) Europa c) Callisto d) Titan e) Triton 83. At Titan, the oceans are made of liquid A) water. B) carbon dioxide. C) ethane. D) metallic hydrogen. E) nitrogen.

84. The Huygens probe of the ESA made a successful landing on a) Mars. b) Europa. c) Saturn. d) Titan. e) Triton. 85. The atmosphere of Titan is composed mostly of a) oxygen. b) methane. c) carbon dioxide. d) hydrogen. e) nitrogen. 86. The grooves and ridges on Ganymede are thought to a) be due to crustal tectonics motion (plate tectonics) b) have formed within the last thousand years. c) have grown considerably larger since the Voyager spacecraft discovered them. d) be part of an ongoing volcanic process. e) be due to the moon's rapid rotation. 87. What is true of Titan's atmosphere? a) It is similar to Earth's in composition and density. b) It is primarily hydrogen. c) It is oxygen rich. d) It was discovered by the Voyager 1 spacecraft. e) It has produced a runaway greenhouse effect. 88. Voyage 1 was unable to image Titan's surface because a) of "smog" in Titan's atmosphere. b) of Titan's high reflectivity. c) the moon was in shadow during the mission. d) the cameras were damaged by Saturn's magnetic field. e) volcanic activity spewed sulfur clouds, obscuring the surface. 89. What statistic below has changed the most in the last decade? a) the masses of the Galilean moons b) the compositions of moons of Uranus c) the rotational period of the Jovian moons d) the densities of the larger moons e) the number of known Jovian moons 90. Why are the rings of Saturn so bright? a) They are made of frozen metallic hydrogen. b) They are made of glassy beads expelled by the volcanoes of Enceladus.

c) They are made of metallic iron, never rusted by exposure to oxygen. d) Light reflected off of gigantic Titan reinforces the sunlight. e) They are made of young, fresh water ice. 91. Inside the Roche Limit a) large moons are torn apart. b) is where large moons form. c) ring systems cannot exist. d) there is a gap in a planet's magnetic field. e) hydrogen can only exist in its liquid metallic form. 92. Pluto's density is most similar to a) the terrestrial planets. b) the jovian planets. c) the moons of the jovian planets. d) Mercury, but not Venus, Earth, or Mars. e) Saturn, but not Jupiter, Uranus, or Neptune. 93. Pluto was discovered in a) ancient times. b) 1789. c) 1859. d) 1930. e) 1992. 94. Pluto is most similar to a) Europa. b) Miranda. c) Triton. d) our Moon. e) Mercury. 95. What is so unusual about Pluto's orbit? a) It lies exactly on the ecliptic. b) It has the lowest eccentricity of any planet's orbit. c) It is more inclined to the ecliptic than any of the eight planets. d) It has an unexpectedly short orbital period. e) Its orbital period is exactly twice that of Neptune's.

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