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CHAPTER 1 PAM MODULATOR AND DEMODULATOR

1-1 : Objective

To learn how to perform the pulse amplitude modulation and demodulation.

1-2 : Hardware Required

GOTT-ECS01-PAM Modulator Board GOTT-ECS02-PAM Demodulator Board Power Supply Oscilloscope Signal connector line cable DC power line cable

1-3 : Theory

Pulse amplitude modulation is a scheme, which alters the amplitude of regularly spaced rectangular pulses in accordance with the instantaneous values of a continuous message signal. Then amplitude of the modulated pulses represents the amplitude of the intelligence.

A train of very short pulses of constant amplitude and fast repetition rate is chosen the amplitude of these pulse is made to vary in accordance with that of a slower modulating signal the result is that of multiplying the train by the modulating signal the envelope of the pulse height corresponds to the modulating wave . The Pam wave contain upper and lower side band frequencies.besides the modulating and pulse signals. The demodulated PAM waves, the signal is passed through a low pass filter having a cut off frequencies equal to the highest frequency in the modulating signal. At the output of the filter is available the modulating signal along with the DC component PAM has the same signal to noise ratio as AM and so it is not employed in practical circuits.

Figure 1.1 PAM Modulator Model Graph.

Figure 1.2 PAM Demodulator Model Graph.

1-4 : Circuit Diagram

Figure 1.3 GOTT-ECS01-PAM Modulator.

Figure 1.4 GOTT-ECS02-PAM Demodulator.

1-5 : Experiment Procedure Experiment 1 : PAM Modulator 1. Refer to figure 1.3 GOTT-ECS01-PAM Modulator. 2. At the audio signal frequency input terminal (Audio I/P), input 1kHz TTL signal. 3. By using oscilloscope, observe on the PAM audio input signal (Audio I/P), output signal of TP1 and output signal of TP2. 4. Finally record the measured results in table 1.1. Experiment 2 : PAM Demodulator 1. Refer to figure 1.4 GOTT-ECS02-PAM Demodulator. 2. The PAM modulator output terminal (PAM O/P) is connected to the PAM demodulator signal input terminal (PAM I/P). 3. Adjust VR1 to minimize the output signal distortion of IC1. 4. Adjust VR2 and VR3 until we obtain the demodulated signal correctly. 5. By using oscilloscope, observe on the PAM input signal, carrier signal, IC1 output signal of TP1, IC2 output signal of TP2 , IC3 output signal of TP3, IC3 output signal of TP4, IC3 output signal of TP5, input signal of TP6 and demodulation PAM signal (Audio O/P). 6. Finally record the measured results in table 1.2.

1-7 : Experiment Results

Table 1.1 Measured results of PAM Modulator. Test Points Audio I/P Output Signal Waveforms

TP1

TP2

Table 1.2 Measured results of PAM Demodulator. Test Points Carrier I/P Output Signal Waveforms Test Points Audio O/P Output Signal Waveforms

TP1

TP4

TP2

TP5

TP3

TP6

1-8 : Problem Discussion 1. What is the process of sampling an analog signal at a high rate ? 2. Which multiplexing technique is used to transmit both digital and analog signals? 3. Why PAM is not preferable in digital transmission? 4. Which device is used to track PAM frequency variations in the clock recovery circuit ? 5. What kind of switches are commonly used in PAM multiplexers?

Soal Diskusi 1. Bagaimana proses sampling sinyal analog pada tingkat tinggi? 2. Teknik multiplexing yang digunakan untuk mengirimkan sinyal digital dan analog? 3. Mengapa PAM tidak disukai dalam transmisi digital? 4. Perangkat yang digunakan untuk melacak PAM variasi frekuensi di sirkuit pemulihan jam? 5. Apa jenis switch yang umum digunakan dalam multiplexer PAM?