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Contents Contents

Contents Contents Contents


Preface to the Second Edition xv
Preface to the First Edition xix
1. Electron Ballistics and Applications 1
1.1 Charged Particles 1
1.2 The Force on Charged Particles in an Electric Field 2
1.3 Constant Electric Field 3
1.4 Potential 4
1.5 The eV Unit of Energy 6
1.6 Relationship between Field Intensity and Potential 6
1.7 Two-dimensional Motion 7
1.8 Electrostatic Deflection in a Cathode-ray Tube 10
1.9 The Cathode-ray Oscilloscope 14
1.10 Relativistic Variation of Mass with Velocity 15
1.11 Force in a Magnetic Field 16
1.12 Current Density 17
1.13 Motion in a Magnetic Field 18
1.14 Magnetic Deflection in a Cathode-ray Tube 20
1.15 Magnetic Focusing 22
1.16 Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields 25
1.17 Perpendicular Electric and Magnetic Fields 26
1.18 The Cyclotron 30
2. Energy Levels and Energy Bands 41
2.1 The Nature of the Atom 41
2.2 Atomic Energy Levels 43
2.3 The Photon Nature of Light 45
2.4 Ionization 46
2.5 Collisions of Electrons with Atoms 46
2.6 Collisions of Photons with Atoms 47
2.7 Metastable States 48
2.8 Wave Properties of Matter 48
2.9 Electronic Structure of the Elements 52
2.10 The Energy-band Theory of Crystals 54
2.11 Insulators, Semiconductors, and Metals 55
3. Conduction in Metals 59
3.1 Mobility and Conductivity 59
3.2 The Energy Method of Analyzing the Motion of a Particle 62
3.3 The Potential-energy Field in a Metal 64
3.4 Bound and Free Electrons 66
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3.5 Energy Distribution of Electrons 67
3.6 The Density of States 70
3.7 Work Function 73
3.8 Thermionic Emission 74
3.9 Contact Potential 75
3.10 Energies of Emitted Electrons 75
3.11 Accelerating Fields 77
3.12 High-field Emission 78
3.13 Secondary Emission 78
4. Conduction in Semiconductors 83
4.1 Electrons and Holes in an Intrinsic Semiconductor 83
4.2 Conductivity of a Semiconductor 85
4.3 Carrier Concentrations in an Intrinsic Semiconductor 86
4.4 Donor and Acceptor Impurities 95
4.5 Charge Densities in a Semiconductor 97
4.6 Fermi Level in a Semiconductor Having Impurities 99
4.7 Diffusion 101
4.8 Carrier Lifetime 102
4.9 The Continuity Equation 103
4.10 The Hall Effect 106
5. Semiconductor-Diode Characteristics 111
5.1 Qualitative Theory of the p-n Junction 111
5.2 The p-n Junction as a Diode 113
5.3 Band Structure of an Open-Circuited p-n Junction 115
5.4 The Current Components in a p-n Diode 118
5.5 Quantitative Theory of the p-n Diode Currents 119
5.6 The Volt-Ampere Characteristic 124
5.7 The Temperature Dependence of p-n Characteristics 126
5.8 Diode Resistance 128
5.9 Space-Charge, or Transition, Capacitance CT 129
5.10 Diffusion Capacitance 136
5.11 p-n Diode Switching Times 139
5.12 Breakdown Diodes 141
5.13 The Tunnel Diode 145
5.14 Characteristics of a Tunnel Diode 149
5.15 The p-i-n Diode 151
5.16 Characteristics of a p-i-n Diode 155
5.17 The Point Contact Diode 157
5.18 The Schottky Barrier Diode 158
5.19 The Schottky Effect 165
5.20 Current-Voltage Relation of a Schottky Barrier Diode 167
6. Applications of Diode 177
6.1 A Half-Wave Rectifier 177
6.2 Ripple Factor 183
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6.3 A Full-Wave Rectifier 184
6.4 A Bridge Rectifier 187
6.5 The Rectifier Voltmeter 190
6.6 The Harmonic Components in Rectifier Circuits 191
6.7 Inductor Filters 192
6.8 Capacitor Filters 196
6.9 Approximate Analysis of Capacitor Filters 199
6.10 L-Section Filter 203
6.11 Multiple L-Section Filter 207
6.12 II-Section Filter 208
6.13 II-Section Filter with a Resistor Replacing the Inductor 210
6.14 Summary of Filters 211
6.15 Voltage Regulation Using Zener Diode 211
6.16 Clipping Circuits 221
6.17 Clamper Circuits 230
6.18 The Envelope Detector Circuit 234
6.19 The Peak-To-Peak Detector Circuit 235
6.20 Voltage Multipliers 236
6.21 Variable Tuning Circuit Using a Varactor Diode 240
7. Transistor Characteristics 247
7.1 The Junction Transistor 247
7.2 Transistor Current Components 249
7.3 The Transistor as an Amplifier 251
7.4 Transistor Construction 251
7.5 Detailed Study of the Currents in a Transistor 253
7.6 The Transistor Alpha 255
7.7 The Common-Base Configuration 256
7.8 The Common-Emitter Configuration 258
7.9 The CE cutoff Region 260
7.10 The CE Saturation Region 262
7.11 Large-Signal, DC, and Small-Signal CE Values of Current Gain 264
7.12 The Common-Collector Configuration 265
7.13 Graphical Analysis of the CE Configuration 265
7.14 Analytical Expressions for Transistor Characteristics 268
7.15 Analysis of Cutoff and Saturation Regions 271
7.16 Typical Transistor-Junction Voltage Values 275
7.17 Transistor Switching Times 276
7.18 Maximum Voltage Rating 278
8. Transistor Biasing and Thermal Stabilization 284
8.1 The Operating Point 284
8.2 Bias Stability 287
8.3 Collector-to-Base Bias or Collector-Feedback Bias 289
8.4 Emitter-Feedback Bias 291
8.5 Collector-Emitter Feedback Bias 294
8.6 Self-Bias, Emitter Bias, or Voltage-Divide Bias 296
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8.7 Stabilization against Variations in VBE and b for
the Self-Bias Circuit 300
8.8 General Remarks on Collector-Current Stability 303
8.9 Bias Compensation 306
8.10 Biasing Circuits for Linear Integrated Circuits 307
8.11 Thermistor and Sensistor Compensation 309
8.12 Thermal Runaway 309
8.13 Thermal Stability 311
9. Small-Signal Low-Frequency Transistor Model 317
9.1 Two-Port Devices and the Electronic Devices and Circuits
(Millman) Hybrid Model 317
9.2 Transistor Hybrid Model 318
9.3 Determination of the h Parameters from the Characteristics 320
9.4 Measurement of h Parameters 323
9.5 Conversion Formulas for the Parameters of the
Three Transistor Configurations 326
9.6 Analysis of a Transistor Amplifier Circuit using h Parameters 328
9.7 Comparison of Transistor Amplifier Configurations 332
9.8 Linear Analysis of a Transistor Circuit 336
9.9 The Physical Model of a CB Transistor 336
10. Low-Frequency Transistor Amplifier Circuits 343
10.1 Cascading Transistor Amplifiers 343
10.2 nStage Cascaded Amplifier 346
10.3 The Decibel 350
10.4 Simplified Common-Emitter Hybrid Model 351
10.5 Simplified Calculations for the Common-Collector Configuration 354
10.6 Simplified Calculations for the Common-Base Configuration 356
10.7 The Common-Emitter Amplifier with an Emitter 357
10.8 The Emitter Follower 361
10.9 Miller`s Theorem 364
10.10 High-Input-Resistance Transistor Circuits 365
10.11 The Cascode Transistor Configuration 370
10.12 Difference Amplifiers 371
11. The High-Frequency Transistor 381
11.1 The High-Frequency 1 Model 381
11.2 The Common-Base Short-Circuit-Current Frequency Response 382
11.3 The Alpha Cutoff Frequency 383
11.4 The Common-Emitter Short-Circuit-Current Frequency Response 385
11.5 The Hybrid-pi (II) Common-Emitter Transistor Model 385
11.6 Hybrid-pi Conductances in Terms of Low-Frequency h Parameters 387
11.7 The CE Short-Circuit Current Gain Obtained with the Hybrid-pi Model 390
11.8 Current Gain with Resistive Load 393
11.9 Transistor Amplifier Response, Taking Source Resistance into Account 394
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12. Field-Effect Transistors 401
12.1 The Junction Field-Effect Transistor 401
12.2 The Pinch-Off Voltage VP 404
12.3 The JFET Volt-Ampere Characteristics 406
12.4 The FET Small-Signal Model 408
12.5 The Insulated-Gate FET (MOSFET) 411
12.6 The Common-Source Amplifier 414
12.7 The Common-Drain Amplifier, or Source Follower 417
12.8 A Generalized FET Amplifier 418
12.9 Biasing the FET 420
12.10 Unipolar-Bipolar Circuit Applications 425
12.11 The FET as a Voltage-Variable Resistor (VVR) 426
12.12 The Unijunction Transistor 428
13. Integrated Circuits 434
13.1 Basic Monolithic Integrated Circuits 434
13.2 Epitaxial Growth 437
13.3 Masking and Etching 438
13.4 Diffusion of Impurities 439
13.5 Transistors for Monolithic Circuits 443
13.6 Monolithic Diodes 447
13.7 Integrated Resistors 448
13.8 Integrated Capacitors and Inductors 450
13.9 Monolithic Circuit Layout 451
13.10 Integrated Field-Effect Transistors 455
13.11 Additional Isolation Methods 456
14. Untuned Amplifiers 462
14.1 Classification of Amplifiers 462
14.2 Distortion in Amplifiers 463
14.3 Frequency Response of an Amplifier 464
14.4 The RC-Coupled Amplifier 466
14.5 Low-Frequency Response of an RC-Coupled Stage 466
14.6 High-Frequency Response of a FET Stage 468
14.7 Cascaded CE Transistor Stages 469
14.8 Step Response of an Amplifier 473
14.9 Bandpass of Cascaded Stages 475
14.10 Effect of an Emitter (or a Source) Bypass Capacitor on
Low-Frequency Response 476
14.11 Noise 480
15. Feedback Amplifiers and Oscillators 487
15.1 Classification of Amplifiers 487
15.2 The Feedback Concept 490
15.3 General Characteristics of Negative-Feedback Amplifiers 494
15.4 Effect of Negative Feedback Upon Output and Input Resistances 496
15.5 Voltage-Series Feedback 498
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15.6 A Voltage-Series Feedback Pair 505
15.7 Current-Series Feedback 507
15.8 Current-Shunt Feedback 511
15.9 Voltage-Shunt Feedback 513
15.10 The Operational Amplifier 516
15.11 Basic Characteristics of Practical Operational Amplifiers 524
15.12 Basic Applications of Operational Amplifier 526
15.13 Electronic Analog Computation 536
15.14 Feedback and Stability 537
15.15 Gain and Phase Margins 539
15.16 Sinusoidal Oscillators 540
15.17 The Phase-Shift Oscillator 542
15.18 Resonant-Circuit Oscillators 545
15.19 A General Form of Oscillator Circuit 547
15.20 Crystal Oscillators 549
15.21 Frequency Stability 551
15.22 Negative Resistance in Oscillators 552
16. Large-Signal Amplifiers 563
16.1 Class A Large-Signal Amplifiers 563
16.2 Second-Harmonic Distortion 565
16.3 Higher-Order Harmonic Generation 567
16.4 The Transformer-Coupled Audio Power Amplifier 569
16.5 Shift of Dynamic Load Line 571
16.6 Efficiency 572
16.7 Push-Pull Amplifiers 574
16.8 Class B Amplifiers 575
16.9 Class AB Operation 578
17. Photoelectric Devices 583
17.1 Photoemissivity 583
17.2 Photoelectric Theory 585
17.3 Definitions of Some Radiation Terms 587
17.4 Phototubes 588
17.5 Applications of Photodevices 590
17.6 Multiplier Phototubes 592
17.7 Photoconductivity 594
17.8 The Semiconductor Photodiode 596
17.9 Multiple-Junction Photodiodes 598
17.10 The Photovoltaic Effect 599
17.11 The p-i-n Photodetector 601
17.12 The Avalanche Photodiode (APD) 607
18. Regulated Power Supplies 616
18.1 Elements of a Regulated Power Supply System 616
18.2 Stabilization 617
18.3 Emitter-follower Regulator 618
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18.4 Series Voltage Regulation 619
18.5 Practical Considerations 623
18.6 Monolithic Linear Regulators 624
18.7 Performance Parameters of 3-Terminal IC Regulators 628
18.8 LM723/LM723C General Purpose Voltage Regulator 629
18.9 Shunt Voltage Regulators 630
Appendix-A 635
Appendix-B 636
Appendix-C 637
Appendix-D 638
Index 649
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