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# Chapter:1

## Analysis of Simple vibrating systems

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Importance of the Study of
Vibration

# geological design of

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# spectacular

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# ✓ Resonance – natural frequency of vibration of a machine/structure coincide with the frequency of the external excitation (eg: Tacoma Narrow Bridge – 1948)

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# Applications

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Basic Concepts of Vibration

# ❑ Involves transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa.

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Basic Concepts of Vibration

# ❑ Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration

# Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

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Basic Concepts of Vibration

# Examples of Two degree-of-freedom systems:

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Basic Concepts of Vibration

# ❑ Examples of Three degree of freedom systems:

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Basic Concepts of Vibration

# ❑ More accurate results obtained by increasing number of degrees of freedom.

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# ➢ Resonance occurs when the frequency of the external force coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

# ❑ Linear Vibration:When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the mass and the damper behave linearly

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# Damped and Undamped vibrations

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# ❑ Nondeterministic or random Vibration:When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted

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# ❑ Examples of deterministic and random excitation:

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# )

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# The similarity between cyclic (harmonic) and sinusoidal motion.

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Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

# Where x =real component and y = imaginery component.

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# Vibrations of several different frequencies exist simultaneously. Such vibrations result in a complex waveform which is repeated periodically as shown

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Harmonic Analysis

# A periodic function:

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# )

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# i

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# Harmonics plotted as vertical lines on a diagram of amplitude (a nand b nor d nand Φ n) versus frequency (nω).

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# t

### n = 1

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# range expansions.

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x t
( )
=
10 cos
ωt
and
x
( )
t =
15 cos(
ωt +
2).
1
2

• # x 1(t) and x 2(t), we express the sum as

x
( )
t = A
cos(
ωt + α = x t + x t
)
( )
( )
( E.1)
1
2

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

That is,
A
(
cos cos
ω
t
α
sin sin
ω
t
α
)
=
10 cos
ω
t
+
15 cos(
ω
t
+
2)
=
10 cos
ω
t
+
15(cos cos
ω
t
2 sin sin 2)
ω
t
( E.2)
That is,
cos ( cos ) sin ( sin ) cos (10 15 cos 2)
ω
t A
α
ω
t A
α
=
ω
t
+
− sin (15 sin 2)
ω t
( E.3)

2
2
+
+
10
15 cos 2
(15 sin 2)
)
(

# = 14.1477

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# and

&
15 sin 2
#
α tan
=
− 1
\$
!
% 10 15 cos 2 "
+
=
74.5963
°
( E.5)

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Example 2

1

1

i

ω

t

i

ω

t

2

2

i

(

ω

t

+

2 )

i

(

ω

t

+

2 )

i

( ω +α )

t

# The sum of x 1(t) and x 2(t) can be expressed as

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# where A and α can be determined using the following equations

2
2
A =
(
a + b
) ;
j =
1, 2
j
j
j
− 1
j
θ = tan
;
j =
1, 2
j
& \$ \$ % a b # ! ! "
j

# and A = 14.1477 and α = 74.5963º

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# = T 2 π

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# ➢Phase angle (φ) is the angular difference between two synchronous harmonic motions

x
=
A
s i n ω
t
1
1
x
=
A
s i n
(ω φ )
t
+
2
2

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# ➢Beats are formed when two harmonic motions, with frequencies close to one another, are added

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# For example, the average value of complete A sin t is zero, but of a half cycle

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# ➢ The mean square value of a time function x(t) is found from average of the squared values, integrated over some time interval T

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# where P 0is some reference value of power and X 0is specified reference voltage.

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# Problem 3

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# Solution

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Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Millerjothi, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus