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Enthalpy of phase transitions

Why? Phase transitions (or changes in state) are an extremely useful reaction that we can easily study in chemistry. They also have many practical uses whether you are boiling water to make pasta or using ice to make iced tea. In this activity we will discuss the chemistry and energy behind phase transitions.

Model I: Continuous addition of heart to 100.0 g of ice

120 100 Temperature(oC) 80 60 40 20 0 20 0 40 10 20 Time(minutes) 30 40

Questions 1. What variable is the experimenter changing in this experiment? experimenter monitoring as the experiment progresses? What variable is the

2. What phase of matter is the H2O in at the beginning of the experiment? 3. (a) From prior knowledge, what happens to H2O at 0oC? (b) What do you notice on the graph occurs at 0oC? (c) What must be happening while the temperature remains at 0oC? 4. (a) From prior knowledge, what happens to H2O at 100oC? (b) What do you notice on the graph occurs at 100oC? (c) What must be happening while the temperature remains at 100oC? 5. Why do you think the experimental data ends after 35 minutes?

6. A phase transition is the process of changing from one phase of matter to another. If you only have a data set such as the one above, how can you know when a phase transition is occurring?

7. Why, when you are cooking pasta, does the pasta not cook faster if you are using a high boil (rolling boil) instead of a slow boil (simmer)1?

8. On the graph above, label the points that correspond to solid, liquid, gas, melting and boiling. 9. Using the data in the graph on the right for ethanol



(a) What is the melting point of ethanol?

50 0 10 20 30 40

50 0

(b) What is the boiling point of ethanol?

100 150 200


10. (a) Given that heat is being constantly added to the sample of H2O in the graph above, is melting and endothermic or exothermic process? (b) Is boiling an endothermic or exothermic process? (c) Would freezing be an endothermic or exothermic process?

Model II: Phase transitions

In the boxes below, draw a picture that represents 6 water molecules (a) in the solid state, (b) in the liquid state, (c) in the gas state and (d) when they decompose. Label each box with the common name for each state. Represent a water molecule using this symbol: . Ask your instructor to verify your answers because this will be your model for this section. (a) (b) (c) (d)

For the chefs among you, it is actually recommend that you use a rolling boil for pasta, but this is to keep it stirred up and not sticking to itself rather than to cook it faster.

11. When we use the term break a bond, what is really happening at the atomic level?

12. (a) Does breaking bonds absorb or release energy? (b) Does forming bonds absorb or release energy? 13. (a) From prior knowledge, what intermolecular force is overcome when water boils? (b) Based on your diagram, how can you tell that this force has been overcome? (b) When considering the intermolecular force, why does it make sense that boiling is endothermic? 14. Why would energy be released when water condenses from gas to liquid?

15. Write a reaction equation that express each of the following processes and state whether the H for that reaction is positive or negative. Hint: you will have to pay close attention to the state symbols you use, for example using H2O (s) to represent solid water (ice). (a) boiling (also referred to as vaporization) (b) condensing (c) melting (also referred to as fusion) (d) freezing 16. The Hvaporization for water is 40.7 kJ/mole. The Hfusion for water is 6.01 kJ/mole. Go back to the previous question and write the H values for all four reactions.

17. Thinking about it at the molecular level, why do you think that the Hvaporization is so much greater than the Hfusion for water?

18. If you have 36.0 g of ice at 30.0oC. (a) How much heat is needed to raise the temperature of the ice to 0.0oC? The heat capacity of ice is 2.05 J/g oC. (Think about an equation you know for this)

(b) Based on the Hfusion given above, how much heat is needed to melt the ice?

(c) How much heat is needed to raise the temperature of the water from 0.0oC to 100.0 oC?

(d) Based on the Hvaporization given above, how much heat is needed to boil the water?

(e) In all, how much heat is needed to convert the ice at 10oC to vapor?

Exercises 1. Determine if each of the following is endothermic or exothermic, give the sign of the H, and explain why from an atomic level aspect: (a) I2 (s) I2 (l) (b) I2 (s) I2 (g) (c) CH3OH (l) CH3OH (s) (d) CO2 (s) CO2 (g) 2. When water condenses on a cold glass on a summer day, what is happening to the glass in terms of heat? 3. Solar energy presents a problem because it doesnt work at night (when people have all their lights on and are watching TV). Storing the energy generated during the day in batteries requires far too many batteries to be cost effective. One potential solution is to use solar energy to melt large amounts of ionic compounds like KNO3 (melting point = 334 oC), then allow them to resolidify at night. Explain in what sense this would store energy?

4. Calculate the amount of heat needed to completely boil off 100.0 g of ethanol from 10.0oC. Ethanol is a liquid at 10.0oC and boils at 78.4oC. The heat capacity of liquid ethanol is 2.44 J/goC and the enthalpy of vaporization is 38.6 kJ/mole.