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Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 This is a Controlled Document that complies with Wesfarmers Chemicals, Energy &

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

This is a Controlled Document that complies with Wesfarmers Chemicals, Energy & Fertilisers formatting and Quality Control standards. Please check that this is the latest available version before use.

Title:

ROADS AND PAVING

Number:

ES-14-202-19

Version Number:

7.0

Date Revised:

03 January 2013

Owner:

Ryan Woodall

Authoriser:

Manoj Thakur

Reasons for Creating or Amending Document

Full Review of Document

Actual Change Details:

Control Block updated; No changes to content

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SCOPE

  • 1. .......................................................................................................................................

5

PURPOSE

  • 2. ..................................................................................................................................

5

DEFINITIONS

  • 3. ..........................................................................................................................

5

  • 3.1 CONTRACTOR / VENDOR

5

  • 3.2 SUB-CONTRACTOR

5

  • 3.3 SUPERINTENDENT ............................................................................................................

5

  • 3.4 .................................................................................................................................

WORKS

5

  • 3.5 ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

5

  • 3.6 .....................................................................................................................

SALVIACIM™

5

  • 3.7 BASE / SUBBASE ................................................................................................................

5

  • 3.8 .........................................................................................................................

SUBGRADE

6

  • 3.9 ABSOLUTE LEVEL TOLERANCE

6

3.10

RELATIVE LEVEL TOLERANCE

6

  • 4. STANDARDS

7

  • 5. BASIS OF DESIGN

8

  • 5.1 ROAD AND PAVING MATERIAL SELECTION

8

  • 5.2 ROAD

BEND RADII ............................................................................................................

9

  • 5.3 LONGITUDINAL GRADING OF ROADS

9

  • 5.4 ROAD CROSS-SECTION

....................................................................................................

9

  • 5.5 PAVEMENT AREAS (EXCLUDING ROADS)

11

  • 5.6 SPEED HUMPS

11

Version No. 7.0

Page 1 of 31

Document last modified: 03 January 2013. Date printed: 17 January 2013.

Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 5.7 CARPARKS ........................................................................................................................ 11 5.8 LIGHTING 12 6. SAFETY ................................................................................................................................... 12 7.

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

  • 5.7 CARPARKS ........................................................................................................................

11

  • 5.8 LIGHTING

12

  • 6. SAFETY ...................................................................................................................................

12

  • 7. SITE PREPARATION

12

  • 8. SUBBASE AND BASE

12

  • 8.1 ......................................................................................................................

MATERIALS

12

  • 8.2 .....................................................................................................................

PLACEMENT

13

  • 8.3 COMPACTION ...................................................................................................................

14

  • 8.4 .............................................................................................................

SURFACE FINISH

14

  • 8.5 ...................................................................................................................

TOLERANCES

14

  • 9. ASPHALTIC CONCRETE ....................................................................................................

15

  • 9.1 GENERAL

15

  • 9.2 MATERIALS ......................................................................................................................

15

  • 9.3 AGGREGATE PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION

15

  • 9.4 ..................................................................................................................

PRIMER COAT

16

  • 9.5 ......................................................................................................................

TACK COAT

16

  • 9.6 DELIVERY OF ASPHALT

................................................................................................

16

  • 9.7 SPREADING ASPHALT SURFACE .................................................................................

16

  • 9.8 COMPACTING ASPHALT SURFACE

17

  • 9.9 JOINT AND JUNCTIONS ..................................................................................................

17

  • 9.10 .............................................................................................................

SURFACE FINISH

18

  • 9.11 ...................................................................................................................

TOLERANCES

18

SALVIACIM™

  • 10. .......................................................................................................................

19

  • 10.1 ..........................................................................................................................

GENERAL

19

  • 10.2 ASPHALT LAYER ............................................................................................................

20

  • 10.3 RESIN MODIFIED GROUT

21

  • 10.4 APPLICATION OF RESIN MODIFIED GROUT

22

  • 10.5 CURING OF RESIN MODIFIED GROUT

22

  • 11. GRAVEL PAVEMENT ..........................................................................................................

23

  • 11.1 .............................................................................................................

BASE MATERIAL

23

  • 11.2 ..............................................................................................................

CONSTRUCTION

23

FOOTPATHS

  • 12. ..........................................................................................................................

23

  • 12.1 ..........................................................................................................................

GENERAL

23

  • 12.2 CONCRETE FOOTPATHS

................................................................................................

24

  • 12.3 ASPHALTIC CONCRETE FOOTPATHS

.........................................................................

24

  • 12.4 PAVING BRICK FOOTPATHS .........................................................................................

24

  • 12.5 GRAVEL FOOTPATHS .....................................................................................................

24

  • 13. INSPECTION ..........................................................................................................................

25

  • 14. TESTING

26

  • 14.1 GENERAL

..........................................................................................................................

26

  • 14.2 FREQUENCY OF TESTING

.............................................................................................

26

  • 14.3 REJECT WORK ..................................................................................................................

26

  • 15. STORM WATER AND SUB-SOIL DRAINS .......................................................................

26

  • 16. KERBING ................................................................................................................................

27

Version No. 7.0

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Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 16.1 .......................................................................................................................... GENERAL 27 16.2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 27 SPEED HUMPS 17.

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

  • 16.1 ..........................................................................................................................

GENERAL

27

  • 16.2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

27

SPEED HUMPS

  • 17. ......................................................................................................................

28

  • 18. ROAD MARKING ..................................................................................................................

29

  • 19. ACCESS TO SERVICES

29

  • 20. ROAD SIGNS

30

  • 21. GUARD RAILS AND BOLLARDS

30

  • 22. REINSTATEMENT ................................................................................................................

30

  • 23. REPAIRS TO EXISTING BITUMEN

30

  • 24. RECORDS MANAGEMENT

31

  • 24.1 AS-BUILT DRAWINGS

....................................................................................................

31

  • 24.2 DENSITY AND COMPACTION TEST RESULTS

31

TABLES

Table

1

-

Road and

Pavement Classifications

8

Table 2 - Minimum Internal Bend Road Radius

9

Table 3 - Limestone Material Grading Requirements

13

Table 4 - Crushed Rock Material Grading Requirements

13

Table

5

-

Surface Tolerances ............................................................................................................

14

Table 6 - Asphaltic Concrete Material Grading Requirements

15

Table 7 - Asphaltic Concrete Surface Tolerances

18

Table 8 - Salviacim™ -Asphalt Aggregate Grading and Binder Content

20

Table 9 - Curing Periods Salviacim™ Asphalt Wearing Surface

22

Table 10 - Superintendent Approved Inspection Activities

25

Table 11 - Compaction Testing Frequency

26

FIGURES

 

Figure 1 - Typical Sealed Road Cross-Section with Shoulders

10

Figure 2 - Typical Sealed Road Cross-Section with Kerbs

11

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Figure 3 - Typical Join to an Existing Pavement Figure 4 - Typical Section through Salviacim™

Figure 3 - Typical Join to an Existing Pavement

Figure 4 - Typical Section through Salviacim™ Layer

Figure 5 - Typical Pavement Section Using a Salviacim™ Surface

Figure 6 - Typical Kerbing Arrangement

Figure 7 Speed Hump Profile

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

17

19

19

28

29

Version No. 7.0

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1. SCOPE Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 This Standard covers the general requirements for the design and
  • 1. SCOPE

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

This Standard covers the general requirements for the design and construction of sealed and unsealed roads and pavement areas. It includes ground preparation, paving materials, placement, compaction and testing requirements, concrete kerbing, signage and repairs to bitumen pavement.

  • 2. PURPOSE

To ensure that safe and reliable access to all locations of the site is provided to all vehicular and pedestrian traffic required at those locations during the lifetime of the plant, and that designated areas are suitably paved in accordance with their function.

  • 3. DEFINITIONS

3.1

CONTRACTOR / VENDOR

 

The company that provides the equipment and services needed.

 

3.2

SUB-CONTRACTOR

 

A

third party

to be employed by the Contractor

/ Vendor,

who has been approved by

the

Superintendent.

3.3

SUPERINTENDENT

 

Wesfarmers CSBP Limited, or authorised representative.

 

3.4

WORKS

The scope of works that a Contractor is or may be required to execute under an agreement including variations and remedial work.

3.5

ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

 

A dense, continuously graded mixture of coarse and fine aggregates, mineral filler and bitumen produced hot in a mixing plant. It is delivered, spread and compacted while hot to form a sealed wearing trafficable surface.

3.6

SALVIACIM™

 

A Semi Rigid paving material that combines the flexible characteristics of asphalt with the hard wearing properties of cement concrete. It comprises a layer of open graded asphalt whose voids are filled with a resin modified cementitious grout.

3.7

BASE / SUBBASE

 

One or more layers of material used where the settlement behaviour and / or the bearing capacity of the subgrade is insufficient to support the paving and traffic without excessive deformation or

Version No. 7.0

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Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 maintenance during the lifetime of the plant. Specific definition of Base and

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

maintenance during the lifetime of the plant. Specific definition of Base and Subbase are as follows.

  • 3.7.1 Base

A limestone layer that is placed directly onto the subgrade, compacted and trimmed to a specified shape and thickness, to provide a working surface on which a trafficable surface can be placed.

OR - IF THE DESIGN REQUIRES A SUBBASE

A crushed diorite or granite rock layer that is placed directly on the road subbase, compacted and trimmed to a specified shape and thickness on which a trafficable surface can be placed.

  • 3.7.2 Subbase

If required by design, a limestone layer that is placed directly onto the subgrade, compacted and trimmed to a specified shape and thickness, to provide a working surface on which the base and trafficable surface can be constructed. It is used:

to increase the pavement thickness over the sub-grade to prevent intrusion of the subgrade into the base to provide a working surface on which the remainder of the pavement can be constructed.

  • 3.8 SUBGRADE

The trimmed or prepared portion of the formation onto which the road or pavement area is constructed.

  • 3.9 ABSOLUTE LEVEL TOLERANCE

Maximum deviation from design levels.

  • 3.10 RELATIVE LEVEL TOLERANCE

Maximum deviation from a three- (3) metre straightedge laid anywhere on the surface.

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4. STANDARDS
4.
STANDARDS

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

The Contractor shall perform the Works in accordance with this Standard, the latest issue of reference standards and Contractor regulations for on-site work. Should there be a conflict between the Works, Statutory Requirements, the Contractor shall notify the Superintendent in writing for resolution. In general, the most stringent requirements will prevail.

CSBP Engineering Standards

ES-14-101-02

Drawing Management

ES-14-101-03

Drawing Preparation

ES-14-101-04

Drawing Numbering

ES-14-102-08

Safety and Information Signs

ES-14-202-01

Earthworks and Site Preparation

ES-14-202-10

Concrete

ES-14-202-22

Road Marking

ES-14-701-01

Electrical/Instrument Preferred Equipment

CSBP Guide Manuals

GM-10-090-02

Contractor’s Site Instructions

GM-11-031-01

Personal Protective Equipment

GM-11-035-02

Basic Safety Rules

CSBP Standard Drawings

9900-2-0600

Fencing Details

9900-2-1300/001

Bollards

Australian Standards

AS 1141

Methods for Sampling and Testing Aggregates

 

AS 1158

Road Lighting

AS 1160

Bituminous

Emulsions

for

the

Construction

and

Maintenance

of

AS 1289

Pavements Methods of Testing Soils for Engineering Purposes

AS 1348

Road and Traffic Engineering - Glossary of Terms

AS 1742

Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

AS 1743

Road Signs - Specifications

AS 2008

Residual Bitumen for Pavements

AS 2150

Hot Mix Asphalt

AS 2357

Mineral Filler for Asphalt

AS 2734

Asphalt (hot-mixed) Paving - Guide to Good Practice

AS 2758.5

Aggregates and Rock for Engineering Purposes – Asphalt Aggregates

AS 2876

Concrete Kerbs and Channels (Gutters)

AS 2890.1

Off-street Car Parking

AS 2891

Methods for Sampling and Testing Asphalt

AS 3996

Metal Access Covers, Road Grates and Frames

Version No. 7.0

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5. BASIS OF DESIGN Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 5.1 ROAD AND PAVING MATERIAL SELECTION Selection of
  • 5. BASIS OF DESIGN

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

  • 5.1 ROAD AND PAVING MATERIAL SELECTION

Selection of road and paving materials shall be based on technical, environmental and economical considerations for each application. Traffic types, volumes, speeds and masses, texture and skid resistance requirements shall be considered when determining type of surface to be used.

Table 1 provides approved road and paving material options for use in different situations. Alternate materials shall not be used without the written approval of the Superintendent.

   

MINIMUM

PAVEMENT

 

CLASS

 

DESCRIPTION

WIDTH OF

SURFACE

 

PAVING MATERIAL

 

PAVEMENT

FINISH

 
 

Extra Heavy Duty Applications

   

40

mm minimum compacted thickness of

intersections, curves and turning

Salviacim™ or equivalent over

1

circles subject to extreme abrasive

 

As required

Sealed

asphaltic concrete as per Class 2

wear

base or base/subbase as per Class 2

 

joint-free surface resistant to oil, fuel and chemical attack

   

Refer to Sections 8 , 9 and 10 for details

 

Heavy Duty Roads

Two way road

 

40

mm minimum compacted thickness of

main access roads to buildings,

7500 mm

asphaltic concrete Grade AC14 over

loading facilities and plant areas

One way road

225 mm minimum compacted depth

 

4000 mm

limestone base

2

Heavy Duty Pavement Areas

 

Sealed

OR

permanent laydown areas

IF DESIGN REQUIRES A SUBBASE

   

As required

100 mm minimum compacted depth crushed rock base and 200 mm min compacted depth limestone subbase Refer to Sections 8 & 9 for details

 

Light Duty Roads

Two way road

 

30

mm min compacted thickness of asphaltic

minor access roads

7500 mm

concrete Grade AC10 over

 

One way road

225 mm minimum compacted depth of

3

4000 mm

Sealed

limestone base

Light Duty Pavement Areas

   
 

driveways and permanent carparks

 

As required

Refer to Sections 8 & 9 for details

permanent laydown areas

 
 

Light Duty Roads

Two way road

 

225mm minimum compacted depth of limestone

minor access roads

7500 mm

OR

4

temporary construction roads

One way road

Unsealed

150mm minimum compacted depth of gravel

 

4000 mm

 

Light Duty Pavement Areas

   

Refer to Sections 8 & 11 for details

temporary laydown areas & carparks

 

As required

 

Patrol Roads &Maintenance Tracks

     

5

around perimeter fencing

 

3000

mm

Unsealed

Cleared natural ground

access along pipelines and other service routes

 
 

Footpaths

   

100 mm thick concrete on compacted sand. Refer

to Section 12.2

Refer to Section 12 for details

Sealed

25-mm min compacted thickness of asphaltic concrete Grade AC5 over compacted limestone.

6

 

1200

mm

 

Ref. 12.3

   

Paving bricks on compacted sand.

Unsealed

Refer to Section 12.4.

Compacted gravel. Refer to Section 12.5

Table 1 - Road and Pavement Classifications

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5.2 ROAD BEND RADII Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 The minimum inside turning radius of roads shall
  • 5.2 ROAD BEND RADII

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

The minimum inside turning radius of roads shall be as specified in Table 2.

TURNING SPEED

MINIMUM INSIDE RADIUS

 

0 - 5 k/hr

  • 12.5 m

 

5 – 15 k/hr

  • 15.0 m

15

– 20 k/hr

  • 20.0 m

20

– 30 k/hr

  • 30.0 m

The above minimum inside radii, are for guidance only. Bend radii shall be designed based on the anticipated type, length and maximum allowable turning speed of vehicles using the road. The greater value shall be used. For example:

Minimum, safe turning inside radius for ‘B’ train vehicles is 30m - applicable for all speeds.

Table 2 - Minimum Internal Bend Road Radius

  • 5.3 LONGITUDINAL GRADING OF ROADS

Roads shall be designed to produce acceptable drainage gradients, based on the road setout and minimum earthworks to the natural ground condition. An engineering surveyor shall establish natural ground levels to verify road design gradients.

Drainage grading shall be within the following range:

Minimum 1in 200 Maximum 1in 10

Note:

The maximum rate in change of gradient shall be 1% in three (3) metres.

  • 5.4 ROAD CROSS-SECTION

Crest fall both sides of the road centreline shall be 1 in 40.

Unless specified otherwise, road shoulders, where required, shall be 1500mm wide and the formation shall fall from the shoulders at a rate of 1 in 3. Where necessary, drainage sumps shall be provided to prevent water lying within six (6) metres of the road shoulder.

For typical sealed road cross-section details refer to Figures 1 and 2.

Version No. 7.0

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Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Figure 1 - Typical Sealed Road Cross-Section with Shoulders Version No. 7.0

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Figure 1 - Typical Sealed Road Cross-Section with Shoulders Version No. 7.0

Figure 1 - Typical Sealed Road Cross-Section with Shoulders

Version No. 7.0

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Document last modified: 03 January 2013. Date printed: 17 January 2013.

Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Figure 2 - Typical Sealed Road Cross-Section with Kerbs 5.5 PAVEMENT AREAS
Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19
Roads and Paving
ES-14-202-19

Figure 2 - Typical Sealed Road Cross-Section with Kerbs

  • 5.5 PAVEMENT AREAS (EXCLUDING ROADS)

Paved areas shall be designed to produce acceptable drainage gradients, based on access road setout and minimum earthworks to the natural ground condition. An engineering surveyor shall establish natural ground levels to verify pavement design gradients.

  • 5.6 SPEED HUMPS

Speed humps shall be installed at locations as a warning of an approaching hazard and at location where the driver shall slow down. For further details on design and construction of speed humps refer to Section 17.

  • 5.7 CARPARKS

Design and layout of parking facilities including access driveway, parking spaces and aisles shall be in accordance with AS 2890.1.

CSBP standard parking layout is 90-degree parking, 6m wide two-way aisles and minimum 2.9m wide and minimum 5.0m long parking bays.

Version No. 7.0

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5.8 LIGHTING Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Design and layout of lighting for roads and carparks, shall
  • 5.8 LIGHTING

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Design and layout of lighting for roads and carparks, shall be in accordance with AS 1158.Light fittings shall be in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standards Electrical/Instrument Preferred Equipment (ES-14-701-01).

  • 6. SAFETY

All equipment used by the Contractor shall be properly maintained and operated in strict accordance with any safety regulations applicable to that equipment by competent operators.

Safety precautions specified in AS 2734 Clause 7.11 shall be adhered too.

All Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used on site shall be an approved and acceptable quality complying with CSBP Guide Manual Personal Protective Equipment (GM-11-031-01) and Basic Safety Rules (GM-11-035-02).

  • 7. SITE PREPARATION

The extent of site clearing shall be the minimum required to complete the Works. Trees on the edge of the road reserve or areas to be paved shall only be removed with the approval of the Superintendent.

Site clearing, excavation, filling, compaction, testing and finishing of subgrade in preparation for the placement of road and pavement materials shall be in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standard Earthworks and Site Preparation (ES-14-202-01).

  • 8. SUBBASE AND BASE

    • 8.1 MATERIALS

8.1.1 General

Source materials shall be hard, dense durable particles of uniform quality, free from deleterious materials including clay and organic matter, and containing not more than 1% of disintegrated, weathered, discoloured, soft, fractured, friable or poorly indurated fragments.

The Contractor shall provide samples of the proposed base and subbase materials to the Superintendent for approval. Approved samples shall be safely stored on site. All subsequent material deliveries shall be of a quality appreciably the same as the relevant reference samples.

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8.1.2 Limestone Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Limestone aggregate shall contain a minimum of 60% calcium carbonate
  • 8.1.2 Limestone

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Limestone aggregate shall contain a minimum of 60% calcium carbonate by weight with particle size distribution within the limits specified in Table 3.

SIEVE APERTURE SIZE

PERCENTAGE (%) PASSING (BY MASS)

 

80

mm

 

100

 

19

mm

50

– 70

 

2.36

mm

30

- 50

 

Table 3 - Limestone Material Grading Requirements

 
  • 8.1.3 Crushed Rock

 

Where design requires base and subbase layers, crushed diorite or granite rock shall be used as the base material over a limestone subbase layer. Particle size distribution of crushed rock shall be within the limits specified in Table 4.

SIEVE APERTURE SIZE

PERCENTAGE (%) PASSING (BY MASS)

 

26.5

mm

 

100

 

19.00 mm

 

95 – 100

 

4.75 mm

45

– 65

 

2.36

mm

30

– 50

 

425 µm

12

– 30

 

75

µm

 

3 - 12

Note:

The ratio of the portion passing the 75 µm sieve to the portion passing the 425 µm sieve shall fall between the range of 0.4 to 0.6.

Table 4 - Crushed Rock Material Grading Requirements

8.2

PLACEMENT

Material shall be spread without segregation in uniform layers by the use of a mechanical spreader. Care shall be taken to avoid disturbing the surface beneath. After placing, the layers shall be graded and rolled to the widths, alignments, levels and gradients specified on the drawings, with degree of compaction as per Section 8.3.1, surface level finish as per Section 8.4 and tolerance as per Table

5.

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8.3 COMPACTION 8.3.1 General Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 In accordance with compaction tests defined in AS
  • 8.3 COMPACTION

    • 8.3.1 General

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

In accordance with compaction tests defined in AS 1289.5.2.1, each layer of material shall be uniformly compacted to achieve full depth, modified maximum dry density as follows:

95% - Limestone Subbase or Base Course 97% - Crushed Rock Base Course

  • 8.3.2 Moisture Control

Subject to the approval of the Superintendent, the moisture content of materials to be laid may be modified by either adding water or by allowing the materials to dry out before use. Immediately before use, the materials shall be of uniform moisture content sufficient to ensure the required degree of compaction will be achieved.

To assist in the compaction process compacted layers shall be moistened before adding the next layer. Similarly the leading edges of the existing material shall be kept moist until new material is added adjacent to it.

  • 8.4 SURFACE FINISH

After final compaction of the base layer, the surface shall be trimmed if necessary to give a hard, tight, dense even surface, free from loose stones or a slurry of fines.

  • 8.5 TOLERANCES

Subbase and base layers shall comply with tolerances specified in Table 5.

 

LEVEL TOLERANCE

THICKNESS

LAYER

ABSOLUTE

RELATIVE

TOLERANCE

Subbase surface

+5 mm

mm

  • 10 + 20 mm

-20 mm

-

0 mm

Base surface

+5 mm

mm

  • 10 + 20 mm

-10 mm

-

0 mm

Note:

Tolerances apply to level and thickness of each layer, unless overridden by the requirement and tolerances for the surface course.

Table 5 - Surface Tolerances

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9. ASPHALTIC CONCRETE Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 9.1 GENERAL The manufacture and supply of hot mix
  • 9. ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

9.1

GENERAL

The manufacture and supply of hot mix asphalt shall comply with AS 2150.

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to prevent bitumen or other materials used in the sealing work from entering or adhering to other works. Immediately after aggregate has been spread over the binder, the Contractor shall clean off any excess material and leave gratings, manholes, kerbing or other adjoining surfaces in a clean condition. Any damage shall be repaired to the satisfaction of the Superintendent.

9.2

MATERIALS

Asphaltic materials shall consist of the followings:

Aggregate

Crushed diorite originate to AS 2758.5

Mineral Filler

To AS 2357. Material passing the 75 µm sieve shall be non-plastic

Bitumen

To AS 2008 Class 170 for grade AC5

Bitumen Emulsion

To AS 2008 Class 320 for grades AC10 and AC14 Rapid setting to AS1160 and designated ARS/170/320 or CRS/170/320 dependant on alkalinity / acidity of base material and bitumen class.

9.3

AGGREGATE PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION

The quantity of mineral filler shall not be less than 2% by mass of the combined aggregates. The total aggregate particle size distribution (combined aggregate and mineral filler) shall comply with Table 6.

   

PERCENTAGE (%) PASSING (BY MASS)

 

SIEVE APERTURE SIZE

Grade AC5

Grade AC10

Grade AC14

19.0

mm

     

100

13.2

mm

   

100

85 - 100

9.50

mm

 

90 - 100

70

- 85

6.70

mm

 

100

70

- 90

62

- 75

4.75

mm

85 - 100

58

- 76

53

- 70

2.36

mm

55

- 75

40

- 58

35

- 52

1.18

mm

38

- 57

27

- 44

24

- 40

600

µm

26

- 43

17

- 35

15

- 30

300

µm

15

- 28

11

- 24

10

- 24

150

µm

8

- 18

 

7 - 16

 

7 - 16

75 µm

4

- 11

 

4 - 7

 

4 - 7

Table 6 - Asphaltic Concrete Material Grading Requirements

Version No. 7.0

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9.4 PRIMER COAT Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 The surface of the base course shall be swept
  • 9.4 PRIMER COAT

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

The surface of the base course shall be swept clean of loose stones, dust, dirt and foreign matter, without dislodging the base course stones, and lightly watered if necessary. Sweeping shall be carried out immediately prior to applying the primer coat and shall extend half (½) of a metre clear of the area to be prime coated.

Bituminous emulsion shall be sprayed over the base coarse at the rate of 1.0 L/m².

  • 9.5 TACK COAT

Loose or foreign material shall be cleaned off the primed surface with suitable power blowers or power brooms.

The tack coat shall consist of three- (3) parts bituminous emulsion to two parts of water and shall not be applied until the base course has dried out.

Note:

When diluting the bituminous emulsion, add water to the emulsion NOT emulsion to the water.

Tack coat shall be applied within 30 – 120 minutes before the asphalt surface is applied. The surface is to be uniformly covered at an application rate of 0.3 L/m² residual bitumen.

  • 9.6 DELIVERY OF ASPHALT

Asphalt shall be delivered in accordance with AS 2150, Clause 8.

Note:

Loads that are outside the allowable temperature range specified in AS 2734 or become wet shall be rejected.

  • 9.7 SPREADING ASPHALT SURFACE

Asphalt surfacing shall only be placed on a dry pavement surface whose temperature is 10 °C or higher.

The mix shall be spread in layers covering the full width of the carriageway, or if approved by the Superintendent in three- (3) metre minimum width lanes, and to the depth required by the specified compaction thickness.

A mechanical spreader, which will keep the mix in the spreader hopper at least 120°C shall be used except at locations where machine spreading is impracticable, in which case hand spreading shall be used.

Note:

Care shall be taken to avoid segregation when hand spreading is used.

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9.8 COMPACTING ASPHALT SURFACE Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 The asphalt shall be uniformly and thoroughly rolled
  • 9.8 COMPACTING ASPHALT SURFACE

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

The asphalt shall be uniformly and thoroughly rolled as soon as it will support the roller and while the temperature is above 80°C. Longitudinal rolling will commence on the lower side.

Initial rolling shall use a self-propelled vibrating smooth steel-wheeled five tonne roller, making at least five (5) passes.

Secondary rolling shall be carried out as soon as possible after initial rolling with a self-propelled pneumatic tyre roller.

Final rolling shall use a steel-wheeled non-vibrating roller to eliminate all roller marks.

In inaccessible areas small vibrating rollers or hand-operated mechanical compactors shall be used.

Note:

Rollers shall not remain stationary on recently compacted work.

  • 9.9 JOINT AND JUNCTIONS

The number of longitudinal and transverse joints shall be minimised, well bonded and sealed.

Joints between successive days work and when joining new work to existing roadways shall be carefully made in such a manner as to ensure a thorough and continuous bond between the old and new surfaces is provided and a smooth riding surface across the junction or joint is achieved.

The existing paving shall be machine / saw cut to remove any edge breaks, irregularities or edge roll and a tack coat applied to the entire length of the cut edges to ensure effective bonding. Refer to Figure 3 for a typical joint to an existing roadway.

Transverse joints shall be at right angles to the direction of spreading and cut to a straight vertical face for the full depth of the layer.

Note:

Longitudinal joints in successive layers shall be offset a minimum of 150mm.

Transverse joints in successive layers and between adjacent runs shall be staggered a minimum of one (1) metre.

9.8 COMPACTING ASPHALT SURFACE Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 The asphalt shall be uniformly and thoroughly rolled

Figure 3 - Typical Join to an Existing Pavement

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9.10 SURFACE FINISH Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Final rolling of the asphaltic concrete course shall produce
  • 9.10 SURFACE FINISH

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Final rolling of the asphaltic concrete course shall produce a surface finish that is uniform in appearance, free draining and evenly graded between level points and has no depressions in which water can lie.

  • 9.11 TOLERANCES

Surface tolerances shall comply with Table 7.

 

LEVEL TOLERANCE

THICKNESS

SURFACE DIRECTION

ABSOLUTE

RELATIVE

TOLERANCE

Longitudinal

± 10 mm

5 mm

+ 10mm

Transverse

± 10 mm

10 mm

- 0 mm

Table 7 - Asphaltic Concrete Surface Tolerances

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10. SALVIACIM™ 10.1 GENERAL Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Salviacim™ or equivalent shall be used on CSBP

10.

SALVIACIM™

10.1

GENERAL

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Salviacim™ or equivalent shall be used on CSBP Class 1 designated pavement surfaces where:

A joint-free surface that is resistant to oil, fuel and chemical attack is required. Sharply turning heavy vehicles are likely to be encountered.

Surface is subject to excessive abrasion, static, moving and impact loads caused by heavy industrial traffic, cargo handling equipment and some tracked vehicles.

Salviacim™ is a two-stage surfacing process that involves the manufacture and laying of open graded asphalt mix, on top of normal pavement, and filling the voids with a resin modified cementitious cement as indicated in Figure 4.

Refer to Figure 5 for typical pavement section using a Salviacim* surface.

10. SALVIACIM™ 10.1 GENERAL Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Salviacim™ or equivalent shall be used on CSBP

Figure 4 - Typical Section through Salviacim™ Layer

10. SALVIACIM™ 10.1 GENERAL Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Salviacim™ or equivalent shall be used on CSBP

Figure 5 - Typical Pavement Section Using a Salviacim™ Surface

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10.2 ASPHALT LAYER Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 10.2.1 Materials Asphalt materials shall consist of the followings:
  • 10.2 ASPHALT LAYER

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

10.2.1

Materials

 

Asphalt materials shall consist of the followings:

 

Aggregate

Crushed diorite originate to AS 2758.5

 

Mineral Filler

To AS 2357

Bitumen Binder

To AS 2008 Class 320

Bitumen Emulsion

 

Rapid setting to AS1160.

The target grading of the combined aggregates and filler and the binder content shall conform to Table 8.

 

SIEVE APERTURE SIZE

PERCENTAGE (%) PASSING (BY MASS)

 

19.0

mm

 

100

 

13.2

mm

 

85 - 100

 

9.50

mm

50

- 75

 

4.75

mm

10

- 30

 

2.36

mm

 

5 - 20

 

75 µm

   

0 – 6

 

Binder Content (% of mix)

 

3.5 to 6.0

 

Table 8 - Salviacim™ -Asphalt Aggregate Grading and Binder Content

10.2.2

Tack Coat

 

Tack coat shall be in accordance with Section 9.5

 

10.2.3

Delivery of Asphalt Mix

Delivery of asphalt shall be in accordance with Section 9.6.

 

10.2.4

Placement of Asphalt Mix

 

Spreading of asphalt shall be in accordance with Section 9.7.

Note:

Paving machine shall be operated without vibrators.

The Salviacim™ layer shall not be used to regulate levels or surface shape.

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10.2.5 Compacting Asphalt Surface The mix shall be compacted immediately after paving. Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19
  • 10.2.5 Compacting Asphalt Surface

The mix shall be compacted immediately after paving.

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Rolling shall be carried out using two static passes of the roller. Over-rolling which would close up the texture shall be avoided

Vibration shall not be used, except where necessary on the longitudinal joint and the start or end of a run in cool conditions.

Rollers shall not remain stationary on recently compacted work.

  • 10.2.6 Joints and Junctions

Joints and junctions shall be in accordance with Section 9.9.

  • 10.2.7 Surface Finish

Surface finish shall be in accordance with Section 9.10.

  • 10.2.8 Tolerances

Tolerances shall be in accordance with Section 9.11.

  • 10.3 RESIN MODIFIED GROUT

    • 10.3.1 Materials

Mineral aggregates, cement and resin modifier shall be in accordance with the Supplier’s specification.

  • 10.3.2 Mixing

The resin-modified grout materials shall be mixed at a suitable concrete batch plant or on site in accordance with the manufacturers’ specifications and procedures.

  • 10.3.3 Grout Fluidity

Prior to application, the grout shall be subject to a fluidity test using a standard flow cone. Flow rate through the cone shall be between 9 and 12 seconds. If the flow rate is outside this range the grout shall be mixed further with manufacturer specified additives, if required, to improve the flow rate.

Note:

If segregation is present the grout shall be further mixed.

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Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 10.4 APPLICATION OF RESIN MODIFIED GROUT After placement, the asphalt shall be

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

  • 10.4 APPLICATION OF RESIN MODIFIED GROUT

After placement, the asphalt shall be allowed to cool to below 50°C before the resin-modified grout is applied. Normally the grout is applied the following day, or after a sufficiently large amount of surface is ready for grouting. The grout may be applied on the same day provided the temperature requirements are complied with.

Note:

After the open graded asphalt layer has been placed no traffic shall be allowed over this material, except for vehicles and equipment necessary for the grout intrusion.

Should the asphalt become contaminated, the contamination shall be removed prior to the grout application.

If water logging of the asphalt occurs work shall not proceed until the water has been dissipated from the air voids.

The grout shall be spread evenly onto the asphalt in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications. The grout shall be vibrated using a smooth drum vibrating rollers and/or vibrating plates until no further grout is accepted into the open graded asphalt layer.

All excess resin modified grout shall be removed from the surface. Finishing shall be carried out with a soft broomed finished texture.

  • 10.5 CURING OF RESIN MODIFIED GROUT

A curing coat shall be applied in accordance with manufacturer’s specification after the initial set of the grout to avoid surface cracks.

Note:

In hot weather the surface should be watered.

To fully gain its unique properties, trafficking of the surface shall not occur until the minimum curing periods specified in Table 9 have elapsed.

TRAFFIC

CURING TIMES

Pedestrians

 

12

hours

Cars

 

24

hours

Small – Medium Trucks

 

7 to 14 days

Heavy Vehicles

 

14 days

Standing Loads

21

to 28 days

Oil and Chemical Spills

21

to 28 days

Table 9 - Curing Periods Salviacim™ Asphalt Wearing Surface

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11. GRAVEL PAVEMENT 11.1 BASE MATERIAL Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Base course material shall be a
  • 11. GRAVEL PAVEMENT

    • 11.1 BASE MATERIAL

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Base course material shall be a lateritic gravel comprising of a combination of soil binder, sand and gravel which is free of vegetable matter, lumps or balls of clay and shall not contain large quantities of pyrites or other deleterious substances.

The Contractor shall provide samples of the proposed base material to the Superintendent for approval. Approved samples shall be safely stored on site. All subsequent material deliveries shall be of a quality appreciably the same as the relevant reference sample.

Particle size distribution shall conform to the limits specified in Table 4 for road base materials.

Note:

Coarse aggregate retained on the 2.36 mm sieve shall consist of hard durable particles. Materials that break up when alternatively wetted and dried shall not be used.

Fine aggregate passing the 2.36 mm sieve shall consist of natural or crushed sand and fine mineral particles that would pass the 600µm sieve.

The ratio of the portion passing the 75µm sieve to the portion passing the 425µm sieve shall fall between the range of 0.4 to 0.6.

  • 11.2 CONSTRUCTION

Construction details of gravel pavement shall be similar to subbase and base materials. For details refer to the following:

Gravel Placement

Section 8.2

Gravel Compaction

Section 8.3

Gravel Surface Finish

Section 8.4

Gravel Surface Tolerance

Section 8.5

  • 12. FOOTPATHS

    • 12.1 GENERAL

Footpaths shall be constructed from concrete, asphaltic concrete, paving bricks or gravel as specified in the Works, to the widths, depths and in the locations shown on the drawings or as directed by the Superintendent.

All footpaths shall be constructed with a uniform cross fall of 2% towards the kerb. The width of the footpath shall be 1200 mm unless specified otherwise.

Where the path is constructed in the road reserve, the longitudinal profile of the path shall be the same as the longitudinal profile of the adjacent kerbing. Elsewhere, the path longitudinal profile will maintain a uniform grading and generally conform to the surrounding finished ground or as indicated on the drawings.

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Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Note:

Footpaths shall not be constructed until after all drainage, major verge clearing and kerbing has been finished.

  • 12.2 CONCRETE FOOTPATHS

Unless specified otherwise by the Superintendent, concrete footpaths shall be 100mm thick, grade N32 concrete with a 60mm slump laid on compacted, graded clean sand. Placement and curing requirements shall comply with CSBP Engineering Standard Concrete (ES-14-202-10).

Unless specified otherwise by the Superintendent, contraction joints shall be constructed at 2m maximum centres, at the sides of entry points and at tangent points of curves, and shall be at right angles to the face of the kerbing or other concrete section. Contracted joints shall be a weakened plane joint finished using a jointing tool and smooth trowel-finish for 80mm either side of the joint.

Expansion joints, in the form of a 12mm full depth gap between adjacent sections of concrete shall be constructed at 6m intervals. An approved 12mm thick bitumen impregnated filler board shall be inserted in the joint to full depth of concrete and to finish flush with the surface of the path. Expansion joints shall be marked out with an edging tool to match the appearance of the contraction joints.

The surface of the path shall be broomed finish other than joint and longitudinal edges as described above.

  • 12.3 ASPHALTIC CONCRETE FOOTPATHS

Unless specified otherwise, footpaths shall be 25mm thick Grade AC5 asphaltic concrete, laid on a minimum compacted limestone base course thickness of 150mm. The base course shall extend 200 mm beyond the edge of the seal if kerbing is not used. Edges of asphaltic concrete shall be protected by flush kerb or timber formwork as directed by the Superintendent.

Asphaltic concrete footpaths shall be constructed in a similar manner as for asphaltic concrete roads and pavements. Refer to Section 9 for details.

  • 12.4 PAVING BRICK FOOTPATHS

Competent personnel experienced in laying the selected materials shall carry out the work. Paving bricks shall be laid on compacted, graded clean sand and uniformly compacted in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

Bricks shall be laid evenly, with height difference between adjacent bricks being no greater than 1mm. Header courses shall be concrete bonded to ensure bricks do not move.

Any paving bricks damaged during placement or compaction shall be removed and replaced by new ones.

  • 12.5 GRAVEL FOOTPATHS

Gravel footpaths shall be constructed from materials and in a similar manner as for gravel pavements. Refer to Section 11 for details.

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13. INSPECTION Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 Activities specified in Table 10 shall not commence until the

13.

INSPECTION

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Activities specified in Table 10 shall not commence until the Superintendent has approved the corresponding item.

ACTIVITY

ITEM TO BE APPROVED

REFERENCE

Testing base layer and if applicable, the subbase layer

Timing and location of tests

Section 14

Prior to laying the subbase course, if

Setting out, alignment, levels and gradients of roads and paved areas

CSBP Engineering Standard Earthworks and Site Preparation (ES-14-202-01)

specified in design drawings and

Subgrade Compaction Test Certificates

documentation

Subbase reference sample

Section 8.1.1 and 11.1

 

Subbase Compaction Test Certificates

Section 8.3.1 and 14

Prior to laying the base course

Alignment, levels and gradients of Subbase

Section 8.2

Base reference sample

Section 8.1.1 and 11.1

or IF THERE IS NO SUBBASE COURSE

Setting out, alignment, levels and gradients of roads and paved areas

CSBP Engineering Standard Earthworks and Site Preparation (ES-14-202-01)

Subgrade Compaction Test Certificates

Base reference sample

Section 8.1.1 and 11.1

Prior to priming

Base Compaction Test Certificate

Section 8.3.1 and 14

and sealing of base course, where specified

Alignment, gradients and levels of base course

Section 8.2

Completing the

Alignment, gradients, finish and levels of

Asphalt surface: Sections 9.9, 9.10, 9.11

Works

wearing surface

Gravel surface: Sections 8.4, 8.5

Table 10 - Superintendent Approved Inspection Activities

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14. TESTING 14.1 GENERAL Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 All sampling and in-situ density testing and other
  • 14. TESTING

    • 14.1 GENERAL

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

All sampling and in-situ density testing and other soil tests as specified shall be carried out by a suitably qualified and NATA approved testing agency.

Tests of paving materials shall conform to this Standard and shall be in accordance with Australian Standards 1141 and 1289.

Density tests shall be carried out not later than 24 hours after compaction has been completed for each layer. Where specified, results shall be verbally submitted to the Superintendent prior to the placement of the next layer. The NATA approved testing agency shall within seven (7) days of testing, confirm test results in writing to the Superintendent and the Contractor.

  • 14.2 FREQUENCY OF TESTING

Frequency of testing for every layer shall be as shown in Table 9.

LOCATION OF TEST

 

FREQUENCY OF TEST

 

Roads

One test per layer constructed

for

each

150

metres of road

to

be

Laydown areas, car parks etc.

One test for each 250

or

part thereof of paving

material incorporated in the job, with Minimum three tests for each pavement area tested

 

Table 11 - Compaction Testing Frequency

Note:

When specified by the Superintendent, random tests shall be carried out at locations where compaction limits have been defined.

  • 14.3 REJECT WORK

Where the field density of the compacted subbase or base course, as determined by test, is less than the specified percentage compaction in Section 8.3.1, the layer shall be reworked and retested until the required compaction is achieved.

  • 15. STORM WATER AND SUB-SOIL DRAINS

Where specified in the Works or on drawings storm water and subsoil drainage systems shall be installed in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standard Drains (ES-14-202-24).

Note:

The Contractor shall ensure that pooling of water does not occur except at designated locations.

16. KERBING
16.
KERBING
  • 16.1 GENERAL

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

Concrete kerbing shall be site machine extruded unless directed otherwise by the Superintendent.

Barrier, semi-mountable, mountable, precast, cast-on-pavement and layback type kerbing shall be used where specified on the drawings or as directed by the Superintendent.

Materials, profiles, placement tolerances, surface finish, jointing, inspection, sampling and testing shall comply with AS 2876.

  • 16.2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

The line of the kerbing shall be parallel to the centreline of the road unless shown otherwise on the drawings and laid to grades corresponding to the road grades, radius sweeps and intersections.

Kerb transitions shall be constructed between adjoining sections of kerbs of different profile. The change from one section to the other shall be made uniformly over the length shown on the drawing or as directed by the Superintendent.

Openings shall be formed or kerbing cut to form storm water drainage outlets, at locations shown on the drawings or as directed by the Superintendent. Ends of kerbing shall be chamfered at 45° and trowelled to a smooth finish to match adjacent kerbing.

For small radii or where there is a lack of clearance preventing the kerb being placed by the extrusion machine the kerbing section shall be “hand placed”. Hand placed sections shall be constructed to the satisfaction of the Superintendent, using the same concrete as the remainder of the kerb and shaped to give a profile and finish that matches the adjoining sections.

When kerbing is not to be trenched or keyed, the surface on which the kerb is to be laid must be cleaned of all foreign or loose and broken pavement material and may require dampening prior to commencing concrete extrusion. Exposed faces of extruded kerbing shall be covered with black polythene sheeting or sprayed with an approved curing compound to protect against moisture loss from the setting concrete. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to protect the kerbing using whatever measures are required during the curing period.

For typical kerbing arrangement, refer to Figure 6.

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Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19
Roads and Paving
ES-14-202-19

Figure 6 - Typical Kerbing Arrangement

  • 17. SPEED HUMPS

Speed humps shall be constructed of asphaltic concrete, same grade as the road, and installed at locations shown on the drawings. They shall be installed at right angles to the direction of traffic and extend laterally across the full width of the pavement, except where it is necessary to allow for drainage, and shall be either:

Type 1

Used as a warning when approaching a hazard e.g. carpark entrance

Type 2

Used at locations where the driver must slow down e.g. at a major intersection

Front and trailing edges of humps shall be cut into the seal to ensure edge thickness is maintained. Refer to Figure 5 for size and profile of speed humps.

On the approach side(s) of the speed hump, the surface of the hump from road level to the crest shall be painted with white paint.

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Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19
Roads and Paving
ES-14-202-19

Figure 7 Speed Hump Profile

  • 18. ROAD MARKING

The Contractor shall paint lines and other markings on the sealed surface at locations shown on the drawings or as directed by the Superintendent in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standard

Road Marking (ES-14-202-22).

  • 19. ACCESS TO SERVICES

Where required, the Contractor shall install ‘Gatic” trafficable pits and lids at locations shown on the drawings or as directed by the Superintendent. The trafficable lids shall be suitably sized to allow access to the services below, sealed to prevent ingress of water, dirt etc and be capable of withstanding the intended loading in accordance with AS 3996.

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20. ROAD SIGNS Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 The Contractor shall supply and install traffic directional and
  • 20. ROAD SIGNS

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

The Contractor shall supply and install traffic directional and warning signs at locations shown on the drawings or as directed by the Superintendent in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standard Safety and Information Signs (ES-14-102-08) and Australian Standards 1742 and 1743.

  • 21. GUARD RAILS AND BOLLARDS

Where required, the Contractor shall install bollards and ‘Armco’ type or other approved equivalent guardrails in the locations shown on the drawings or as directed by the Superintendent. Refer to CSBP Standard Drawing 9900-2-1300/001 for standard bollard details.

  • 22. REINSTATEMENT

Existing ground surfaces including paving, roadwork, lawn and natural vegetation areas, that was removed, disturbed or damaged by the Works activities, shall be reinstated by the Contractor to match existing and adjacent ground, to the satisfaction of the Superintendent.

Fences that were removed or damaged during the Works shall be reinstated in accordance with CSBP Standard Drawing 9900-2-0600.

  • 23. REPAIRS TO EXISTING BITUMEN

Repairs to bitumen paving shall be carried out in accordance with the following:

  • a. All loose material shall be brushed out of the crack or pothole.

  • b. Very fine cracks

shall be filled with bitumen emulsion diluted in accordance with

manufacture’s instructions.

  • c. Intermediate and wider cracks shall be filled with bitumen emulsion and sand filler if required, in accordance with manufacture’s instructions.

  • d. Potholes shall be saw cut back to form a regular shape in the bitumen, the existing limestone base compacted and a tack coat applied to the edges of existing pavement prior to patching with asphalt to ensure effective bonding.

Note:

Cracked hot–mix paving must be attended too as water will penetrate to the base course and rapid deterioration will result. Applying another layer of asphalt over the top of the crack will not solve the problem, as the crack will propagate up through the new layer.

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24. RECORDS MANAGEMENT Roads and Paving ES-14-202-19 24.1 AS-BUILT DRAWINGS On completion of the Works the
  • 24. RECORDS MANAGEMENT

Roads and Paving

ES-14-202-19

24.1

AS-BUILT DRAWINGS

On completion of the Works the Contractor shall prepare an as-built paving survey for approval by the Superintendent.

Drawings shall be upgraded in accordance with approved survey results. Responsibility for revising the drawings shall be specified in the Works.

Drawings recording the as-built details, shall be prepared / revised, numbered, approved and handed over in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standards:

 

ES-14-101-02

ES-14-101-03

Drawing Management

ES-14-101-04

Drawing Preparation

Drawing Numbering

24.2

DENSITY AND COMPACTION TEST RESULTS

Density and compaction test results issued by the NATA approved testing agency shall be retained in the engineering project file.

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