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Pengoperasian Pembangkit

Tenaga Listrik
Dosen
Ir.Syariffuddin Mahmudsyah,M.Eng.
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 2
TRANSMISSION LINE
Construction
The major components are:
Shield conductors for lightning
protection. (When necessary)
Tower (lattice or tubular)
Phase conductors
Insulators (V string shown)
Foundation and grounding
Typical Extra High Voltage Line
grounding
grounding
Foundation
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TRANSMISSION LINE
220kV
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TRANSMISSION LINE
69 and 13.8kV
69kV
13.8kVkV
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TRANSMISSION LINE
Cup and pin Insulator
Insulator chain
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Cup and pin Insulator
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Phase Conductors
Transmission lines use
stranded aluminum
conductors.
Typical type of conductors are:
Aluminum-Conductor-steel
-Reinforced (ACSR)
All-Aluminum (AAC)
All-Aluminum Alloy
(AAAC)
Shield Conductors
Aluminum-clad-steel
(Alumoweld)
Extra-High-Strength-Steel
ACSR Conductors
Most frequently used is the
ACSR conductor. The steel
provides mechanical strength,
and the aluminum conducts the
current.
Aluminum strands
2 layers,
24 conductors
Steel strands
7 conductors
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 8
Conductors
Extra high voltage lines use
bundle conductors:
to reduce corona discharge.
to increase current carrying
capacity.
Bundles with two, three and
four conductors are used.
The distance between the
conductors in the bundle is
maintained by steel or
aluminum bars (spacers) as
indicated in the figure.
Bundle conductors
d
d
r
d
r
d
r
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 9
Parameters
Series AC Resistance
Series Inductance
Shunt Capacitance
AC Resistance
The stranded conductor resistance is larger than the solid conductor
resistance because spiraling of the strands increases the actual length.
AC resistance is larger than the DC resistance because the skin effect forces
the current toward the conductor surface.
Resistance increases with the temperature.
Resistance of most line conductors is determined from conductor tables.
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 10
Typical conductor table from EPRI Red book (ACSR):
TRANSMISSION LINE
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Three Phase Line.
The conductors of a long transmission line are usually transposed.
The concept of transposition is shown in the figure below.
In an actual line, the difference of the flux linkage is relatively small.
This permits the calculation of an average distance GMD
(Geometrical Equivalent Distance) and uses the equation derived for
symmetrical (triangular) arrangement. This method is correct only if
the line is transposed. However, a good approximation is obtained
even if it is not transposed.
A
A
A B
B
B
C
C
C
TRANSMISSION LINE
3
BC AC AB
D D D GMD =
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 12
Three Phase Line Parameters
Calculate inductance and
capacitance:
TRANSMISSION LINE
m
Henry

0
7 -
10 4 t =
m
Farad



t
c
36
10
-9
0
=
m
Henry



0
|
|
.
|

\
|
t

=
bundle
A
GMR
GMD
ln
2

L
m
Farad

0
|
|
.
|

\
|
c t
=
undle b
AG
r
GMD
ln
2
C
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 13
Three Phase Line Parameters
1. Find the r, the GMR
c
and the resistance from the conductor tables.
2. Calculate the equivalent radius or GMR for bundle of two, three and four
conductors :
.
One conductor (no bundle):
r
bundle
= r
c
GMR
bundle
= GMR
c
Two conductor bundle
TRANSMISSION LINE
c
r d r
bundle
=
C bundle
GMR d GMR =
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 14
Three Phase Line Parameters
2. Calculate the equivalent radius or GMR for bundle of two, three and four
conductors :
. Three-conductor bundle:
Four-conductor bundle:
3. Calculate the equivalent distance GMD:
TRANSMISSION LINE
3

BC AC AB
D D D GMD=
3
C
2
bundle
GMR d GMR =
3
c
2
bundle
r d r =
4
c
3
bundle
r d 1.09 r =
4
C
3
bundle
GMR d 1.09 GMR =
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 15
Three Phase Line Equivalent Circuit
Short line
The transmission line is considered short if the lengths is less than 50
miles.
The capacitance in a short line is negligible. Only the resistance and
reactance are considered.
The equivalent circuit represents the A phase and is energized by the
line to neutral voltage.
The equivalent circuit is:
V
S
I
R
V
R
I
S
R
jX
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 16
Three Phase Line Equivalent Circuit
Medium line
The medium line length is between 50-150 miles.
The medium line is represented by a t circuit.
The equivalent circuit represents the A phase and is energized by the
line to neutral voltage.
The equivalent circuit is:
j X
V
S
V
R
I
S
R
C/2 C/2
I
cs I
I
CR
I
r
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 17
Three Phase Line Equivalent Circuit
Long line
The long line has a length of more than 150 miles.
The long line is represented by a circuit with distributed parameters.
The voltage and current is described by a distance and time functions.
These functions are calculated by solving the line partial differential
equations.
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 18
Three-Phase Line. Numerical Exercise
A 220 kV transmission line serves a variable load with a pf = 0.9
(lagging). The maximum load is 200MW. The load voltage is maintained
at 220 kV. The line length is 85 miles.
The line is built with two bundle CARDINAL conductors arranged
horizontally. The distance between the conductors in the bundle is 18.
The distance between the adjacent phases is 26 ft. The ground clearance
is 50 ft.
a) Draw the line arrangement.
b) Calculate the line parameters.
c) Calculate and plot the required supply voltage, the input apparent
power, the regulation, and the efficiency of the line as a function of the
load.
TRANSMISSION LINE
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Numerical Exercise. Solution steps
1. Draw the line arrangement.
TRANSMISSION LINE
26ft 26ft
50ft
18
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Numerical Exercise. Solution steps
2. Calculation of the line parameters
Find conductor: radius, GMR
c
and resistance from conductors
table
From the conductors table, the CARDINAL conductor has the following data:
GMR =0.0404 ft
R =0.1191 ohm/mile at 75 C
conductor diameter = 1.196
Line resistance
GMR of the bundle conductors
Equivalent phase distance or GMD
Line inductance
Line Capacitance
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 21
Numerical Exercise. Solution steps
3) Calculation of supply voltage, and
input apparent power.
Order of calculation:
Load current
Capacitive receiving
current (I
CR
)
Line current
Source voltage
Capacitive sending current (I
CS
)
Source current
Input apparent power
All of these quantities are calculated as a function of the load
V
S
I
R
V
R
I
S R
jX
C
AG
/2
C
AG
/2
I
cs I
I
CR
Equivalent circuit.
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 22
Questions to ponder:
What has caused public discussions regarding transmission line
generated magnetic fields in recent years?
What is the reason that a 500 kV line in Arizona has two shield
conductors and most 15 kV line have none?
The insulators are in vertical position on most transmission line
towers. However, insulators are in a horizontal position on some
towers. Explain.
TRANSMISSION LINE
4/30/2014 360 Topic 3. Transmission Lines 23
Distribution line 13.8 kV
Transformer
240/120V line
Fuse and disconnector
Telephone line
Distribution Cable 13.8 kV
Distribution line and Transformer