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AN EVALUATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

Tim OConnor G00263378

Submitted for Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Design and Technology Education To Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology Letterfrack

Thesis Supervisor: Second Reader:

Dr Pauline Logue-Collins Ms Marian Mulligan

An Evaluation of the Significance of Nonverbal Communication in the Context of Teaching and Learning

Declaration of Originality
I declare that this dissertation is my own work, except where stated.

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Tim O'Connor Author

Acknowledgements
I would like to express my deepest and sincerest gratitude to my lecturer and thesis supervisor; Dr Pauline Logue-Collins, who provided me with enthused direction, advice and guidance throughout the completion of this dissertation. Moreover, without her wealth of tuition during my introduction to academic writing in recent years, my academic writing skills would be prohibitively deficient. I also owe a great debt to the librarians at GMIT who were candidly obliging while I conducted my research. The following people reviewed various parts of the dissertation throughout its completion; Martin Collins, Maeve OConnor, and Mary OConnor. Their ability to identify conceptual and typographical errors long after my eyes had stopped seeing them was eminently beneficial. The small handful of pupils I have been fortunate to teach would probably be surprised to read how much they have fuelled my passion for educational research. For this I am perpetually grateful and it is these pupils, and their successors, that I hope will be the ultimate beneficiaries of this research. Finally I extend my appreciation to my peers and to my family, whose support and inspiration provided much needed motivation. Thank you.

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Abstract
Nonverbal communication is a profoundly significant aspect of human communication. Accounting for more than two thirds of all communication which takes place in any interpersonal interaction, it inevitably impacts on teaching and learning. There are many variables associated with nonverbal communication, one of which is predominantly significant to education, namely cultural inferences. This dissertation aims analyse and evaluate the significance of nonverbal communication, in the context of teaching and learning, by means of inter-disciplinary secondary research. The research encompasses an analytical exploration of nonverbal communication and associative psychology through a comprehensive examination of literature in the field. Implications of nonverbal communication relevant to culture are analysed through a review of sociological perspectives. In order to establish the correlation between nonverbal communication and teaching and learning, psychological and sociological theories are amalgamated with educational research. Psychological research discloses the significance of nonverbal communication prior to an examination of the functions and various elements of nonverbal communication which serve these functions. A brief analysis of the synthesis of culture is conducted by a review of sociological research. This gives way to an examination of ethnological variations in the context of nonverbal communication. A comprehensive amalgamation of both psychological and sociological research in the context of teaching and learning proves the relevance which nonverbal communication has to education. The research demonstrates that sufficient knowledge of the synthesis of nonverbal communication will provide educators with the means to enhance pedagogical competence thus significantly enrich teaching and learning.

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Table of Contents

Declaration of Originality ............................................................................................... i Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................... ii Abstract........................................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ............................................................................................................ 1 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 2. Context .............................................................................................................. 1 Rationale for Research .................................................................................... 3 Aims & Objectives............................................................................................ 3 Research Methodology..................................................................................... 3 Scope & Limitations ......................................................................................... 4 Organisation of the Study ................................................................................ 5

NVC and Associative Psychology .......................................................................... 6 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. Introduction ...................................................................................................... 6 Significance of NVC ......................................................................................... 6 Functions of NVC ............................................................................................. 7 Substituting................................................................................................ 7 Complementing ......................................................................................... 7 Conflicting ................................................................................................. 8 Accenting ................................................................................................... 8 Regulating .................................................................................................. 8 Repeating ................................................................................................... 9 Defining Social Patterns and Relationships............................................ 9

2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.3.5. 2.3.6. 2.3.7. 2.4.

Elements of NVC .............................................................................................. 9 Proxemics ................................................................................................... 9

2.4.1.

2.4.1.1. 2.4.1.2. 2.4.2. 2.4.3. 2.4.4. 2.4.5. 2.4.6. 2.4.7. 2.5. 3.

Territoriality ........................................................................................ 10 Proximity .............................................................................................. 11 Paralanguage ........................................................................................... 12 Kinesics .................................................................................................... 14 Physical Characteristics ......................................................................... 16 Artifactics ................................................................................................ 17 Chronemics .............................................................................................. 18 Haptics ..................................................................................................... 18

Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 19

Culture and NVC .................................................................................................. 21 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. Introduction .................................................................................................... 21 What is Culture? ............................................................................................ 21 Multiculturalism ............................................................................................. 22 Interculturalism.............................................................................................. 23 Culture and NVC ........................................................................................... 23 Culture and Proxemics ........................................................................... 24 Culture and Paralanguage ..................................................................... 24 Culture and Kinesics .............................................................................. 24 Culture and Physical Characteristics ................................................... 25 Culture and Artifactics ........................................................................... 25 Culture and Chronemics ........................................................................ 25 Culture and Haptics................................................................................ 25

3.5.1. 3.5.2. 3.5.3. 3.5.4. 3.5.5. 3.5.6. 3.5.7. 3.6. 4.

Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 26

NVC in The Context of Teaching and Learning with Reference to Culture ... 27 4.1. 4.2. Introduction .................................................................................................... 27 Education and NVC with Reference to Culture .......................................... 27 Proxemics, Culture, and Education ...................................................... 27

4.2.1.

4.2.2. 4.2.3. 4.2.4. 4.2.5. 4.2.6. 4.2.7. 4.3. 5.

Paralanguage, Culture, and Education................................................. 30 Kinesics, Culture, and Education .......................................................... 31 Physical Characteristics, Culture, and Education ............................... 34 Artifactics, Culture, and Education ...................................................... 35 Chronemics, Culture, and Education ................................................... 36 Haptics, Culture, and Education ........................................................... 37

Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 38

Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 39

Bibliography .................................................................................................................. 42

1. Introduction
1.1. Context
The significance of nonverbal communication (NVC) has been an intriguing topic for psychologists worldwide for some time. It is said that at least two thirds of all communication is nonverbal (Daunt, 1996, p. 22). If, as the classical allegory suggests; actions speak louder than words, it is crucial that educators consider the significance of NVC and its relevance to pedagogical practice. Communication is an acutely significant aspect of human interaction. The etymological origin of the word is derived from the Latin word communis meaning to make common (Skeat, 1993, p. 90). Any type of human interaction requires some level of communication (Hartley, 1999, p. 17). It is an extremely complex amalgamation of processes with numerous definitions (Dubey & Bishnoi, 2008, p. 285). Of course communication is not limited to human interaction; it is one of few operations that can be applied throughout the animal kingdom and it has been proven that animals are just as dependent on communication as humans (Bradbury & Vehrencamp, 1998, p. 5). This study however, shall segregate the extensive array of alternative communication types and focus on communication exclusively relevant to human interaction. In particular, the work shall focus on one specific form of communication, namely interpersonal communication. A literature review in this area offers a vast array of definitions of interpersonal communication, all of which vary in some way. Berko et al. (2004, p. 135) define interpersonal communication as an interactional process in which two people send and receive messages. As opposed to intrapersonal communication, which is essentially communicating with oneself, interpersonal communication must involve two or more people (DeVito, 2012, p. 4). The number of people involved also has maximum limitations however; interpersonal communication is restricted to a small body of people rather than large groups. Hargie et al. (1994, p. 10) provide a definition which accounts for all potential group sizes which could partake in interpersonal communication when they impart; communication which is face-to-face and involving few people (typically two) rather than large groups. It is clear from these definitions that interpersonal communication depends on a number of specific criteria. Although 1

interpersonal communication is confined by such criteria, it retains much diversity and variability. It can be formal or informal and, most relevant to this study, verbal or nonverbal (Guirdham, 1995, p. 266). For the purposes of this dissertation, any time the term communication is used, unless stated otherwise, it is in reference to interpersonal communication, namely; face-to-face human interaction involving a small group of people. A common misconception is that all communication which is not spoken is classified as nonverbal. This can be deceptive. Written words are not considered to be NVC, while a number of vocal expressions, such as laughing or sighing, are in fact means of communicating nonverbally (Scott et al. 1999, p. 200). There are a number of definitions of NVC within the literature. Scott et al.(1999, p. 200) define NVC as [e]xpressing messages without using linguistic means, or the communication that is transmitted in conjunction with the strictly verbal part of the message. This definition is particularly interesting as it evokes a number of questions. The authors state that all messages expressed without using linguistic means are nonverbal. Does this mean that there are no variables with regard to linguistics in NVC and that there is essentially only one language when communicating nonverbally? It is also stated in this definition that NVC occurs in conjunction with the verbal message. Does this insinuate that NVC occurs only simultaneously with verbal communication and never autonomously? Wiemann and Harrison appreciate that [a]nything that might be informative and is not spoken language has been treated by one author or another as nonverbal communication (Wiemann & Harrison, 1983, p. 9). Irrespective of this, they are discriminatory and incline toward the non-linguistic, gestural aspects of communication. Gestural aspects of NVC are the focal point of these authors definition. There are many more aspects of NVC which Wiemann & Harrison have not accounted for such as proxemics (communication through the use of space) and paralanguage (the use of the voice in communication), which will be examined in the subsequent chapter. Some authors have extremely broad definitions of NVC. For example Daunt defines it as communication between people that doesnt involve words (Daunt, 1996, p. 22). Ellis and McClintock (1994) also claim that every aspect of communication except words spoken would fall into the category of NVC (Ellis & McClintock, 1994, p. 2

32). This definition is also susceptible to critique as it could be argued that the author has excluded all aspects of communication which do involve words. These are but a selection of various definitions of NVC within the literature. Each definition is susceptible to critique of some sort. As such, in an effort to maintain accurateness, the working definition of NVC for the purpose of this dissertation will be somewhat broad. Any attribution to NVC within this document, unless stated otherwise, refers to the following definition; any means of interpersonal communication which does not depend on spoken words.

1.2. Rationale for Research


Educational research surrounding the topic of communication and its relevance to teaching and learning abounds. In conjunction with educational research, psychologists and sociologists have made significant progress in establishing the connotation of NVC as a means of communicating (DeVito, 2012; Daunt, 1996; Burgoon et al., 1994). It seems however, that there is a gap in the literature with regard to a comprehensive amalgamation of these two areas of research. As such, the potential for educators to modify and improve their practice is palpable, although the means by which they should achieve this improvement are somewhat unclear.

1.3. Aims & Objectives


The primary aim of this research is to analyse and evaluate the significance of NVC in the context of teaching and learning. The objectives of this study are to Conduct an analytical exploration of NVC and associative psychology through a comprehensive examination of literature in the field; Emphasise the implications of NVC relevant to culture; Amalgamate psychological and sociological theories with educational research in an effort to establish the correlation between NVC and teaching and learning.

1.4. Research Methodology


This study is based entirely on secondary research. Significant contributions in the field of NVC have been made by DeVito (2012), Hargie et al. (1994), Stewart (1977), Burgoon et al. (1994), and Daunt (1996). Gallagher (2003) has conducted 3

comprehensive research in relation to culture studies. Key educational researchers referred to in this text are Bentham (2002), Leach (2006), and Capel (2013). DeVito (2012) is the most recent and probably the most relevant source throughout this dissertation. His research on NVC provides a detailed analysis of both the functions and elements of NVC thus addressing the first objective. He also incorporates a comprehensive evaluation of the significance of culture in the context of NVC. Hargie et al. (1994) provide an exploration of NVC similar to that of DeVito. Their extensive research on both the functions and elements of NVC provides a large amount of data relevant to the first objective. This text also serves the second objective as it makes periodic reference to cultural significance regarding NVC. Daunt (1996) provides a detailed analysis of the elements of NVC pertinent to the first objective. Occasionally, his research is relevant to the second objective as he makes reference to cultural inferences. Stewart (1977) presents an especially concise yet detailed chapter on the functions and elements of NVC applicable to the first objective. Burgoon et al. (1994) examine in detail the elements of NVC. Their work is indispensably cogent to the first objective. Due to the level of detail provided, this research was also useful in establishing the significance of NVC in the context of teaching and learning thus addressing the third objective. Gallagher (2003) provides a particularly useful exploration of the synthesis of culture significantly relevant to the second objective. Bentham (2002), Leach (2006), and Capel (2013) are all relatively generic in terms of educational literature. All three contribute to the examination of the significance of NVC in the context of teaching and learning thus serving the third objective.

1.5. Scope & Limitations


This dissertation is set to encompass an evaluation of the significance of NVC in the context of teaching and learning with reference to cultural inference. The intention is that said evaluation will provide the data specifically relevant to educators. As previously stated, there seems to be a gap in the literature regarding a distinct correlation between NVC and teaching and learning. The science of communication is intricate. The most comprehensive examinations of communication, and consequently NVC, have been carried out by researchers working in the disciplines of psychology and sociology. This study is largely based on psychological research. Certain aspects of sociology will be explored 4

especially in relation to ethnology although due to time and size limitations and in keeping with the aim and scope, all aspects of sociological research on NVC will not be exhausted.

1.6. Organisation of the Study


This research is presented in five chapters. Chapter one is an introductory chapter which outlines criteria associated with the study. It encompasses the rationale for research, aims and objectives of the work, research methodology employed, scope and limitations of the research, and the organisation of the study. Chapter 2 focuses on psychological perspectives of NVC. The significance and origin of NVC are examined prior to a detailed discussion of functions and elements of NVC. The examination of the origins encompasses the way in which people obtain the ability to communicate nonverbally. Functions of NVC, namely substituting, complementing, conflicting, accenting, regulating, repeating, and defining social patterns and relationships are individually explored associated with the primary aim of this study. Said functions correspond to the elements of NVC, three of which, namely proxemics, paralanguage and kinesics, are examined in detail as well as physical characteristics, artifactics, chronemics, and haptics which are also analysed. The focus of Chapter 3 is sociological perspectives in the field of NVC. Ethnography is the predominant discipline researched within this chapter. A brief analysis of the synthesis of culture is discusses subsequent to which cultural variations according to each element of NVC are explored individually. Chapter 4 provides conclusive evidence of the significance of NVC in the context of teaching and learning. This is achieved by reviewing educational research in light of conclusions drawn from previous chapters. This chapter, in a sense, serves as a guideline for educators who wish to enhance their pedagogical competence according to NVC skills. Chapter 5 concludes the study summarizing key points and areas of interest encountered throughout. It discloses all conclusions established and their implications for theory and practice. Recommendations for further research are also considered.

2. NVC and Associative Psychology


2.1. Introduction
In any communication situation, NVC will commence as soon as people are aware of each others presence (Phillips & Fraser, 1982, p. 68). Such communication will often occur unconsciously and even unintentionally (Ellis & McClintock, 1994, p. 32). Initial research of NVC suggested that some ninety three per cent of all communication is nonverbal although this figure has since been challenged (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 56). Despite their critique of this initial figure, the majority of researchers referred to who have worked in this area of research would agree that NVC is the predominant means of communicating in any interpersonal situation. NVC is a complex topic with numerous variables, components, and subcategories (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 123). This chapter explores a number of theories surrounding NVC. It will consider the purpose and significance of NVC as well as scrutinize factors which influence NVC. Finally, this chapter will examine relevant elements of NVC and the variables and influencing factors within these elements.

2.2. Significance of NVC


Be it in an informal setting at home where a parent acts as an educator, or in a formal setting, namely school, children are taught words and spoken language from a young age (Mackenzie, 2009, pp. xii-xiii). Despite the distinguished significance of NVC in the communication process, little or no time is spent systematically teaching young people how to communicate nonverbally (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 123). As such, the question emanates; how do people obtain the ability to communicate nonverbally? The answer is twofold. Certain NVC skills are innate. Berko (2004) describes said innate NVC abilities as automatic reflexive actions which are tied to our need drives (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 57). Need drives are those cognitive processes which cause reactions beyond our conscious control; the tendency to flinch when frightened for example. NVC abilities are not comprised entirely of innate skills however. A set of NVC skills, inevitably reflective of the culture from which they are learned, are unintentionally sought and self-procured throughout ones childhood.

2.3. Functions of NVC


A significant amount of research in the field of NVC has been devoted to establishing whether it serves an independent function entirely isolated from verbal communication, or whether it operates in conjunction with it. Some researchers refuse to segregate the process of communication into verbal and nonverbal categories on the grounds that the two are in such strong alliance that they are interdependent (Stewart, 1977, p. 75). Alternative theories suggest that NVC can in fact replace speech altogether. For example; there are people who do not possess the ability to speak or hear, yet can effectively communicate (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, pp. 38-39). Due to the anomalousness of such circumstances however, a significant amount of research consummated in the field of NVC pertains to that which occurs in conjunction with verbal communication (Daunt, 1996, p. 23). There are a number of functions assigned to NVC namely substituting, complementing, conflicting, accenting, regulating, repeating, and defining social patterns and relationships.

2.3.1. Substituting
As stated previously, NVC can totally replace verbal communication (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 61). During earlier stages of human evolution there were no languages or spoken words hence NVC essentially predates verbal communication (Daunt, 1996, p. 23).When the process known as substituting occurs, the nonverbal message completely supplants the verbal message (DeVito, 2012, p. 118). Substitute NVC is a composite sub-category of NVC. Stewart provides a simple yet accurate synthesis when he describes it as a broad range from a monosyllabic gesture such as nodding ones head instead of saying the word yes, to entire systems of substitute NVC such as the language of the deaf (Stewart, 1977, p. 76).

2.3.2. Complementing
NVC can reinforce the spoken message. This complementing relationship occurs when the verbal and the nonverbal message are sent simultaneously and are in agreement with each other (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 62). For example, in certain cultures, nodding ones head while saying yes would reinforce the positive verbalisation. Complementing NVC can also elaborate on and add meaning to the verbal message (DeVito, 2012, p. 118). Complementing NVC is, for the most part, involuntary and emotionally charged (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 39) hence 7

the fundamental impulsion of complementing NVC is to inform the receiver of the affective state of the sender (Stewart, 1977, p. 81).

2.3.3. Conflicting
Juxtaposed to the complementing relationship, the conflicting relationship also depends on simultaneous verbal and nonverbal communication although in this case, the nonverbal message contradicts the verbal message (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 62). This may be deliberate; for example crossing ones fingers to indicate that one is lying (DeVito, 2012, p. 118). As Sigmund Freud once said; [h]e that has eyes to see and lips to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret (cited in Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 62). In other cases, involuntary nonverbal messages may allow the message receiver to perceive the senders duplicity. This is why it can be difficult to lie effectively (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 39). The nonverbal message is said to carry more credence in this case as the majority of nonverbal messages are involuntary and spontaneous hence they are mostly sincere (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, pp. 62-63).

2.3.4. Accenting
Accenting NVC is similar to complementing in that it reinforces the verbal message (DeVito, 2012, p. 118). Contrary to complementing however, accenting is not reflective of the emotional state of the communicator. Instead, it compares to underlining or italicizing written words whereby the message is intentionally reinforced with specific meaning (Stewart, 1977, p. 81). A typical example of this can be seen when a person is giving directions. Various hand gestures serve to accompany, supplement, and facilitate verbal instructions, thus illustrating information that is difficult to describe using purely verbal terms (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 40).

2.3.5. Regulating
The function of regulating NVC is to create a harmonious relationship between communicators whereby those involved are aware of the flow of communication without it being intentionally disclosed (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 40). As the name suggests, this regulates communicative flow (DeVito, 2012, p. 118). Communicators use one, or a combination, of various modes of NVC to notify one another when they would like to speak or when they have finished speaking resulting in 8

a controlled and synchronized conversation (Corner & Hawthorn, 1985, p. 37).Such communication is also utilised by the listener as feedback to determine firstly if the receiver is attentive, and if so; to perceive the way in which his/her message is being received (Stewart, 1977, p. 81). Regulating communication may also be vocal, although in such a way that does not use words. For example, some people have a tendency to vocalize pauses within their speech to indicate that they have not finished speaking (DeVito, 2012, p. 118).

2.3.6. Repeating
Repeating occurs when the nonverbal message carries the same meaning as the verbal message. In this case however, NVC is subsequent to verbal communication hence the verbal message is repeated using nonverbal means (DeVito, 2012, p. 118).

2.3.7. Defining Social Patterns and Relationships


In certain cases it is not desirable to explicitly disclose ones attitude/feelings toward another. Additionally, interrelationships tend to change after the initial meeting. This change may not be possible if initial feelings and attitudes are exposed during the early stages of the relationship. In such cases, subtle cues via nonverbal means are required to divulge the optimum amount of information which will provide the means for an ideal initial relationship (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 41).

2.4. Elements of NVC


A common misconception is the assumption that NVC and kinesics; commonly known as body language, mean the same thing. There are various elements or channels of NVC and, although the main transmitter of NVC is the human body (Daunt, 1996, p. 23), there are various other categories of NVC apart from kinesics including proxemics, paralanguage, physical characteristics, chronemics, artifactics, chronemics, and haptics. This section explores kinesics and other bodily communication methods, as well as channels of NVC which are not dependent on the human body.

2.4.1. Proxemics
Proxemics is the study of spatial interaction in a communication situation or as Berko et al. impart; [s]patial [c]ommunication (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 73). It can be categorised under two main headings, namely territoriality and proximity (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, pp. 52-53). 9

2.4.1.1.

Territoriality

In the same way as wild animals and birds, humans lay claim to, and defend personal space or territory (Stewart, 1977, p. 79). Personal territory is seen as a safe haven where a person can enjoy a degree of privacy and social intimacy (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 52). It could be argued that territory falls into one or more of the fundamental stages of Maslows hierarchy of needs (Illeris, 2007, p. 89). It is a precious and valued human resource hence people are naturally protective of it and can feel threatened when it is invaded (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 53). There is a range of size and significance of personal territories. Altman (1975) distinguishes three categories; primary, secondary and public (cited in DeVito, 2012, p. 126). A primary territory is reflective of the owners personality and identity. Such confidential places facilitate psychological and physical retreat (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). DeVito describes it as ones exclusive preserve (DeVito, 2012, p. 126) in which the owner is dominant and almighty. The overall privacy of a space will be a predictive factor when differentiating between territorial types. Whilst primary territories described are entirely private, secondary territories are semi-public (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). Secondary territories are perceptible within the home and may be observed when family members acquire designated seats around a dining table or in a living room (Daunt, 1996, p. 24). Secondary territory, and in some cases primary territory, is not restricted to the home and can extend to various places which the owner frequently inhabits (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 52). Note the italicisation of the word owner in the previous sentence. Irrespective of monopoly associated with secondary territory, the so called owner does not necessarily possess any legal holding to the place in question (DeVito, 2012, p. 126). Public territories are as the name suggests; entirely public. Despite bureaucratic decrees ensuring freedom of access for all people to such areas, there is evidence of proxemic patterns being followed within them (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). Again similar to ethological patterns, people use various methods to advertise ownership of a particular space. This can be achieved in a number of ways (DeVito, 2012, p. 127). One important variable regarding territory classification is that a single place can have different meanings to different people. In other words, a place which one person would see as public territory may the secondary territory of a person who regularly occupies it (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). 10

2.4.1.2.

Proximity

Juxtaposed to territory which is an immovable geographic area, personal space also known as proximity is carried by each individual wherever he/she goes (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 127). Proximity refers to the interpersonal distance that individuals maintain when they are involved in interaction (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 53). Daunt effectively uses a metaphor of a portable invisible bubble in which each of us is permanently cocooned (Daunt, 1996, p. 24). Edward Hall conducted an investigation on proximity as it relates to white middle-class Americans. His results unveiled four proxemic zones, namely intimate, personal, social and public (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 74). The intimate zone is reserved for relationships which are, as the name suggests, intimate such as that of lovers or parent and child (Daunt, 1996, p. 24). Intimate distance can range from direct physical contact to approximately eighteen inches (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 54). The personal zone, ranging approximately from eighteen inches to four feet, is the distance at which the majority of interpersonal interactions take place (DeVito, 2012, pp. 125-126). It is within the personal zone that the majority of domestic and personal interactions will occur. Professional interactions exist largely in the social zone. The zone is not reserved specifically for professional interactions however as casual social exchanges also take place here (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 75). Distance ranges from four to twelve feet; the greater the distance, the more formal interactions will appear (DeVito, 2012, p. 126). If a transaction takes place whereby the distance between those involved is greater than twelve metres, it is said to be within the public zone. Twelve feet is merely the lower limit; public interactions usually occur at a distance of more than twenty-five feet (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 75). A common observation of a public zone distance may be the distance at which a speaker or lecturer addresses his/her audience (Daunt, 1996, p. 25). There are a number of variables surrounding the examination of proxemics including personal dimensions such as gender and culture as well as situational variables such as the social setting and the psychological state of those involved (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, pp. 127-128). There is evidence that in same sex dyads, women are likely to interact at a smaller distance than men. Additionally; males will interact with females in closer proximity than they will interact with other males (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). 11

Culture and ethnicity will also have some control over proxemic criteria. Berko et al. discuss the concept of contact and noncontact cultures (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 74), which will be examined in subsequent chapters. A subordinate will generally maintain a distance from his/her superior according to the status relationship of the dyad hence status is also a determinant in the process of spatial communication (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 54). Along the same lines as status, age can influence ones use of space. Similar age groups maintain closer distances than differential age groups (DeVito, 2012, p. 126). The personality and emotional state of participants in the communication situation will also, to some extent, determine the proxemic nature of the interaction. Introverts tend to maintain greater distances than extroverts (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 127). Emotionally charged communication may also depend on a different proximity. For example an angry person may invade the personal space of the one with whom he/she is angry (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 74). Proxemics is also influenced by situational variables (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 128). Interaction generally takes place within closer proximity when those involved are standing rather than sitting (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 53). Not surprisingly, one will interact with a person whom he/she finds more attractive than a person he/she is not attracted to. In fact, physical attraction is one of the most important influential factors surrounding proximity as it has greater effect than many of the other factors discussed (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 128). Inversely related to proxemics is the effect of physical orientation on NVC (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 55). Along with the space maintained between those communicating, the angle or orient of peoples bodies to one another can retain communicative function (Daunt, 1996, p. 25).

2.4.2. Paralanguage
Whilst the verbal element of speech is concerned with the words spoken and their meanings, paralanguage deals with the way in which the words are said rather than the words themselves (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 144). The effect of paralanguage can be observed by saying one word in various different ways to convey different meanings (Daunt, 1996, p. 35). Similarly, a single sentence can have various meanings depending on the way it is voiced (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 60). Paralanguage is a composite element of NVC comprised of a number of 12

dimensions. Stewart distinguishes three broad categories of paralanguage, namely vocal characteristics, vocal qualifiers and vocal segregates (Stewart, 1977, p. 78). Vocal characteristics are those vocalizations one makes in expressions such as crying, whispering, moaning, belching, yawning, yelling, heavily marked breathing, coughing, whining, whispering, sneezing, and snoring. Vocal segregates are essentially pauses within speech, both vocal and silent, which are used to fill silent breaks or hesitations. This speaker utilises such pauses to signify that although he/she has momentarily stopped talking, he/she is not yet finished speaking (Ellis & McClintock, 1994, p. 37); an obvious example of the regulating function of NVC examined in subsection 2.3.5. Vocal qualifiers include; pitch, speed, volume, tone, accent, use of pause (Daunt, 1996, p. 35). The level of frequency of the voice is denoted by pitch (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 144). Moderately affected by pauses within speech, the speed or tempo at which a person speaks can have significant effect on the communication process (DeVito, 2012, p. 131). Volume accounts for sound and intensity of it (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 144). Resonance, articulation, lip and rhythm control all contribute to ones tone of voice (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 144). Accent refers to the way in which one vocally stresses certain words in an effort to emphasise them (DeVito, 2012, p. 130). Paralinguistic cues substantially influence the determination of sex, age, and status of a speaker (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 75). It can also aid in the evaluation of ones emotional state and personality (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 145). It should be noted that, like many aspects of NVC, there are a number of variables associated with paralanguage. The paralinguistic communicative ability of those involved in the communication process will obviously affect the success of it. Certain emotions are easier identified than others. For example, fear and anxiety are similar hence it would be more difficult to distinguish between them than antithetical emotions such as love and hate (DeVito, 2012, p. 130). Cultural differences will also have some control on criteria and guidelines surrounding paralanguage; a concept which will be analysed in subsequent chapters.

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2.4.3. Kinesics
The study of communication through the body and its movements is known as kinesics. Facsics, ocalics, and gestics are all encompassed in the study of kinesics (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, pp. 64-72). The face is capable of more than seven thousand different expressions which serve to communicate ones internal state both on an involuntary basis, as well as through messages which are intentionally sent (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, pp. 6465). This facial communication is explored in the study of facsics. Facsics is predominantly significant in communicating emotions (DeVito, 2012, p. 122). Some theorists suggest that facial cues are second to language itself in rank of importance with regard to communication information (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 50). Daunt (1996, p. 33) claims that the face in expressiveness, [is] almost the equal to language itself. If the above quotation is valid, the eyes are inevitably imperative in the communication process as, of all types of facial communication, eye communication is the most powerful (Daunt, 1996, p. 34). This may be because, whilst many aspects of NVC are difficult to disguise or mock, eye communication is virtually impossible to control. This is because the eye, unlike other body organs, is an extension of the brain (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 66). Bearing in mind gender and cultural differences; the duration, direction and quality of eye behaviour are all predictive factors in the communication process (DeVito, 2012, p. 124). When two people make eye contact, they become psychologically closer, irrespective of the psychical distance between them (DeVito, 2012, p. 124). Incidentally, the level of comfort for those involved will be influenced by physical distance (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 67). As well as expressing emotions, ocalics serves the regulating function previously examined (Daunt, 1996, p. 34). Research indicates that in a dyadic communication situation the listener tends to look more at the speaker; the corollary being that the speaker tends not to look at the listener as much. However, the signal that the speaker is about to or has finished and is opening the conversation for the listener to begin speaking is sent by the speaker making eye contact (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 49). Eye avoidance is also a method of communication. It can have various

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functions such as maintaining civil inattention1, signalling a lack of interest, or discriminating against unwanted or unpleasant visual stimuli (DeVito, 2012, p. 124). Moving away from the face, gestics is the study of body movements. Like other functions of NVC, body movements serve a number of functions and can affect the communication process in various ways (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 67). Gesturing is possibly the most prevailing method of substituting as seen in subsection 2.3.1. Effective use of gestures can make it possible to relay difficult concepts and, admittedly in exceptional circumstances, construct entire languages (Stewart, 1977, p. 76). Berko et al. would classify such gestures as speech-independent gestures scientifically referred to as emblems (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 67). Stewart defines emblems as nonverbal acts which have direct verbal translation or dictionary definition (Stewart, 1977, p. 77). Emblems are employed in situations where speech is inadequate. For example, a police officer cannot verbally direct traffic hence he/she utilises arm and hand gestures as an alternative means of communication (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 44). A dimension of kinesics known as an illustrator would serve the functions of complementing and accenting examined in the previous section. Illustrators are used in conjunction with a verbal message when the verbal communication in itself is inadequate and requires supplementary illustration to validate the message (Stewart, 1977, p. 77). Kinesics also encompasses certain affect displays; unintentional emotionally charged nonverbal exhibits. For example, certain hand movements are associated with nervousness and anxiety (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 46). As with previously examined elements of NVC, kinesics also serves the regulating function (DeVito, 2012, p. 122). A listener who is nodding his/her head is nonverbally signifying to the speaker to continue talking (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 48). Gestics not only provide a means of encoding and sending messages that supplement dialogue for the benefit of the receiver; the person sending the message depends on body movements for cognitive processes such as retrieving concepts and words from memory and constructing sentences (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 67).
1

Civil inattention is an unwritten rule of courtesy. It is essentially abstaining from eye contact with those who are dealing with somewhat private affairs in a public place. For example, one would abstain from eye contact with a couple who are having a domestic argument in a public place.

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2.4.4. Physical Characteristics


It may not come as a surprise that a persons appearance and physical characteristics have significant influence on others perception of that person. The potency of physical characteristics and the extent to which they are influential however can be somewhat astonishing (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 72). Not only are people influenced by others physical appearance but ones self-consciousness of his/her own physical characteristics is also likely to affect the communication process (Daunt, 1996, p. 28). Unlike previously examined elements of NVC which are susceptible to constant variation and revision, certain aspects of a persons physical appearance remain constant throughout the period of communication (Stewart, 1977, p. 78). It is a natural human tendency to make judgement about a person merely according to his/her physical characteristics prior to making any sort of verbal connection (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 55). Daunt bisects physical characteristics into physique, of which one has extremely limited control, and presentation of oneself, of which one can exercise control (Daunt, 1996, p. 28). A predictive factor which affects the perception of ones physical appearance is recognised stereotypes formulated by the individual environment and society (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 142). Daunt exemplifies this stereotyping when he questions the common conception, or misconception perhaps, that wearing spectacles signifies superior intelligence (Daunt, 1996, p. 28). Physical attractiveness is an immensely powerful aspect of human

communication. It is often the primary motive which will determine whether people or not people choose to become acquainted (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 141). Unfair as it may seem, an innate defect of both European and American culture is a distinct prejudice against people whom society depicts to be unattractive (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 72). There is research to suggest however that the superficial nature of physical attractiveness becomes evident over time in that the tendency to prejudice according to physical attractiveness is ephemeral and dissipates after the initial stages of communication at which point more equitable means which influence perception are observed. Hargie et al. outline two studies which provide conclusive evidence of this (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, pp. 56-57). Irrespective of its effectiveness lacking endurance however, the influence physical appearance and characteristics can have on communication and consequently NVC 16

must not be underestimated as those first impressions and perceptions can be significantly influential in any communication process (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 145).

2.4.5. Artifactics
As seen in the previous section, a person can communicate nonverbally by the way in which they physically present themselves. One way in which people exercise control over their physical appearance is through the utilization and manipulation of artefacts and external body adornments (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 71). Artifactual communication is not limited to the body and individual personal space. The surrounding environment and objects within can also influence the communication process (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 146). Recognized expert opinion pertinent to artifactual communication is somewhat divided. This is due to the close association with certain artefacts, namely body adornments, and physical appearance. For example, Hargie et al. concerns only environmental factors with artifactual communication and would allocate the following discussion regarding body adornments in the previous subsection (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, pp. 55-61). Berko et al. however focus their examination of artifactual communication on those things that adorn the body and carry communicative function (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, pp. 71-72). DeVito defines artifactual communication as communication via objects made by human hands (DeVito, 2012, p. 127). This encompasses both personal body adornments as well as environmental factors. In accordance with this definition body adornments will be categorized under the artifactics element of NVC as opposed to previously discussed physical appearance and characteristics for the purpose of this dissertation. A common form of artifactual communication is the way in which a person dresses and the clothing which he/she wears. Berko et al. refer to ones dress as a substitute skin which can have a dramatic effect peoples progression and success in various walks of life (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 71). This is due to the potency clothing and dress can carry. It can in fact be so powerful as to carry messages about a persons overall attitudes and personality and is even reflective of ones social background and identity (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 143). Additional artefacts aside from clothing are also significant in NVC. Wedding and engagement 17

rings, buttons, and badges can be quite symbolic carrying specific messages. These are possibly the most obvious form of NVC through artifactual communication (DeVito, 2012, p. 128). Other jewellery along with makeup and other body adornments can also convey messages about a person (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 143). Moving beyond artefacts which supplement the appearance of the body, characteristics of the physical environment are also relevant to NVC. The way in which personal spaces are maintained, the items detectable within and the absence of other artefacts are all reflective of the person(s) who inhibit these spaces (DeVito, 2012, p. 128). Possessions also convey messages about a person. For example a person may be judged on the basis of the type of automobile he/she drives (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 146). As well conveying messages and providing a means for making perceptions of people, the physical layout and environment of any space will significantly influence any communication which takes place within that space (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 59).

2.4.6. Chronemics
Time has a communicative function. Temporal communication encompasses the effect and influence of the way in which people use time, the timing of events, peoples emotional responses to time, and the length of pauses. Collectively, this concept is known as chronemics (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 133). Due to the complexity of the concept of time, largely due to cultural differences; something which will be elaborated on in the subsequent chapter, chronemics tends to be misunderstood (DeVito, 2012, p. 133). In order to arbitrate the concept of time, Berko et al. categorize time into technical, formal and informal. Technical time is predominantly used for scientific operations and is extremely precise. The way in which a culture defines its time, for example years, months, days, hours and minutes, is known as formal time. Informal time is more audacious and does not depend on precise units (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, pp. 76-77).

2.4.7. Haptics
Haptics is the technical term given to the study of communication through physical bodily contact and touch. Touch can communicate various messages depending on where, how and by whom those involved touch and are touched (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 68). The human need for touch is natural and powerful. It is essential 18

to human development and survival (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 130). Perhaps the most primitive form of communication, touch is a sense which is used even before birth as a child develops within the womb (DeVito, 2012, p. 129). There are some four hundred and fifty seven types of bodily contact available to people. Such a myriad of options provides great range hence tactile communication can serve numerous purposes and functions (Daunt, 1996, pp. 26-27). Jones and Yarbrough (1985) categorize types of adult bodily contact into positive affect, playful, control ritualistic, task-related or accidental (cited in Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 131). DeVito (2012, p. 129) also supports said categorization. Touch for positive affect is used to express positve feelings such as support, appreciation, inclusion, sexual interest, composure, immediacy, affection, trust, and similarity. Be it affectionatly or aggresively, one may attempt to display affection through playful touch. Control related touch serves to direct and maipulate behaviour. This type of tactile behaviour can be used to attain a degree of nonverbal dominace. Ritualistic touch is common during greetings and depatures. It is usually standarised by social protocol. Task related and accidental touch lack symbolic meaning and are not of particular significance to the communocation process. Haptics and tactile behaviour is affected by a number of variables, largely influenced by societal norms and individual cultures (Daunt, 1996, p. 26). Tactile behaviour is not generalised within individual culutures however, as can be seen by touch effecting different people in different ways. This is due to the discrepancies between indivual families and sub-societies (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 68). In exceptional circumstances, one may hold a strong disposition to avoid any type of tactile behaviour due to mental scarring as a result of a traumatic experience involving touch (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 68).

2.5. Conclusion
Accounting for more than two thirds of all communication, NVC is an imperative aspect of the communication process. The ability to communicate nonverbally is partly innate and, although people are never really taught to communicate nonverbally, partly learned. NVC serves many functions including substituting, complementing, conflicting, accenting, regulating, repeating, and defining social patterns and relationships. Many of these functions closely mirror the various 19

elements which comprise NVC. Proxemics, paralanguage and kinesics are the three elements most relevant to this study selected from the vast array explored within the literature. A reoccurring theme which surfaced at various times throughout this examination of NVC is variables in NVC according to cultural differences.

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3. Culture and NVC


Culture and communication reciprocally influence each other (Gudykunst & TingToomey, 1988, p. 17).

3.1. Introduction
As discussed in the previous chapter, NVC is a complex and diverse topic with numerous variables. One such variable of great theoretical and practical significance which seems to emerge throughout the literature is the effect which culture has on NVC. As Argyle states; [i]t is a topic of great practical importance, since cultural differences in NVC are a major source of friction, misunderstanding, and annoyance between cultural and national groups (Argyle, 1988, p. 49). Extensive and differential research has been carried of ethnological implications regarding NVC. Prior to a literature review of this research, this chapter seeks to define culture and explores ethnological perspectives of society.

3.2. What is Culture?


The word culture has been described as one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language (Williams, 1983, p. 87). Etymological research on the word culture discloses its original association with words such as inhabit, cultivate, protect, and honour with worship (Guins & Cruz, 2005, p. 25). Literature offers some deceptively simplistic definitions of culture such as that of the late Archbishop Worlock who claimed that culture is merely the way we do things around here (cited in Osborn, 1995, p. 1). Of course the concept of culture is so much more complex than the literal translation of Archbishop Worlocks definition. There is no single or generic definition on which researchers can agree. Even the most up to date and modern definitions are still working definitions under constant revision and scrutiny (Gallagher, 2003, pp. 13-18). Gallagher offers a relatively detailed synopsis of culture which he suggests incorporates almost every aspect of peoples behaviour, provides the basis for the constantly evolving environment in which people live, and dictates the informal obligations and formal decrees by which people live (Gallagher, 2003, p. 10). Havilands definition; [a] set of rules or standards shared by members of a society that when acted upon by the members, produce behaviour that falls within a range the members consider proper and acceptable (Haviland, 1983, p. 31) also suggests that the concept of culture is largely associated with the general government of society. 21

The concept of culture is comprised of numerous entities. These include multiculturalism and interculturalism.

3.3. Multiculturalism
In keeping with the complex nature of culture and associative disciplines, multiculturalism is a term which has been subject to extensive research, caused much debate and consequently, has numerous definitions. Meer et al. describe multiculturalism as the political accommodation by state and/or dominant group of all minority cultures (Meer & Modhood, 2012, p. 181). Rosado claims that the word itself is greatly misunderstood and is consequently misused. He offers an operational definition as follows; Multiculturalism is a system of beliefs and behaviours that recognizes and respects the presence of all diverse groups in an organization or society, acknowledges and values their socio-cultural differences, and encourages and enables their continued contribution within and inclusive cultural context which empowers all within the organisation or society (Rosado, 1997, p. 2) Whilst both of these definitions coincide, it is clear that Rosado derives much more meaning from the term. Meer et al.s definition is somewhat less detailed in comparison to Rosados comprehensive synthesis of the concept as can be seen by further analysis of definition (Rosado, 1997, pp. 2-4). The recognition he refers to is regarding the wealth of diversity in any given modern society. Closely intertwined with recognition is respect; mutual respect between different groups should exist in a multicultural society. This involves the acknowledgment and subsequent valuing of what all groups within a society have to offer. Harlambos et al. distinguish between multiculturalism and assimilation. Essentially one is a juxtaposition of the other. An assimilative society expects that minority groups adapt in order to integrate into the dominant culture within that society whilst a multicultural society is expected to adapt its dominant culture such that minority groups are amalgamated as opposed to integrated into that society (Harlambos & Holborn, 2004, pp. 208-209). This will provide the opportunity to encourage and enable and thus empower said groups. When this is achieved, a multicultural society has been established. Quish (2008) critiques the effectiveness of both assimilation and multiculturalism and advocates an alternative intercultural model.

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3.4. Interculturalism
Quish defines interculturalism as a belief that recognises that we all become personally enriched by coming into contact with and experiencing other cultures, and that there should be a learning engagement between people of different cultural backgrounds (Quish, 2008, p. 23). He goes on to argue the positive outcomes of an intercultural society, namely the enhancing and enriching of any civilisation is the result of amalgamating various cultures. When differentiating between interculturalism and multiculturalism, it is important to note that although both share numerous fundamental principles such as accommodation and pluralism, interculturalism differs from multiculturalism in that it moves beyond these basic principles to ensure that various minority groups within a society are positively amalgamated both with each other, and with the dominant cultural group in such a way that enriches said society, as opposed to constructing a society which merely contains all cultures and minority groups as is the criteria of a multicultural society (Bouchard, 2011, pp. 440-441). In his report, Quish refers to the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) guidelines developed by Dr Roland Tormey and The Centre for Educational Disadvantage Research, Mary Immaculate College (Quish, 2008, p. 23). He pays specific tribute to the dialogue between core and peripheral cultures associated with interculturalism. It is this dialogue which provides the basis for various cultures to interdependently supplement each other thus creating an enriched acculturated society (NCCA, 2006, pp. i-ii).

3.5. Culture and NVC


As seen in the previous chapter, ones ability to communicate nonverbally is partially innate and partially learned. This is achieved during childhood when an infant observes and imitates adults. Consequently, ones NVC tendencies are inevitably going to reflect the culture in which they were learned (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 59). Every element of NVC examined in the previous chapter will be influenced by cultural differences.

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3.5.1. Culture and Proxemics


Burgoon claims that cultures can be distinguished by the distances at which members interact and how frequently members touch (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 74). Proxemics is relevant to all cultures although the significance of proxemics, and in particular the perception of space violation and respect, differs from one culture to the next (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1988, p. 124). Generally, participants of an intercultural encounter will maintain greater distances from each other than an interaction between people of the same race or culture (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 127). When examining cultural differences in regard to proxemics, it is important to note the existence of high contact and low contact cultures. High contact cultures, usually cultures in warmer climates, tend to maintain closer personal distances. Increased tactile behaviour is customary in such cultures. This is not the case in low contact cultures, usually cultures in cooler climates, wherein people tend to maintain a greater personal distance and rarely communicate by means of in tactile behaviour (Tubbs & Moss, 1994, p. 110).

3.5.2. Culture and Paralanguage


According to Daunt, one piece of information which paralanguage provides is with regard to the speakers country or region of origin (Daunt, 1996, p. 35), hence a persons cultural origin is reflected by his/her paralinguistic tendencies. The way in which vocal qualifiers are utilised varies from one culture to another. Argyle discusses the way in which ignorance of this can negatively impact intercultural communication (Argyle, 1988, p. 64).

3.5.3. Culture and Kinesics


A significant amount of research has been carried out on the influence which culture has on kinesics. It is quite common for misunderstanding and confusion to occur during an intercultural interaction due to the variability of kinesic communication (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 140). Cultural variations of bodily expressions can be extreme. There are numerous expressions which are shared universally, yet have extremely different, in some cases opposite, meanings across different cultures (DeVito, 2012, pp. 133-135). That said, some expressions, particularly facial expressions, have universal currency (Daunt, 1996, p. 33). Additionally, certain cultures employ a significant amount of bodily communication whilst other cultures use

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very little in comparison. Such cultures have a much broader kinesic vocabulary and as a result, kinesic communication is much richer and more useful in these cultures (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 45).

3.5.4. Culture and Physical Characteristics


Culture is extremely relevant to communication through appearance and physical characteristics. As Berko et al. explain; [a]ttractiveness is in the eye of the beholder. What it means to be attractive differs from culture to culture (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 72). Aside from attractiveness cultural inferences on appearance and physical characteristics will affect most intercultural interactions. For example, the colour of a persons skin is often reflective of his/her place of origin, something that will have a significant impact on the communication process (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 142).

3.5.5. Culture and Artifactics


Close linked to appearance and physical characteristics, is the use of artefacts. It is universally recognized that certain clothes and bodily decoration represent wealth and status. Certain pieces of clothing or body adornments are especially relevant to culture as they intentionally symbolise membership or allegiance to a specific group (Argyle, 1988, p. 67).

3.5.6. Culture and Chronemics


Cultural effects on chronemics communication vary from the temporal regulation of an individual conversation to the way in which punctuality may be interpreted (DeVito, 2012, p. 133). Certain cultures do not have a concrete notion of time and instead see time as a vague sense of the present (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 133). Berko et al. refer to this sense of time as circular time in which there is no anxiety about the future and existence involves merely producing enough to survive. They compare this to alternative societies perception of time, namely linear time which focuses primarily on the future (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 76).

3.5.7. Culture and Haptics


The existence of high-contact and low-contact cultures should again be observed here. In simple terms, interactions between people in a high-contact culture tend to 25

involve a significant amount of physical contact. Conversely, in a low-contact culture, there is little or no tactile communication between communicators during an interaction (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1988, p. 126). Bodily contact during an interaction of a same-sex dyad is common in a high-contact culture and does not suggest that those involved are homosexual as would be the case in a low-contact culture (Argyle, 1988, p. 61). Due to the intimate nature of haptics, ignorance to cultural differences regarding touching as a form of communicating can cause significant confusion and discomfort in during an intercultural encounter (DeVito, 2012, pp. 135-136).

3.6. Conclusion
Culture is, in a sense, indefinable. Sociological research suggests that it is omnipresent in any society and encompasses almost every aspect of our existence; how and why people have come to the presence in which they abide and the way in which people subsist in, and develop the world they have created. The overall potency of culture in any human civilisation inevitably means it will have a considerable effect on communication within that civilisation, thus the NVC characteristics of any human civilisation will be formulated and shaped by culture. Consequently, in any multicultural or intercultural society, a vast accumulation of NVC types will exist. In order to effectively amalgamate various cultures to achieve an intercultural society, inhabitants must respect, acknowledge, and, to an extent, develop fluency of each form of NVC within that society. It is clear that every element of NVC examined in the previous chapter varies according to culture. The previous section proves that ignorance with regard to this variability can cause significant confusion and misunderstanding between different cultures. Due to the overall significance of communication in the context of teaching and learning, ethnological implications are inevitably relevant to education. The subsequent chapter amalgamates this concept with psychological perspectives examined in Chapter 2 to establish the overall relevance of NVC in the context of teaching and learning.

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4. NVC in The Context of Teaching and Learning with Reference to Culture


4.1. Introduction
There can be no mutual understanding without communication (Rayudu, 2010, p. 2). As such, teaching cannot take place without communication hence ones ability to communicate, be it verbally or nonverbally, will significantly influence his/her pedagogical competence. Previous chapters focus on psychological and sociological perspectives on NVC. This chapter seeks to amalgamate these two areas of research and apply information obtained as it is relevant to education. In this chapter each element of NVC is analysed as it relevant to teaching and learning according to data obtained throughout previous chapters.

4.2. Education and NVC with Reference to Culture


4.2.1. Proxemics, Culture, and Education
In keeping with the exploration of proxemics in Chapter 2, it could be argued that evidence of this element of NVC is omnipresent in a school environment. If the criteria associated with territoriality examined in subsection 3.5.1 are applied to a typical second level education situation, the teachers desk, the principals office, or a corner of the school yard which a certain group of pupils usually inhabit, could all be considered examples of territoriality. Similarly, criteria associated with proximity analysed in the same subsection would suggest that the distances at which teachers interact with pupils, and pupils interact with other pupils would be significantly influenced by proxemic communication. Looking back at DeVitos differentiation of primary, secondary, and public territory (DeVito, 2012, pp. 126-127), it is possible to identify numerous concrete examples of each of the three categories of territory within any school environment. Burgoon et al.s criteria of a primary territory are that it is individual, central to the life of the person who occupies it, and reflective of that persons personality and identity (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). A principals office would fit these criteria, as would a teachers desk, and, in some cases, a pupils locker. As such, when a pupil enters a principals office, he/she is entering the principals personal territory, something which is personal and precious to the individual principal. In addition to the 27

space being exceptionally precious to the occupant, the occupant will be unquestionably dominant within the space (DeVito, 2012, p. 126). Both the principal and the pupil will be inadvertently aware of all of this, thus it will inevitably affect any communication which takes place between them within the office. There will be a similar effect when a pupil approaches a teachers desk. The teachers desk is his/her primary territory. Therefore he/she will dominate communication which takes place near that desk. Whilst a teachers desk would be considered a primary territory, a pupils desk remains within the criteria of secondary territory (this is assuming that the teacher is in his/her home room which he/she has been designated and is the room which he/she teaches the majority of his/her lessons). Assuming the pupil will inhabit the desk for a maximum of one or two class periods per day, the likelihood of him/her personalizing that desk to reflect his/her personality is minimal. As such it is not in keeping with Burgoon et al.s defining characteristics of a primary territory. That is not to say that said pupil does not feel any owner-ship like attachment to that desk. The desk has most likely been assigned to the pupil. Even if only for a short period each day, the pupil recurrently inhabits the desk and any time the pupil resides within that particular classroom, they do so in that particular desk. Consequently the desk is a secondary territory. Although it is a semi-public area, there are informal rules which regulate ownership of the space, thus it perfectly correlates with the definition of secondary territory (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). DeVito actually uses the example of a pupils desk within a school classroom to describe secondary territory (DeVito, 2012, p. 126). The significance of territoriality is important for a teacher to observe here. Any teacher must be mindful that an individual pupils desk is somewhat exclusive and personal to the pupil. Should the pupil be requested to share or vacate his/her desk during a lesson, for the purposes of a group work activity for example, the teacher should be cognizant and respectful of the pupils secondary territory to ensure that there is no sense of intrusiveness or invasion felt by that pupil. Public territory, namely that which is entirely public and freely accessible to anyone (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126), can be observed within a school environment although it is seemingly insignificant in the context of teaching and learning. However, as seen in Chapter 2, one important variable regarding territory classification is that a single place can have different meanings to different people. In other words, a place which one person would see as public territory may be the 28

secondary territory of a person who regularly occupies it (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 126). For example, a common area within a school may be a public and therefore insignificant space for a teacher. For a group of pupils who frequently inhabit the area however, secondary territory will have been established. It is vital that teachers observe and acknowledge this so that interactions which take place within can occur effectively and successfully. Of the four proxemic zones examined in Chapter 2, it is difficult to distinguish a standard proxemic zone in which pupils and teachers interact. Due to the variability of pupil/teacher interactions, it could be argued that said interactions range across three, or in some cases all four of Halls proxemic zones (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 74). For example, if a pupil is seated at the back of a large classroom he/she may well be at a distance of more than twelve feet from the teacher, hence he/she is in what is defined as the public zone. However, a pupil sitting at the front of the same classroom may be at a distance of as little as three or four feet from the teacher. This pupil would be in the personal proxemic zone as it is defined within the literature. As seen in Chapter 2, the proximity of any interaction will inevitably affect communication therein. This is something which a teacher should be cognizant of while organising seating plans. A teacher is free to move around a classroom whilst teaching, thus knowledge of proxemic distances and the way in which they affect communication could be utilised by a teacher in such a way that enhances communication and promotes learning. Perhaps the most important aspect of the examination of proxemics that is applicable to teaching and learning is regarding personal space. Personal space is important to us because we feel that if someone touches our body, he or she is attacking us because, in essence, we are our body (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 73). Any teacher must acknowledge and respect the personal space of pupils. Invasion of this personal space is seen as an intrusion and can potentially make the pupil involved extremely uncomfortable. Irrespective if the nature of the interaction, a teacher must never invade the personal space of a pupil. As disclosed in Chapter 3, personal space will vary according to cultural variations. An acceptable proxemic distance in one culture may not be appropriate to another culture (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1988, pp. 124-125). Any teacher must be cognizant when interacting with pupils of differing

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cultural origins in order to ensure communication is comfortable and effective for all involved. Chapter 2 discloses a discussion on Hargie et al.s examination on the effect which physical orientation can have on NVC (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 55). Daunt specifically addresses the significance of this element of NVC in a classroom environment (Daunt, 1996, p. 26) raising some interesting questions within his discussion. Considering Benthams observations on seating arrangements (Bentham, 2002, p. 154), the correlation between the physical orientation of people within a classroom and the effectiveness of communication within is quite clear. In short, a single generic classroom layout will not be sufficient for all lessons. This is due to variability of teaching and learning methodology resulting in accordingly variable communication requirements. The effect of physical orientation is also of significant relevance in a situation where a teacher is interacting with an individual pupil. For example, if a teacher sits directly opposite a pupil at a single desk, it indicates competitiveness between the two, whereas if the teacher sits beside the pupil on the same side of the desk, communication will most like be more co-operative (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, pp. 55-56). Depending on the nature of the interaction, a teacher should be aware of the way in which physical orientation will affect communication and position him/her-self accordingly.

4.2.2. Paralanguage, Culture, and Education


Capel et al. compare a teachers voice to a musical instrument which, if played correctly, will result in pupils becoming an appreciative and responsive audience (Capel, Leask, & Turner, 2013, p. 130). Chapter 2 examined vocal qualifiers namely pitch, speed, volume, tone, accent, and use of pause. Capel et al. apply the relevance of various vocal qualifiers to teaching and learning. They outline the importance volume control by projecting ones voice when teaching as opposed to shouting. They also recommend a teacher to vary the volume, pitch, speed, tone, and accent in order to maintain an animated and, where appropriate, dramatic teaching voice. As with any NVC situation, the effect of cultural variations ought to be observed when applying the effect of paralanguage to teaching and learning. In keeping with Argyles discussion examined in Chapter 3 on problems associated with cultural variation regarding paralanguage (Argyle, 1988, p. 64), a teacher should acknowledge 30

that meanings associated with vocal qualifiers vary from on culture to another. As such he/she must be aware that a pupil from a different cultural origin may be confused by his/her use of vocal qualifiers. Additionally, according to Daunts observation that paralanguage can convey messages about a persons origin (Daunt, 1996, p. 35), a teacher may be able to obtain information relevant to individual pupils by detecting proxemic patterns which could help him/her differentiate effectively. Berko et al. highlight the effect which paralanguage has on persuasion. A faster rate of speech, more intonation, greater volume, and a less halting manner seem to be related to successful attempts at persuasion (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 75). Although persuasion may be a slightly inappropriate word to describe teaching, it could be argued that there is a correlation between the two. The conclusion which can be drawn from this is regarding the effect of the persuasiveness of a teacher on pupils confidence in him/her thus willingness to learn from that teacher. Paralanguage has a relatively large role to play in the level of persuasiveness of a speaker thus a teacher ought to be cognizant of the various vocal qualifiers in order to teach persuasively and confidently. As previously discussed, use of pause is a vocal qualifier. Hargie et al. discuss the effectiveness of pausing while questioning; questioning being a broadly used teaching tool. Pausing before a question stimulates the attention of the listener while pausing after a question gives the listener time to respond. Further silent time after an answer is given may result in the respondent continuing to speak and elaborating on his/her answer (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 117). As Petty states, the longer you [the teacher] pause, the more thinking the students do, and the longer their answers become (Petty, 2009, p. 193).

4.2.3. Kinesics, Culture, and Education


The examination of kinesics encompasses numerous dimensions as explored in Chapter 2. These include facsics, ocalics, and gestics. The examination of facsics in Chapter 2 discernibly verified the predominant significance of facsics as a dimension of NVC overall. Whilst it is possible to control and regulate certain elements of NVC, it is remarkably difficult to forge facial expressions (Daunt, 1996, p. 33), thus the majority of facial expressions are sincere and nonbiased. Consequently, a teacher cannot utilise this element of NVC in the same way 31

he/she does with other elements to enhance teaching and learning. For example, a teacher can manage proxemics and spatial communication within a classroom in such a way that enhances teaching and learning. However, he/she does not exercise the same control over facsics. That is not to say that a teacher cannot make use of facsics to enhance education. Facial cues are an extremely effective way of communicating emotions (DeVito, 2012, p. 122); something which could service various classroom situations. For instance, a teacher may be able to sense that a pupil is feeling embarrassed while being verbally questioned on a subject topic by reading the pupils emotional s tate through his/her facial expressions. This would enable the teacher to bring said pupil back into his/her comfort zone by scaffolding the pupil to the correct answer with some lower order questions or permitting peer assistance. Thus, the teacher has employed his/her knowledge of facsics to enhance teaching and learning. This is a hypothetical instance of the way in which kinesics could be positively utilised for educational purposes. Recalling the sociological examination of kinesics in Chapter 3, it may not always be this simple to apply kinesics to a typical classroom situation. Said examination proved that kinesic patterns are not generic to all cultures (DeVito, 2012, pp. 133-135). As such, if the pupil in the instance above happened to be from a different cultural origin, the teacher in question should be cognizant that the pupil may be nervous even if the typical signs of nervousness as he/she knows them are not obvious. The function which facsics serves to a teacher is similar to that of ocalics. As eye communication is almost impossible to disguise or mock, ocalics is not something which a teacher should attempt to manipulate to enhance education, but instead employ his/her knowledge of this element of NVC to profit teaching and learning. Ocalics are specifically useful for the regulating function of NVC examined in Chapter 2 (DeVito, 2012, p. 124). It is interesting to observe the Socratic Method here. Gadotti describes the Socratic Method as follows; using systematic and methodical doubt, he [Socrates] proceeded by analysis and synthesis, elucidating the terms of questions in dispute, enabling truth to be born as if it were a birth in which he-the master-were just an instigator and provoker, and the disciple were the true discoverer and creator (Gadotti, 1996, p. 9). In order for this process to take place effectively, be it in the ancient times of Socrates or in a modern classroom, meticulously structured verbal dialogue must occur. A teacher may use his/her eyes to regulate verbal dialogue with a pupil thus 32

effective use of ocalics could be imperative to a teacher employing the Socratic Method. A teacher may also employ ocalics to measure the level of pupil engagement. Berko et al.s examination of pupilometrics would suggest simply that an audience of learners with enlarged pupils are interested and engaged whilst an audience of learners with contracted pupils are most like bored and disengaged (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 67). It is useful to exemplify the Socratic Method again when considering the usefulness of gestics in the context of teaching and learning. The above quotation suggests that allowing the learner to discover his/her own conclusions and, in a sense, independently create new knowledge is an imperative part of Socrates philosophy. There may be times when a teacher would like to guide or prompt a pupil without verbal interruption. In this case, the substituting function of NVC could be employed by the effective use of emblems, examined in Chapter 2. For example, a head nod or thumbs up may signify to a pupil that he/she is on route to an accurate conclusion and should progress and elaborate on that line of thought. With adequate knowledge of gestics, a teacher can send this message without interrupting the pupil. Again, this is a hypothetical instance and cannot be applied to all situations due to cultural inferences. As seen in Chapter 3, certain cultures use of gestural communication is limited. Inevitably, a pupil who is of this type of cultural origin will have limited comprehension of certain gestures and their meanings. As such, it would not be advisable for a teacher to attempt to communicate to this pupil by use of gestics. The concept of illustrators as a dimension of kinesics was also examined in Chapter 2. Illustrators serve the complimenting and accenting functions of NVC as seen in Chapter 2. This may be particularly useful to a teacher of the technical subjects. A primary aim of the Technical Graphics Junior Certificate course is with regard to developing pupils visuo-spatial abilities, as can be seen in the subject syllabus (Qualification). Due to the nature of visuo-spatial knowledge, it is exceedingly difficult to develop associative cognitive processes by using verbal communication alone, hence the premeditated and deliberate use of illustrators is imperative for a teacher of the technical subjects. In the authors experience of teaching technical subjects, graphics and schematics are a basic necessity to aid the explanation of certain graphical concepts. The function of illustrators in the context of verbal and nonverbal communication could be considered a direct equivalent of the function of graphics and schematics in the 33

context of written text in a subject text book. As such, if the afore mentioned graphics and schematics are considered such imperative teaching aids, it would be unfeasible not to pay the same regard to illustrators as a means of complimenting and accenting spoken dialogue. Although the face and eyes are the predominant communicators of ones emotional state gestics also serves what Berko et al. refer to as affect displays (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 68). Previously, the usefulness of a teacher sensing a pupil feeling embarrassed or anxious was exemplified. In certain cultures, excessive hand movements and fidgeting would also signify such anxiety (Hargie, Saunders, & Dickson, 1994, p. 46), hence with adequate knowledge of gestics, a teacher would be able to read such signals and react accordingly. The effect of ocalics on regulating communicative flow was previously discussed. Gestics can serve the same function. In conjunction with ocalics, a teacher may employ certain gestures to regulate communicative flow. For example, a head nod may signify to a pupil to continue speaking as previously observed. The previous subsection included a discussion on the use of NVC to enhance questioning techniques with particular reference to so called wait time. Occasionally, a situation may arise where said wait time causes confusion. For example, pupils may assume that the teacher has asked a rhetorical question and does not expect a response. In this case the teacher could signify that he/she actually is awaiting response by means of a hand gesture.

4.2.4. Physical Characteristics, Culture, and Education


It is quite clear from the examination of appearance and physical characteristics in Chapter 2 that said elements of NVC will inevitably affect any communication situation, including communication within a school. As such, the physical characteristics of a teacher, and indeed of pupils, will inevitably affect teaching and learning. One observation made during the earlier examination of this topic is the natural prejudice society holds against people who, according to criteria set by the same society, are unattractive. It is important to note that although physical attractiveness is imperative with regard to sexual preferences (Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 1994, p. 141), it serves numerous other communicative functions as observed in Chapter 2. As such it can affect communication between an adult teacher and juvenile pupil without any element of paedophilia. If a teacher is to treat all pupils fairly an equally, he/she must essentially ignore the physical attractiveness or unattractiveness of pupils. That is 34

not to say a teacher should entirely blind him/herself to the physical appearance of pupils. As discussed in Chapter 2, although judgements made from assessment of a persons physical characteristics can potentially be biased, there is also a great deal of information which could be very useful to a teacher available through this element of NVC. A teachers own physical appearance will also communicate to pupils; something a teacher should be cognizant of when presenting him/herself (Capel, Leask, & Turner, 2013, p. 141).

4.2.5. Artifactics, Culture, and Education


The examination of artifactics in Chapter 2 incorporated a discussion on clothes and bodily adornments. Due to the nature of secondary schools in Ireland, this form of NVC is very much restricted. The majority of secondary school pupils in Ireland are required to wear a school uniform hence they cannot express themselves through their choice of dress. However, a person wearing a school uniform is unmistakably a school pupil, which in itself proves the communicative function of clothes. School rules often restrict pupils permission to wear jewellery, make up, or other bodily adornments. As a result, a pupil may find it quite difficult to communicate by means of artifactics. A no uniform day may provide a useful opportunity for a teacher to detect aspects of pupils personalities which may not be accessible during other school days. This could provide a teacher with information required for a humanist approach to teaching and learning. In keeping with the humanist approach to teaching and learning artifactual communication may be useful to a teacher to obtain specific information about cultural differences within his/her class. Research of culture specific symbols discussed in Chapter 3 may be helpful when gathering such data. In any case where a teacher is paying tribute to artifactual communication, he/she should be mindful that certain cultures pay high regard to physical presentation. People of this type of culture may be disturbed by seemingly minor criticisms of their physical appearance (Argyle, 1988, p. 68). As examined in Chapter 2, artifactics also encompasses the communicative function of characteristics of the physical environment. Extensive research has been 35

carried out on the effect on education of the physical layout of classrooms (Bentham, 2002, pp. 151-162) (Kyriacou, 2007, pp. 79-82). Due to the variable nature of human beings it can be extremely problematic to determine how the majority of people will react to a specific environment. As a result, the physical layout of a classroom requires persistent examination. Both Kyriacou and Bentham would agree that pupils appreciate the appearance of the classroom as they will realise that genuine thought and consideration goes into creating a conductive learning environment for them (Kyriacou, 2007, p. 79)(Bentham, 2002, p. 153). In many cases, the physical environment within a classroom will be the first thing pupils will observe and assess hence it is the initial element of NVC between teacher and pupils. The overall physical environment of the whole school also carries communicative function, as Hall et al. state [s]chools themselves are elaborate powerful communications of bricks and mortar (Hall & Hall, 1997, p. 365).

4.2.6. Chronemics, Culture, and Education


Irish society is governed by what Berko et al. would categorize as formal time (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin, 2004, p. 77) as seen in Chapter 2. The duration of the academic year, the length of a school day, and the length of each individual class period are all arbitrarily specified. Furthermore, individual teachers may decide to set time limitations on individual stages of each lesson. As such, time is imperatively significant in any school. As discussed in Chapter 3, certain cultures are not accustomed to this consciousness of time. When dealing with a pupil from this type of cultural origin, a teacher must acknowledge that concepts such as punctuality and time limitations may be alien to this pupil. Leach makes an accurate observation in his discussion of appropriate lesson closure that whilst teachers need to pay meticulous attention to time during a lesson, pupils will do this inadvertently (Leach, 2006, p. 70). Kyriacou addresses the issue of punctuality; naturally, a lesson will be more productive if it commences on time. He also recommends the avoidance of dead time by utilising time which could potentially be entirely unproductive carrying out peripheral tasks (Kyriacou, 2007, pp. 54-55). As discussed in Chapter 2, humans have a natural emotional response to time. It could be argued that this is the reason for pupils variability with regard to behaviour 36

and ability to concentrate according to different times of the day and week. Leach recommends that, as opposed to teachers remaining entirely apathetic to this and attempting to push pupils to their intellectual limits regardless of the time of the lesson, effective and strategic planning should occur to ensure that those potentially difficult periods are successful and productive (Leach, 2006, p. 82). Although the consciousness of time can be extremely useful in creating an efficient and productive educational environment, peoples obsession with time and tendency to focus on the future could potentially limit learning. Many secondary schools are currently focused on assessment and exams. This results in assessment becoming front loaded and controlling the content of many lessons as teachers and pupils are constantly concerned about time remaining prior to exams in which course work must be completed. Inevitably, this will result in pupils trying to learn material solely for the purpose of passing an exam and forgetting the intrinsic reward of natural learning.

4.2.7. Haptics, Culture, and Education


It is well documented that, as a general rule, physical contact between teachers and pupils should be avoided (INTO, 2014). This makes it difficult for teachers to communicate directly to pupils by means of haptics. A teachers knowledge of tactile behaviour may be somewhat useful for pupil observation however. As observed in Chapter 2, tactile behaviour is a natural human tendency. As such, pupils are inevitably going to touch each other. Observing the type of tactile communication occurring according to DeVitos categorization observed in Chapter 2 (DeVito, 2012, p. 129), may inform a teacher as to whether touch is positive or negative. Positive touch is harmless and would not require any prevention. Negative touch however could signify to a teacher something which they need to act on, for example, a teacher may be able to witness a pupil being bullied by aggressive or malicious tactile behaviour. Certain pupils may be of a low-contact cultural origin; a concept discussed in Chapter 3. Said pupils may be touch avoidant and uncomfortable with large amounts of physical contact (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1988, p. 127), something a teacher ought to be attentive of when planning classroom activities which may inadvertently result in increased physical contact.

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4.3. Conclusion
Effective communication and consequently NVC is essential to any aspect of education. Every element of NVC can be applied to various teaching and learning situations. As such, teachers knowledge of the synthesis of NVC will inevitably affect their practice. A teacher who is sufficiently knowledgeable of the syntax of NVC will have significantly superior communication skills. These communication skills will serve to enhance the teaching and learning that will take place within any and all classroom and whole school situations.

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5. Conclusion
The study of communication is a complex and diverse discipline. Of all types of communication, interpersonal communication is the most common in teaching and learning situations. At the heart of any interpersonal encounter lies NVC as it accounts for more than two thirds of communication which takes place. In many cases NVC is more relevant than verbal communication as the inability to mock or disguise nonverbal messages makes many forms of NVC entirely sincere and non-biased. NVC skills are partly innate and partly learned. It is possible for NVC to function independently and occur where no verbal communication is present thus substituting verbal communication. More predominantly, NVC functions in conjunction with verbal communication. This occurs through functions which aid and supplement verbal communication such as complementing and accenting. It can also occur through functions which contradict verbal messages such as the conflicting function. There are other functions such as regulating and defining social patterns and relationships which neither accessorize nor hinder the verbal message yet are imperative aspects of the communication process. Numerous elements of NVC serve these functions. Proxemics can be subcategorized into territoriality and proximity. Human beings have a natural tendency to communicate through space. This can be observed by the communicative function of certain spaces and monopoly associated with these spaces; a concept collectively known as territoriality. Whilst territoriality concerns immovable geographic areas, proximity examines individual peoples personal space and the distances at which people interact. Paralanguage is the study of vocal influence of spoken words. This can occur in a variety of different ways to serve a variety of functions previously discussed. Kinesics encompasses communication through the face, eyes, and bodily gestures. For the most part, it is quite difficult to intentionally send or receive messages by means of physical characteristics although this element retains significant communicative function. Closely related to physical characteristics is artifactics which examines the relevance which manmade objects, both bodily adornments and artefacts within the surrounding environment, have on communication. Time carries communicative function; a concept which is examined by chronemics. Haptics explores communication by means of physical bodily contact and touch. Tactile

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communication can convey numerous messages serving various functions of NVC. All elements of NVC examined are affected by culture in some way. Culture affects almost every aspect of human existence. In a world comprised of societies compiled of various cultures, there are numerous models of acculturation. Whilst multiculturalism and assimilation integrate various cultures within one society, interculturalism results in a positive amalgamation of cultures which enriches and empowers all involved. Ethnological implications are imperatively significant to all types of communication thus every element of NVC is affected by culture in some way. Adequate knowledge of such cultural variations will profoundly enhance intercultural communication thus enrich any aspect of intercultural society. The ability to communicate is essential to any teacher. Due to the potency of NVC as a dimension of communication, knowledge of the synthesis of NVC will significantly enhance pedagogical competence. This can be observed by the relevance of each and all elements of NVC in the context of teaching and learning. Various examples of territoriality can be observed in an educational environment. Similarly, the way in which those present in an educational environment utilise personal space and interact at specific distances to each other is a concrete example of proximity. A teachers knowledge of proxemics will accredit him/her with the ability to utilise spatial communication in such a way that makes interactions and communication overall more productive and successful. All teachers (excluding extenuating circumstances such as vocally impaired teachers) possess an inbuilt potentially powerful teaching resource, namely their voice. Familiarity with paralanguage and the communicative function of the voice will grant a teacher to effectively exploit this teaching resource. For the most part, a teacher should not attempt to control or manipulate kinesics. Instead, he/she should utilise his/her expertise of this element of NVC in such a way that it can be applied to thus enrich various classroom situations. The requirement for a teacher to be knowledgeable of physical characteristics as an element of NVC is threefold. The natural tendency for people to judge others on the basis of their physical attractiveness is something which a teacher should combat. However, a teacher can assess pupils physical characteristics for positive results. Pupils will inevitably assess a teachers physical characteristics hence his/her appearance 40

carries communicative function. Appearance can be influenced by clothes and bodily adornments collectively examined through artifactics. Such elements of NVC may also be useful to a teacher who wishes to obtain knowledge about specific pupils, especially useful when differentiating according to cultural variation. Artifactics also concerns objects within an environment which hold communicative function. The way in which individual classrooms and whole schools are maintained and furbished will communicate certain messages to pupils which will inevitably affect their emotions and attitudes. Time is omnipresent in an educational environment. Expertise of temporal communication, known as chronemics, will empower a teacher to utilise time in such a way that will result in efficient and productive teaching and learning. Although direct tactile communication between teachers and pupils should in most cases be avoided, a teacher can utilise his/her knowledge of haptics to assess inter-pupil relationships for positive outcome. NVC is profoundly significant in the context of teaching and learning. Education is essentially dependent on NVC. With adequate knowledge of the functions of NVC and the way in which the elements of NVC serve said functions, bearing in mind cultural variations, a teacher can utilise NVC in his/her classroom in such a way that profoundly enriches the teaching and learning that takes place within.

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