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Emergency Medicine Mnemonics

Emergency Medicine Mnemonics Kendrick Extrication Device (K.E.D.): order of placing straps "My Baby ooks !ot "onig#t": Middle Bottom egs !ead "op $ %ote: K.E.D. is a device &sed to extract patients o&t of a cras#ed car or similar tig#t space. 'ei(&re: )&ick #istory taking *+,": *oc&s: generali(ed vs. local activity +ctivity: tonic-clonic vs. absence ,olor: red. bl&e. as#en--possible indicator of #ypoxia "ime: lengt# of sei(&re +st#ma ac&te attack: / life t#reatening signs '!0,K: 'ilent c#est !ypotension 0ne t#ird of best1predicted 2*3 ,yanosis Konf&sion *its: ca&ses !04+3D: !ypertension 0besity 4arfarin +lco#ol 3etardation Dr&gs Blacko&t1collapse: ca&ses "!E 5E'2+ M,: "6+ !ypoglycemia Epilepsy 5asovagal

Epilepsy 'it&ation 2post&ral #ypotension1 2E +rrt#ymia1 +ortic stenosis(!0,M) Myocardial infarction ,arotid sin&s #ypersensitivity 'nakebite scoring system $ 7 "8s: "oot#less "-s#irt "attooed "railer park "estosterone "e)&ila (Et0!) $ 0ne point for eac# positive. $ 9 or more positive "8s s&ggests venomo&s bite. Motor 5e#icle ,ollision (M5,): 'ingle ve#icle M5, differential of ca&ses $ : '8s: '&ds (Et0!) '&icide 'leep 'ei(&re '&gar 'troke (bleed) 't&pidity +3D': diagnostic criteria +3D': +c&te onset 3atio (2a0;1*i0;) less t#an ;<< Diff&se infiltration '=an->an( 4edge press&re less t#an ?@ mm!g +3D': f&ll differential ,+3D'A !02E 6"' %0" +3D': ,%' disorders +spiration (gastric) 3adiation Dr&gs (#eroin. morp#ine. barbit&rates. etc) 'moke. toxic gas in#alation !ypotension. s#ock 0xygen toxicity

2ancreatitis Emboli 6nfection. sepsis "ransf&sion reaction '&rgery (esp. cardiac) %ear dro=ning 0bstetrical emergencies (eg eclampsia. !E "#ermal inB&ries1 b&rns +ltit&de sickness 3enal fail&re D6, ' E 2ne&mot#orax: ca&ses '6". 9 +8s. 9 ,8s: 'pontaneo&s (often tall t#in men) 6atrogenic "ra&ma +st#ma +lveolitis +6D' ,02D ,arcinoma ,ystic fibrosis ,oma: differential C%,0%',60C': Cnits of ins&lin %arcotics ,onv&lsions 0xygen %onorganic 'troke ,ocktail 6,2 0rganism Crea '#ock '#ock: general feat&res ,!03D 6"EM: ,old. clammy skin !ypotension 0lig&ria

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3apid. s#allo= breat#ing Dro=siness. conf&sion 6rritability "ac#ycardia Elevated or red&ced central veno&s press&re M&lti-organ damage '#ortness of breat#: s#ort differential ++++ 2222: +ir=ay obstr&ction +ngina +nxiety +st#ma 2ne&monia 2ne&mot#orax 2&lmonary Edema 2&lmonary Embol&s Dyspnea: differential 9+8s: "#ree +ir=ays: +ir=ay obstr&ction. +nap#ylaxis. +st#ma 928s: "#ree 2&lmonary8s: 2ne&mot#orax. 2E. 2&lmonary edema 9,8s: "#ree ,ardiacs: ,ardiogenic p&lmonary edema. ,ardiac isc#emia. ,ardiac tamponade 9M8s: "#ree Metabolics: (D0,) DK+. 0rganop#osp#ates. ,arbon monoxide poisoning 'ei(&res: differential '6,K D36*"E3: '&bstrates (s&gar. oxygen) 6sonia(id overdose ,ations (%a. ,a. Mg) Kids (ecclampsia) Dr&gs (,3+2: ,ocaine. 3&m (alco#ol). +mp#etamines.2,2) 3&m (alc#o#ol =it#dra=l) 6llnesses (c#ronic sei(&re disorder or ot#er c#ronic disorder) *ever (meningitis. encep#alitis. abscess) "ra&ma (epid&ral. s&bd&ral. intraparync#ymal #emorr#age) Extra: toxocologic ("+6 : "#eo. +'+. 6sonia(id. it#i&m) and 9 +nti8s: (+nti#istamine overdose. +ntidepressant overdose. +nticonv&lsants (too #ig# dilanitin. tegretol) or ben(o =it#dra=l. 3at poison (organop#ospates poisoning)

2ne&monia: #ospitalisation criteria +B,D: +ge greater t#an 7< Blood &rea greater t#an : mmol1l ,onf&sion Diastolic B2 less t#an 7< mm!g $!ospitalise t#e pne&monia patient if ; or more of t#ese criteria are met. Myocardial infarction: some emergency treatment dr&gs +B,D: +spirin Beta blockers ,lot b&sters (t#romboytics) Dynamite (nitrates) Malaria: complications of falcipar&m malaria ,!+2 6%: ,erebral malaria1 ,oma !ypoglycemia +naemia 2&lmonary edema actic acidosis 6nfections %ecrosis of renal t&b&les (+"%) M6: immediate treatment D0>+'!: Diamorp#ine 0xygen >"% spray +spirin 9<<mg 'treptokinase !eparin 2ain #istory c#ecklist 0 DE3 '++B: 0nset ocation Description (=#at does it feel like) Exacerbating factors 3adiation 'everity +ssociated symptoms +lleviating factors

Before (ever experience t#is before) 2&lseless Electrical +ctivity (2E+): c#ecklist 2E+: 2&lses c#eck Epinep#erine +tropine 2E+1+systole (+, '): etiology 6",!2+D: 6nfarction "ension pne&mot#orax ,ardiac tamponade !ypovolemia1 !ypot#ermia1 !ypo-. !yperkalemia1 !ypomagnesmia1 !ypoxemia 2&lmonary embolism +cidosis Dr&g overdose "ra&ma: motor ve#icle accident considerations 6 +M ',+3ED: 6mpact (#ead-on. rear-end. t-bone. rollover. rotational etc.) +&to vs. pedestrian. bike. motorcycle (start D speed E?<mp#) Medical #istory (cardiac. coag&lolation. liver. imm&no. obese. prego) 'peed (E/< mp#A) ,ompartment intr&sion (E?; inc#esA) +ge (F/ or E// y.o.A) 3estraints (lap G s#o&lder. eit#er. airbag. infant or c#ild seatA) EBection1 Extrication (eBectH;/x greater deat#. extrE;<min) Deat# (at scene. same ve#icle. ot#er) 5-fib1p&lseless v-tac# (ne= +, ' as of ;<<?) "E5+ My 2&mper": Epinep#rine 5asopressin +miodarone (class 66b--better for #eart fail&re) idocaine (indeterminate - better for yo&ng. #ealt#y or persistent) Mg'0I (66b for #ypomagnesemic state or torsades) 2rocainamide (66b for intermittent1rec&rrent 5*15") +systole: treatment "!ave some asystole ""E+": "ransc&taneo&s pacing Epinefrin +tropine

J52: raised J52 differential 2K3'" (EK> =aves): 2ericardial eff&sion K&antity of fl&id raised (fl&id over load) 3ig#t #eart fail&re '&perior vena caval obstr&ction "ric&spid stenosis1 "ric&spid reg&rgitation1 "amponade (cardiac) J52: raised J52: extra-cardiac ca&ses *+" 2E+: *ever +naemia "#yrotoxicosis 2regnancy Exercise +-5 fist&la $ "#ese are in addition to all t#e cardiac ones (pericardial eff&sion. 3!*. tric&spid stenosis. '5, obstr&ction. etc). Endotrac#ial t&be deliverable dr&gs 0 %+5E : 0xygen %aloxone +tropine 5entolin (alb&terol) Epinep#rine idocaine $ 6f yo& can8t get 65 access establis#ed. and #ave necessity to administer res&scitative meds. remember yo& #ave t#e air=ay and can give t#e above dr&gs. $ Dr&g delivery is en#anced if dil&ted =it# ?<cc %' and rapid introd&ced for aeresoli(ation. $ +lternatively. bare bone version is + E. as above. 'yncope ca&ses. by system !E+D !E+3" 5E''E ': $ ,%' ca&ses incl&de !E+D: !ypoxia1 !ypoglycemia Epilepsy +nxiety Dysf&nctional brain stem (basivertebral "6+) $ ,ardiac ca&ses are !E+3":

!eart attack Embolism (2E) +ortic obstr&ction (6!''. +' or myxoma) 3#yt#m dist&rbance. ventric&lar "ac#ycardia $ 5asc&lar ca&ses are 5E''E ': 5asovagal Ectopic (reminds one of #ypovolemia) 'it&ational '&bclavian steal E%" (glossop#aryngeal ne&ralgia) o= systemic vasc&lar resistance (+ddison8s. diabetic vasc&lar ne&ropat#y) 'ensitive carotid sin&s +trial fibrillation: ca&ses of ne= onset "!E +"36+ "#yroid !ypot#ermia Embolism (2.E.) +lco#ol "ra&ma (cardiac cont&sion) 3ecent s&rgery (post ,+B>) 6sc#emia +trial enlargement one or idiopat#ic *ever. anemia. #ig#-o&tp&t states 6nfarct Bad valves (mitral stenosis) 'tim&lants (cocaine. t#eo. amp#et. caffeine) %e&rological focal deficits ?< '8s: '&gar (#ypo. #yper) 'troke 'ei(&re ("odd8s paralysis) '&bd&ral #ematoma '&barac#noid #emorr#age 'pace occ&pying lesion (t&mor. avm. ane&rysm. abscess) 'pinal cord syndromes 'omatoform (conversion reaction) 'clerosis (M') 'ome migraines *6B':

Miosis: ca&ses of pin-point p&pils ,23 0% ' 6ME: ,lonidine 2#enot#ia(ines 3esting (deep sleep) 0piates %arcotics 'troke (pontine #emorr#age) omotil (dip#enoxylate) 6nsecticides M&s#rooms1 M&scarinic (inocybe. clitocybe) Eye drops Meningicoccal meningitis: complications '+D 3E2: 'epsis1 '#ock1 '&bd&ral eff&sion +taxia1 +bscess (brain) D6,1 Deafness 3etardation Epilepsy 2aralysis +ctivated c#arcoal: contraindications ,!EM6,+ ,yanide !ydrocarbons Et#anol Metals 6ron ,a&stics +ir=ay &nprotected it#i&m ,+Mp#or 2otassi&m 6pecac: contraindications I ,8s: ,omatose ,onv&lsing ,orrosive #ydro,arbon 0rganop#osp#ates poisoning: symptoms DCMBBE ': Diarr#ea Crination ,am2:

Miosis Bradycardia Bronc#ospasm Emesis acrimation 'alivation ,oma and signicantly red&ced conscio&s state ca&ses: ca&ses ,0M+: ,0; and ,0 excess 0verdose: ",+s. Ben(os. Et0!. ins&lin. paracetamol. etc. Metabolic: B' . %aL. KL. Mg;L. &rea. ammonia. etc. +poplexy: stroke. '+!. extrad&ral. s&bd&ral. ,a. meningitis. encep#alitis. cerebral abscess. etc. ,#est pain: differential ,!E'" 2+6%: ,ostoc#ondritis1 ,ocaine ab&se !erpes (oster1 !yperventilation Esop#agitis1 Esop#ageal spasm 'tenosis (+') "ra&ma 2E1 2ne&monia1 2ne&mot#orax1 2ericarditis1 2ancreatitis +ngina1 +ortic dissection1 +ortic aner&sym 6nfarction1 65 disk disease %e&ropsyc#iatric disorders (e.g. depression. Da ,osta8s) 5entric&lar fibrillation: treatment "'#ock. '#ock. '#ock. Everybody '#ock. ittle '#ock. Big '#ock. Momma '#ock. 2oppa '#ock": '#ockH Defibrillate EverybodyH Epinep#ine ittleH idocaine BigH Bretyli&m MommaH Mg'0I 2oppaH 2rocainamide *all: potential ca&ses 685E *+ 6llness 5estib&lar Environmental *eet1 *oot=ear E%:

+lco#ol and dr&gs o= blood press&re o= 0; states Ears1 Eyes %e&ropat#y 3 K pain: differential +22E%D6,6"6': +ppendicitis1 +bscess 26D1 2eriod 2ancreatitis Ectopic1 Endometriosis %eoplasia Divertic&litis 6nt&ss&sception ,ro#ns Disease1 ,yst (ovarian) 6BD "orsion (ovary) 6rritable Bo=el 'yndrome 'tones Decompression sickness Boyle8s la=: vol&me of gas is inversely proportionate to its press&re. $ "#erefore. B0M E: Breat#e (as yo& ascend) 0r Mo&r &ng Explodes $ Breat#e as yo& ascend after sc&ba diving. since t#e press&re decreases on s&rfacing. so t#e gas vol&me in l&ngs increases. Cnconcio&sness: differential *6'! '!+2ED: *ainted 6llness1 6nfantile febrile conv&lsions '#ock !ead inB&ries 'troke (,5E) !eart problems +sp#xia 2oisons Epilepsy

Diabetes Endotrac#eal t&be: tro&bles#ooting D02EM: Displaced: esop#ag&s. rig#t mainstem. back of t#roat. etc 0bstr&cted: secretions. blood. m&c&s pl&g. kink. etc 2ne&mot#orax E)&ipment: malf&nctions. 0;. E"". B5M. ventilator. monitor Mo&: yo&r approac#. tec#ni)&e: missing somet#ingA 0rganop#osp#ates poisoning symptoms M6 E': Miosis 6ncreased &rinary fre)&ency acrimation En&resis 'alivation ,#est pain treatment. for n&rses "M05E yo&r patientN": Monitor: p&t patient on cardiac monitor 0xygen: p&t patient on 0; 5eno&s: gain large bore veno&s access EK>: ?; lead EK> 6,C conf&sion ca&ses 6,C ,0%*C'60%: 6,C psyc#osis ,ardiac o&tp&t lo= O#ypotension. post cardiac arrestP Cncontrolled temperat&re O#ypo1#ypert#ermiaP ,onv&lsion Opost ictalP 0xygen O#ypoxia. #ypercarbiaP %ociception OpainP *&ll bladder Cremia '&gar O#ypo1#yperglycemiaP 6nfection 0piates %atremia O#ypo1#yperP ,oma: conditions to excl&de as ca&se M6D+': Meningitis 6ntoxication Diabetes +ir (respiratory fail&re)

'&bd&ral1 '&barac#noid #emorr#age 3es&scitation: basic steps +B,DE: +ir=ay Breat#ing ,irc&lation Dr&gs Environment Malignant #ypert#ermia treatment "'ome !ot D&de Better >ive 6ced *l&ids *astN" (!ot d&de H #ypot#ermia): 'top triggering agents !yperventilate1 !&ndred percent oxygen Dantrolene (;./mg1kg) Bicarbonate >l&cose and ins&lin 65 *l&ids and cooling blanket *l&id o&tp&t monitoring1 *&rosemide1 *ast #eart Otac#ycardiaP 5fib15tac# dr&gs &sed according to +, ' "Every 2ray": Epinep#rine idocaine Bretyli&m Mags&lfate 2rocainamide ,oma ca&ses c#ecklist +E60C "62': +cidosis1 +lco#ol Epilepsy 6nfection 0verdosed Cremia "ra&ma to #ead 6ns&lin: too little or or too m&c# 2ysc#osis episode 'troke occ&rred '#ock: types 3% ,!+M2': 3espiratory %e&rogenic ittle Boy M&st

,ardiogenic !emorr#agic +nap#ylactic Metabolic 2syc#ogenic 'eptic $ +lternatively: "M3. ,.!. '%+2". or "%! ,3+M2'" '#ock: signs and symptoms "5 '2+3, ,CBE: "#irst 5omiting '=eating 2&lse =eak +nxio&s 3espirations s#allo=1rapid ,ool ,yanotic Cnconscio&s B2 lo= Eyes blank *all: potential ca&ses , +DE '2+DE: ,ardiovasc&lar1 ,erebrovasc&lar ocomotor (skeletal. m&sc&lar. ne&rological) +geing (increased body s=ay. decreased reaction time) Dr&gs (esp. anti#ypertensives. antipsyc#otics) Environmental 'ensory deficits (eg. vis&al problems) 2syc#ological1 2syc#iatric (depression) +c&te illness Dementia Epilepsy +c&te 5* management M%02: asex (fr&semide) Morp#ine (diamorp#ine) %itrates 0xygen (sit patient &p) 2&lmonary ventilation (if doing badly) '&barac#noid #emorr#age ('+!) ca&ses B+"':

Berry ane&rysm +rterioveno&s malformation1 +d&lt polycystic kidney disease "ra&ma (eg being str&ck =it# baseball bat) 'troke http://www.doctorshangout.com/page/emergency-medicine-mnemonics