Anda di halaman 1dari 46

Chapter:1

Brief review of fundamental concepts of vibration

Vibration Analysis

Analysis of Simple vibrating systems

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Importance of the Study of Vibration
Importance of the Study of
Vibration

Vibrations can lead to excessive deflections and failure on the machines and structures.

To reduce vibration through proper design of machines and their mountings.

To utilize profitably in several consumer and industrial applications.

To improve the efficiency of certain machining, casting, forging & welding processes.

To

stimulate

earthquakes

for

research and nuclear reactors.

conduct studies in

geological design of

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

EXAMPLE OF PROBLEMS

Vibrational problems of prime movers due to inherent unbalance in the engine.

Wheel

of some

locomotive rise more than

centimeter off the track – high speeds – due to imbalance.

Turbines

vibration

– mechanical failure.

cause

spectacular

EXAMPLE OF PROBLEMS ✓ Vibrational problems of prime movers due to inherent unbalance in the engine.

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

DISADVANTAGES

Cause rapid wear. Create excessive noise.

Leads

to

poor

surface

finish

(eg:

in

metal

cutting process, vibration cause chatter).

Resonance – natural frequency of vibration of a machine/structure coincide with the frequency of the external excitation (eg: Tacoma Narrow Bridge – 1948)

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Applications

Applications Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Applications Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Applications Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Applications Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Applications Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration
Basic Concepts of Vibration

Vibration = any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time.

Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Vibration = any motion that repeats itself after an interval of

!

Vibratory System consists of:

1) spring or elasticity 2) mass or inertia 3) damper

Involves transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa.

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration
Basic Concepts of Vibration

Degree of Freedom (d.o.f.) = min. no. of independent coordinates required to determine completely the positions of all parts of a system at any instant of time

Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Degree of Freedom (d.o.f.) = min. no. of independent coordinates required

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration
Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration
Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of Two degree-of-freedom systems:

Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Examples of Two degree-of-freedom systems: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Examples of Two degree-of-freedom systems: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration
Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of Three degree of freedom systems:

Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Examples of Three degree of freedom systems: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani,
Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Examples of Three degree of freedom systems: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani,
Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Examples of Three degree of freedom systems: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani,

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration
Basic Concepts of Vibration

Example of Infinite number of degrees of freedom system:

Basic Concepts of Vibration ❑ Example of Infinite number of degrees of freedom system: ❑ Infinite

Infinite number of degrees of freedom system are termed continuous or distributed systems.

Finite number of degrees of freedom are termed discrete or lumped parameter systems.

More accurate results obtained by increasing number of degrees of freedom.

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Classification of vibration

Free Vibration:A system is left to vibrate on its own after an initial disturbance and no external force acts on the system. E.g. simple pendulum

Forced Vibration:A system that is subjected to a repeating external force. E.g. oscillation arises from diesel engines

Resonance occurs when the frequency of the external force coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Undamped Vibration:When no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations

Damped Vibration:When any energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations

Linear Vibration:When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the mass and the damper behave linearly

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Damped and Undamped vibrations

Damped and Undamped vibrations Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Nonlinear Vibration:If any of the components behave nonlinearly

Deterministic Vibration:If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion) acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time

Nondeterministic or random Vibration:When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Examples of deterministic and random excitation:

❑ Examples of deterministic and random excitation: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Harmonic motion

Periodic Motion: motion repeated after equal intervals of time Harmonic Motion: simplest type of periodic motion

Displacement (x):

  • x = A s i n 2 π

t

τ

Velocity:

x! =

  • dx = ω A cos ωt = ω A sin(ω t + π / 2)

dt

!

Acceleration:

2

!x! = d x dt !! x = −ω

2

2

2

= −ω A x

sin

2

ωt = ω A

sin (

ωt + π

)

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

The similarity between cyclic (harmonic) and sinusoidal motion.

The similarity between cyclic (harmonic) and sinusoidal motion. Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
The similarity between cyclic (harmonic) and sinusoidal motion. Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

The trigonometric functions of sine and cosine are related to the exponential function by Euler’s equation.

The trigonometric functions of sine and cosine are related to the exponential function by Euler’s equation.

exp(iθ) = cos(θ) + i sin(θ) The vector P rotating at constant angular Speed ω can be represented as

The trigonometric functions of sine and cosine are related to the exponential function by Euler’s equation.

Where x =real component and y = imaginery component.

The trigonometric functions of sine and cosine are related to the exponential function by Euler’s equation.

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Vibrations of several different frequencies exist simultaneously. Such vibrations result in a complex waveform which is

Vibrations of several different frequencies exist simultaneously. Such vibrations result in a complex waveform which is repeated periodically as shown

Vibrations of several different frequencies exist simultaneously. Such vibrations result in a complex waveform which is

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Harmonic Analysis
Harmonic Analysis

A periodic function:

Harmonic Analysis A periodic function: Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Fourier Series Expansion: If x(t) is a periodic function with periodic τ, its Fourier Series representation is given by

( )

x t =

a

0

2

+

a

1

cos

ω

t

+

a

2

cos 2

ω

t

+

...

+

b

1

sin

ω

t

+

b

2

sin 2

ω

t

+

...

=

a

0

2

+

n = 1

( cos

a

n

n

ω

t

+

b

n

sin

n

ω

t

)

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Complex Fourier Series:The Fourier series can also be represented in terms of complex numbers.

and

Also,

e

i

ω t

=

cos

ω

t

+

i

sin

ω

t

e

i ω t

=

cos

ω

t

i

sin

ω

t

cos t =

ω

e

i

ω

t

+ e

i

ω

t

2

sin t =

ω

e

i

ω

t

e

i

ω

t

2

i

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

•Frequency Spectrum:

Harmonics plotted as vertical lines on a diagram of amplitude (a n and b n or d n and Φ n ) versus frequency ().

•Frequency Spectrum: Harmonics plotted as vertical lines on a diagram of amplitude ( a and b

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Even and odd functions:

Even function & its Fourier series expansion

  • x t =

(

)

( )

x t =

a

0

2

+

n = 1

a

( )

x t

 

n

c o s ω

n

t

Odd function & its Fourier series expansion

x

(

t

)

=

x t

( )

x t

( )

=

b

n

s i n ω

n

t

n = 1

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Half-Range Expansions: The function is extended to include the interval – τ to 0 as shown

Half-Range Expansions:

The function is extended to include the interval – τ to 0 as shown in the figure. The Fourier series expansions of x 1 (t) and x 2 (t) are known as half-

range expansions.

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Example 1 
 Addition of Harmonic Motions Find the sum of the two harmonic motions x

Example 1Addition of Harmonic Motions

Example 1 
 Addition of Harmonic Motions Find the sum of the two harmonic motions x

Find the sum of the two harmonic motions

x t ( ) = 10 cos ωt and x ( ) t = 15 cos(
x t
( )
=
10 cos
ωt
and
x
( )
t =
15 cos(
ωt +
2).
1
2

Solution: Method 1: By using trigonometric relations:

Since the circular frequency is the same for both

  • x 1 (t) and x 2 (t), we express the sum as

x ( ) t = A cos( ωt + α = x t + x t
x
( )
t = A
cos(
ωt + α = x t + x t
)
( )
( )
( E.1)
1
2

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

That is, A ( cos cos ω t α − sin sin ω t α )
That is,
A
(
cos cos
ω
t
α
sin sin
ω
t
α
)
=
10 cos
ω
t
+
15 cos(
ω
t
+
2)
=
10 cos
ω
t
+
15(cos cos
ω
t
2 sin sin 2)
ω
t
( E.2)
That is,
cos ( cos ) sin ( sin ) cos (10 15 cos 2)
ω
t A
α
ω
t A
α
=
ω
t
+
− sin (15 sin 2)
ω t
( E.3)

By equating the corresponding coefficients of cosωt and sinωt on both sides, we obtain

A cos

α =

10 15 cos 2

+

A sin

α =

15 sin 2

A =

2 2 + + 10 15 cos 2 (15 sin 2) ) (
2
2
+
+
10
15 cos 2
(15 sin 2)
)
(

= 14.1477

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

and

& 15 sin 2 # α tan = − 1 $ ! % 10 15 cos
&
15 sin 2
#
α tan
=
− 1
$
!
% 10 15 cos 2 "
+
=
74.5963
°
( E.5)

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Example 2
Example 2

Method 2: By using complex number representation:: the two harmonic motions can be denoted in terms of complex numbers:

  • x ( ) Re

1

t

=

[

A e

1

i

ω

t

 

]

[

Re 10

e

i

ω

t

]

  • x ( ) Re[

2

t

=

A e

2

i

(

ω

t

+

2 )

]

Re[15

i

e

(

ω

t

+

2 )

]

( E.7)

 
 

( ) Re[

=

x t

Ae

i

( ω +α )

t

]

( E.8)

 

The sum of x 1 (t) and x 2 (t) can be expressed as

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

where A and α can be determined using the following equations

2 2 A = ( a + b ) ; j = 1, 2 j j
2
2
A =
(
a + b
) ;
j =
1, 2
j
j
j
− 1
j
θ = tan
;
j =
1, 2
j
& $ $ % a b # ! ! "
j

and A = 14.1477 and α = 74.5963º

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Vibration Terminology

Definitions of Terminology:

Amplitude (A) is the maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position

Period of oscillation (T) is time taken to complete one cycle of motion

T =

2π

!

ω

Frequency of oscillation (f) is the no. of cycles per unit time

f =

  • 1 ω

= T 2 π

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Natural frequency is the frequency which a system oscillates without external forces

Phase angle (φ) is the angular difference between two synchronous harmonic motions

x = A s i n ω t 1 1 x = A s i n
x
=
A
s i n ω
t
1
1
x
=
A
s i n
(ω φ )
t
+
2
2
➢ Natural frequency is the frequency which a system oscillates without external forces Phase angle (

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Beats are formed when two harmonic motions, with frequencies close to one another, are added

➢ Beats are formed when two harmonic motions, with frequencies close to one another, are added

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

The peak value generally indicates the maximum stress that the vibrating part is undergoing.

The average value indicates a steady or static value. It is found from

➢ The peak value generally indicates the maximum stress that the vibrating part is undergoing. ➢

For example, the average value of complete A sin t is zero, but of a half cycle

➢ The peak value generally indicates the maximum stress that the vibrating part is undergoing. ➢

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

The mean square value of a time function x(t) is found from average of the squared values, integrated over some time interval T

➢ The mean square value of a time function x(t) is found from average of the

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Decibel is originally defined as a ratio of electric powers. It is now often used as a notation of various quantities such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, pressure, and power

& P #

$

%

P

0

!

!

"

& X #

$

%

X

0

!

!

"

d B 1 0 l o g $

=

d B 2 0 l o g $

=

where P 0 is some reference value of power and X 0 is specified reference voltage.

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Problem 3

Problem 3 Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Problem 3 Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Problem 3 Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Solution

Solution Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Solution Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Solution Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Solution Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
Solution Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus