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# Abstract

In this modern and digital era, there are lots of software are widely be used to help us in order to solve the engineering problems numerically. There is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to analyze and solve the problem where the fluid flows are involved. It is called as computational fluid mechanics (CFD). The precision and accuracy of the numerical simulation are the main concerns in computational fluid mechanics. OpenFOAM (Open source Field Operation And Manipulation) is a set of generic tools to simulate complex physics on real, 3D case. It is a programmable tool kit using C++ for the development of executable, known as applications. The application can be divided into two categories which are solvers and utilizers. The solvers are designed to solve problem in continuum mechanics providing numerical simulation instead of analytical method due to high number of iteration and complexity. Meanwhile the utilizers are designed to prepare the mesh, set-up the simulation case, process the results, and to perform operations other than solving the problem under examination. The steps for using OpenFOAM to solve problems include pre-processing, solving and post-processing. In this coursework, we will get the relations between the knowledge learned in Civil Engineering Mathematics II and OpenFOAM software. The discussion will be related to Taylor series expansion, roots of equation, solution for differentiation and integration, Ordinary Differentiate Equation (ODE) and Partial Differentiate Equation (PDE) which have been discussed throughout the lesson in this subject KAEA3202. Besides that, we are going to discuss how the application of OpenFOAM in civil/environmental engineering applications. Taking an example, we can solve the problem of simplified dam break in 2 dimensions using the InterFoam. The mesh generation tool is used to generate flow around the modeling. After that, the boundary condition and the initial condition should be determined before starting the simulation. Also, we need to determine the fluid properties and either the fluid is turbulent or laminar. After that the simulation can be started, in the process, it is showed that how the OpenFOAM uses the method of differentiation and integration to solve the momentum equation and continuity equation for the two phases flow and checked error using Taylor Series approximation method.

Introduction
OpenFOAM (Open source Field Operation And Manipulation) is a C++ toolbox for the development of executable, known as applications. The application can be divided into two categories which are solvers and utilizers. The solvers are designed to solve problem in continuum mechanics. Meanwhile the utilizers are designed to prepare the mesh, set-up the simulation case, process the results, and to perform operations other than solving the problem under examination. The steps for using OpenFOAM to solve problems include preprocessing, solving and post-processing. There are lots of OpenFOAM solvers include the following:
1. Basic CFD solvers 2. Incompressible flow solvers 3. Compressible flow solvers 4. Buoyancy-driven flow solvers 5. Multiphase flow solvers 6. Particle-tracking solvers 7. Solvers for combustion problems 8. Solvers for conjugate heat transfer 9. Molecular dynamics solvers 10. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Solvers 11. Electromagnetics solvers 12. Solid dynamics solvers

## On the other hand, the OpenFOAM utilities can be divided into:

1. Mesh utilities (mesh generation, mesh conversion, mesh manipulation) 2. Post-processing utilities 3. Parallel processing utilities 5. Pre-processing utilities

4. Surface utilities

6. Thermophysical utilities

The overall structure of OpenFOAM is as shown in Figure 1.1. The figure shows the description of the pre-processing, solving and post-processing of OpenFOAM cases.

There are many advantages to use the OpenFOAM software. It is friendly syntax for partial differential equations, unstructured polyhedral grid capabilities, automatic parallelization of applications written using

OpenFOAM high-level syntax, wide range of applications and models ready to use, commercial support and training provided by the developers and no license costs.

Discussion
Q1. Please describe the relations between the knowledge learned and OpenFOAM software.

Error estimation In order to solve the boundary condition and the turbulent condition of the 3-dimensional flow around the sphere, we can use OpenFOAM. In OpenFOAM, by using the Taylor Series error estimation based on Taylor Series truncation error analysis, the numerical diffusion error from the convection term in Finite Volume Method (FVM) can be reduced. Computational modeling of dynamic fluidstructure interaction (DFSI) is a considerable challenge. Fluidstructure interaction (FSI) problems and multi-physics problems have to be solved by using numerical simulation. This is because generally, FSI problems are too complex to solve analytically. Usually, FSI problem can be performed as either a root finding problem or a fixed point problem. In order to solve FSI problems, we can choose NewtonRaphson method and fixed-point iteration. NewtonRaphson method solves the flow and structural problem for the state in the entire fluid and solid domain. It is responsible to solve FSI root-finding problem with Newton Raphson iterations. Fixed-point iteration solves the flow problem and structural problem successively until the change is smaller than the convergence criterion. It is responsible to solve the fixed point problem with fixed-point iterations. Roots of equation OpenFOAM can be used also for solve the problem of the waves. The Euler equations are nonlinear hyperbolic equations and their general solutions are waves. Much like the familiar oceanic waves, waves described by the Euler Equations 'break' and so-called shock waves are formed; this is a nonlinear effect and represents the solution becoming multi-valued. By using Eulers equation algorithm by iteration a combination of bisection, secant, and inverse quadratic interpolation methods, we can evaluate the problem related to wave to prevent the structures built under the sea or on the sea being destroyed by the wave. Solution for differentiation and integration

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## Q2. Please discuss the application of OpenFOAM in civil/environmental engineering applications.

References

Rupert Fisch, Jrg Franke,Roland Wchner,Kai-Uwe Bletzinger. (n.d.). Code Verification of OpenFOAM. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://www.openfoamworkshop.org/2012/downloads/Workshop-Documents/PresentationsTalks/FischRupert/Final-RupertFischSlidesOFW7.pdf Wikipedia. (n.d.). Fluidstructure interaction. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid%E2%80%93structure_interaction