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Wilson 1 Rhiannon Wilson Megan Keaton ENC1102.

31 31 March 2014 Its often said that music, especially classical music, increases test scores, and intelligence. Unfortunately for those who wish to become smarter without studying, many scientists believe this to be nothing more than a myth. In 1993, this myth was labeled The Mozart Effect. Initially, in 1993, an experiment was conducted by three scientists: Rauscher, Ky, and Shaw. Their intent was to test the effectiveness of classical music, specifically Mozarts Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, on intelligence (Steele). They found that, while it did not affect general intelligence, the Sonata increased the spatial-reasoning section of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Steele). Unfortunately, after the subjects listened to the sonata for ten minutes, it disappeared fairly quickly, lasting a short ten to fifteen minutes (Steele). Although the original experiment was tested twice with similar results, since 93, scientists have failed time and time again to replicate it with positive results (Steele). Because of this failure, there are many who believe that the Mozart Effect is only a dream, not a reality. Seeing the negative results produced by later experiments, Rauscher and Shaw pointed out everything that couldve caused the dissimilar outcome (Steele). An experiment performed in 1995 followed their experiment exactly but did not display proof of the existence of the Mozart Effect. In fact, the only major data that the 1995 experiment provided was the effect on mood; people tended to be happier after listening to Mozarts

Wilson 2 Sonata opposed to those who were not exposed to it (Steele). Furthermore, in tests that yielded the same results as the original experiment found that the Mozart effect is not limited to musical scores composed by Mozart. Other classical songs with the same complex structure have been found to work just as well (Steele). In addition to Steele, Goldenberg suggests that music could potentially improve mental functioning but explains that any influence that music has on test scores is most likely due to the positive change in mood and arousal (2). Its been proven that music affects test scores in that it reduces stress, and takes the students attention away from negative stimuli, and allows him or her to focus more (Goldenberg 2-3). However, Goldenberg states that musics positive effect may be dependent on the genre the person prefers. Perhaps someone who listens to rap might hate classical music, negatively affecting their mood, and, in turn, his or her test scores (3). Again, the existence of the Mozart effect is questioned. In contrast to the aforementioned scientists, there are some, such as JS Jenkins, who do not automatically refute the existence of the Mozart effect. Jenkins claims that there has to be some truth to this theory based on the rat experiments conducted by Rauscher and his associates (Jenkins). In this experiment, there were two groups; one group was exposed to Mozart, and the other was not. The rats then had to navigate a maze; the rats who were played Mozarts sonata completed the finished quicker and more efficiently than their companions. Based on the test results, Jenkins argues that arousal and mood change couldnt possibly be the cause of improvement in spatial-reasoning, or mental functioning (Jenkins).

Wilson 3 One of Jenkinss theories as to why the Mozart effect exists is based on the different regions of the brain. Using PET scans, it is indicated that the area of the brain that processes music overlaps with the area that processes spatial-temporal tasks. This suggests that music prime[s] the activation of those areas of the brain which are concerned with spatial reasoning (Jenkins). Another example that Jenkins uses in his defense of the Mozart effect involves the effect on epilepsy. Supposedly, Mozarts music helps epileptics, even comatose patients (Jenkins). This being said, if a person is in a coma, he cannot like or dislike music, thus disputing the idea that mood changes have a major impact on the brain. Jenkins also states that the Mozart effect is not solely subjected to Mozarts music; while there arent definite guidelines as to what counts, similar music, such as Bach, can have the same affect (Jenkins). Despite all his contrasting opinions, he does agree that the Mozart effect does not increase general intelligence, only spatial-temporal reasoning, and that it only lasts for ten to fifteen minutes (Jenkins). Another author by the name of Rauscher agrees more with Steele than Jenkins. He explains that, despite the widespread belief, music does not increase general intelligence. A more recent study of the Mozart effect has said that classical music does not influence all spatial-reasoning tasks, but is limited to a specific type of spatial task that requires mental rotation in the absence of a physical model (Hetland 1-2). Also, a study conducted with children subjects produced a complete lack of change. It seems that if the Mozart effect does exist, it only affects adults.

Wilson 4 Works cited rnec, Rudi, Sarah J. Wilson, and Margot Prior. "No Evidence For The Mozart Effect In Children." Music Perception 23.4 (2006): 305-317. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.

Goldenberg, Matthew A., Anna H. L. Floyd, and Anne Moyer. "No Effect of a Brief Music Intervention on Test Anxiety and Exam Scores in College Undergraduates." Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis 10.1 (2013): 1-16. JSTOR. Web. 21 Feb. 2014. Jenkins, JS. The Mozart effect. J R Soc Med 94.4 (Apr. 2001): 170-172. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.

Rauscher, Frances H., and Sean C. Hinton. "The Mozart Effect: Music Listening Is Not Music Instruction." Educational Psychologist 41.4 (2006): 233-238. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.

Robbins, Samantha. Personal interview. 8 Mar. 2014 Steele, Kenneth M., Karen E. Bass, and Melissa D. Crook. "The Mystery of the Mozart Effect: Failure to Replicate." Psychological Science 10.4 (1999): 366-9. JSTOR. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.