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Lecturer : SYARIFFUDDIN MAHMUDSYAH

INDONESIA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BLUE PRINT

LAMPIRAN-LAMPIRAN

PERKEMBANGAN PLTN DI DUNIA

LAMPIRAN 1

4 10 1 31 1 7 17 59 5 9 1

6 6 4 1 4

31

18

0 15

104

1 2 9

56 20 6

2 15

2 2

Sumber IAEA 2006 Kembali


2

JENIS TEKNOLOGI PLTN YANG DIOPERASIKAN SECARA KOMERSIAL


MWe installed 120,000 (xx) Number of units by constructor
NPI/Framatome
1. 2. ABB (10) 3. 4. (25)

LAMPIRAN 2

PWR ( Reaktor Air Bertekanan Tinggi ) BWR ( Reaktor Air Didih ) HWR ( Reaktor Air Berat ) FBR ( Reaktor Pembiak Cepat )

100,000
(2)

(1)
(6) (17)

80,000
(Perancis)

Westinghouse (USA)

60,000

ABB-CE

General Electric
(USA)

40,000

Framatome ANP

(69)

(78) Mitsubishi
(Jepang)

Hitachi Toshiba

Minatom VVER
(Rusia)

(55) (Jepang) (29)


(51)

AECL
(Kanada)

20,000

B&W (7)

(18)

(32)

PWR

BWR

HWR

FBR

Source AREVA

Kembali

KECELAKAAN NUKLIR YANG PERNAH TERJADI


Skala INES dengan kategori kejadian nuklir NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TINGKAT KEJADIAN Kecelakaan besar Kecelakaan serius Kecelakaan dengan resiko ke lingkungan Kecelakaan tanpa resiko ke lingkungan Peristiwa serius Peristiwa biasa Peristiwa tidak normal Di bawah skala SKALA KEJADIAN Skala 7 Skala 6 Skala 5 Skala 4 Skala 3 Skala 2 Skala 1 Skala 0

LAMPIRAN 3

CONTOH PLTN Chernobyl, Rusia, 1986 Three Mile Island, USA, 1979 Saint Laurent, Perancis, 1980 Vandellos, Spanyol, 1989

Catatan: - Kejadian nuklir pada INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) dikalsifikasikan dalam 7 skala; - Skala 4 s.d. skala 7 dikategorikan sebagai Kecelakaan Nuklir; - Skala 1 s.d. skala 3 dikategorikan sebagai Peristiwa Nuklir; - Kejadian yang tidak memiliki tingkat gangguan keselamatan yang terukur dikategorikan skala 0, dan diistilahkan sebagai Penyi mpangan 1.Pada Three Mile Island seluruh zat radioaktif terkungkung dalam sistem kontaimen sehingga tidak ada korban jiwa. 2.Pada kecelakaan chernobyl menimbulkan korban 31 orang korban jiwa dan kontaminasi lingkungan karena tidak mempunyai kontaimen.

Sumber : INES 2001 Edition IAEA, OECD, NEA

Kembali

PROSPEK PLTN DI DUNIA


KOREA Kapasitas Nuklir bertambah 9 GWe by 2015

LAMPIRAN 4

FINLAND Reaktor ke-5

USA Kapasitas Nuklir bertambah 50 GWe pada 2020


INDIA Kapasitas Nuklir bertambah 18 GWe by 2020

JAPAN Kapasitas Nuklir bertambah 20Gwe by 2015 CINA Kapasitas Nuklir bertambah 30 Gwe by 2020

BRAZIL Program Nuklir bangkit & berkembang

60%

Batubara BBM

Gas Nuklir

EBT Hidro

40%

20%

0% 1900 1950 2000 2050 Sumber : TotalFinaElf

Kembali

LAMPIRAN 5

KEBUTUHAN TENAGA LISTRIK


WILAYAH Jawa-Madura-Bali (JAMALI) URAIAN Kebutuhan SATUAN TWh 2006 87 2010 118 2015 175 2015 250 2025 348

Beban Puncak
Tambahan Pembangkit

GW
GW TWh GW GW TWh GW GW

16
3 24 5 1 111 21 4

21
10 34 7 5 152 28 15

31
21 50 11 9 225 42 30

43
39 72 15 15 322 58 54

59
55 102 21 22 450 80 77

Luar Jamali

Kebutuhan Beban Puncak Tambahan Pembangkit

Indonesia

Kebutuhan Beban Puncak Tambahan Pembangkit

Sumber: RUKN 2005-2025

Kembali

LAMPIRAN 6

GRAFIK KEBUTUHAN TENAGA LISTRIK

TWh 500 400 300 200 100 0 2006 2010 2015 Tahun Kebutuhan Jamali Kebutuhan Luar Jamali Kebutuhan Indonesia
Kembali
7

2020

2025

PANGSA ENERGI PRIMER UNTUK PEMBANGKITAN TENAGA LISTRIK


(Jawa-Madura-Bali)
400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
TWH KOMPOSISI ENERGI

LAMPIRAN 7

Tahun
Batubara Air Gas Panas bumi BBM Nuklir

2005 43% 10% 19% 6% 22% 0%

2025 58% 4% 27% 4% 3% 4%

05 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 20 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Nuklir

Batubara

Panas bumi

Gas

Air

BBM
Kembali
8

POTENSI SUMBER DAYA ENERGI


(Tahun 2004)

LAMPIRAN 8

A. Energi Fosil
JENIS ENERGI Minyak Gas Batubara TOTAL CADANGAN 86,9 miliar bbl 384,7 TSCF 57 miliar ton CADANGAN TERBUKTI 9 miliar bbl 182 TSCF 19,3 miliar ton PRODUKSI 500 juta bbl 3,0 TSCF 130 juta ton CADANGAN/ PRODUKSI 18 tahun 61 tahun 147 tahun

B. Energi Terbarukan
JENIS ENERGI Air Panas Bumi Mini/ Mikro hidro Biomasa Tenaga Surya Tenaga Angin Uranium (Nuklir) 24.112 Ton e.q.3 GW untuk 11 tahun *) Kembali
9

TOTAL CADANGAN 845,00 juta BOE 219,00 juta BOE 458,75 MW

EKIVALEN 75,67 GW 27,00 GW 458,75 MW 49,81 GW 4,8 kWh/m2/hari 9,29 GW

PEMANFAATAN 6.851,00 GWh 2.593,50 GWh

KAPASITAS TERPASANG 10 tahun 62 tahun 147 tahun

* Hanya di daerah Kalan-Kalbar

ENERGI MIX NASIONAL TAHUN 2025


(Sesuai Perpres No. 5 / 2006)

LAMPIRAN 9

Bahan Bakar Nabati (Bio-fuel) 5 %


Batubara 33 %

EBT 17 %
Gas 30 % Minyak Bumi 20 %

Panas Bumi 5 %

Biomasa, Nuklir, Air, Surya, Angin 5 % Batubara yang dicairkan (Coal Liquefaction) 2 %

Kembali

10

Reduction Method of Spent Resin Generated from SG BD Ion Exchangers of PWR NPPS SEP. 12, 2007

Sung, Ki-Bang
kbsung@khnp.co.kr

11

Contents
1. Introduction
2. Review of the early SGBD IX Replace Criteria 3. Experiment of IX Resin Capacity 4. Review of Experimental Results 5. Conclusions

12

KHNPs R&D Institute (1)

13

KHNPs R&D Institute (2)

14

KHNPs R&D Institute (3)

15

1. Introduction (1)
Background

In Project of Kori #3,4 NPP PSR, Main system of LLW Resin : SG BD Demineralizer

Cause : Secondary Side water pH control agent :

NH3 ETA-

AVT The SGBD cation loads was increased about 2~3 times

Spent Resin Radwaste : Large volume and no Industrial waste

Not easy to treat the ash, though spent resin is almost disposal object itself

PSR Team treated as safety issue item PSR Team(NETEC) and Kori 2 Chemistry Section agreed to the problems and solved the sophisticated problems

16

1. Introduction (2)
SG BD system functions
Block the leaked Activities

Recovery Heat

Recovery BD Bleed water

Capacity : 50002ea Design flow : 45/sec Normal flow : 45/sec

17

1. Introduction (3)
Spent IX Resin Source
SFP IX 2.0ton (9.4%)
CVCS IX 3.3ton (18.9%)

15.4ton/Yr (65%)

SG BD Demin

LRW System IX 1.7ton (7.1%)

2.12 t

3.71 t

7.95 t

22.4 ton/Yr

18

1. Introduction (4)
Ion Exchange Resin ?
Model of Ix Resin

Bead of amorphous and sphere type high polymers 100billions IX sites / bead
I X Mech an i s m

19

2. Review of the early SGBD IX Replace Criteria (1)


In Domestic Plants,

IX Resin Replacement Procedures of SGBD IX - No standard Criteria of SGBD IX - Na was a typical ion to determine the IX removal capacity in many plants. - However, Na was not a typical ion to determine IX removal capacity other plants ( See the next page table )
In USA NPPs,
(from EPRI report)

IX Resin Replacing Procedures of SGBD IX - 22 of 73 PWR plant didnt consider the Na ion as IX replacement Criteria
20

2. Review of the early SGBD IX Replace Criteria (2)


Table : IX Exchanger Replacement Criteria of Domestic Plants
Criteria Plnat A Plant B Plant IX Replacing Criteria Operation Demin. Na+ 5ppb Na+. DF 1 After Demin. C.C 0.5 S/ Na, Cl-, SO4-2 2 ppb Na+. Cl-, C.C DF 1 DF = Inlet Conc. Outlet Conc. note

C Plant
D Plant E Plant

SO4-2 DF 1
C.C increase or Na+2ppb C.C0.5S/ Na+, Cl-, SO4-2 2 ppb Na+,

SO4-2 DF 1
C.C0.2 S/ Cl-, SO4-2 2ppb NA 1 Operation, 1 Stand-by

F Plant
G Plant

C.C0.1S/
C.C0.1S/ Na+3 ppb Cl-, SO4-25ppb

NA
NA

21

3. Experiment of IX Resin Capacity (1)


Scheme and Shots

22

3. Experiment of IX Resin Capacity (2)


Ion selectivity experiment with H-type IX resin

E T A

NH
4

Na

Cs

Volume Flow

23

3. Experiment of IX Resin Capacity (3)


ETA, NH4, Na Ion selectivity experiment with Cs-type IX resin

ETA Na

NH
4

Cs

24

4. Review of Experimental Results (1)

E T A NH
4

Same characteristics of new IX Resin

Na Cs
Saturate d IX Resin

E T A

NH
4

N a

Cs

25

4. Review of Experimental Results (2)


Ion Absorbing Capacity on Resin

Experiment : 1/80000 of 2.5 which was equal to 30 of resin capacity and experiment was achieved for resin which is 30 times of addicted chemical m Experimental result (ion selectivity on resin) : H+ < NH4 + ETA+ < Na+ < C
ion concentration Ion ETA+ NH3+ molecular weight (ppm) 61.08 17 122.16 34 system concentratio n (meq/l) (ppm) 2 2 3.5 0.2 ratio with system ion concentration 35 170

Na+
Cs+ total

23
133 101.08

46
266 202.16

2
2 8

0.001
0 3.701

46000
26

4. Review of Experimental Results (3)


ETA Ion Breakthrough Curve Characteristics 0.5 [Output conc./Input conc.] Breakthrough time(T) -> (ETA+NH3) : Na : Cs = 2T : 3T : 4T This phenomenon came from ETA/NH3, Na and Cs s different selectiveness. NH3 NH3 was eluted after ETA and exchange reaction was faster than ETA. NH3 was produced from ETA or N2H4 which removes Oxygen. Na Nas sensitivity was stronger than NH3 or ETA. So, Na was eluted after NH3 or ETA. High Peak position of Na Conc. was overrode on Css conc. 1.0 meq/(half input Conc.) Cs extrude Na

Cs Cs has S-shape breakthrough characteristics like single ion and it was absorbed on IX resin. Cs was not affected by other ions, and Its behavior look like single ion solution.
27

4. Review of Experimental Results (4)


The resin replacement criteria of cation - ETA was not impurity in system, and should not be removed at deminerlizer (On the contrary it should resin be circulated)
- The small Na leakage from new resins was not controlled and excluded at demineralizer exchange criteria. - Even impurities by outside influx was suddenly increased, the impurities concentration should be decreased in proportion to circulating volume as time passes. Impurities, concentration should be decreased. Table. The SG blowdown water quality of PWR
Operation Operation mode reload cold standby (mode 6-5) Startup operation hot shutdown (mode 4) hot standby (mode 3) startup operation (mode 2) Reactor power operation reactor power (5~30%) Na criteria (ppb) 100 100 100 100 100 Cl criteria (ppb) 100 100 100 100 100

reactor power ( 30%)

20

20

28

4. Review of Experimental Results (5)


The resin replacement criteria of IX resin
Na concentration should be less than 100ppb at maximum or stop operation. If the limited concentration at the second step is less than Na 100ppb, the concentration at Na DF 10 should be 10ppb. DF 10 of Na Spec value (20ppb) is 2ppb, and Max conc. of Na is 3ppb at operation over 30% generation. Therefore sum of them is less than 5ppb. The water quality level is less than Na concentration(5ppb). Therefore, improvement of cation resin change criteria is that the Na outlet conc. is reasonable to be selected less than 5ppb. Cl , SO4-2 and Conductivity would be derived from system parameters as below.
The resin exchange criteria of SG blowdown demineralizer - exchange criteria of mixed bed : [Na, Cl 5 ppb ] - reference exchange criteria : [SO4-2 5 ppb, C.C 0.3/ ]
29

4. Review of Experimental Results (6)


The SGBD Ion Exchangers cation/anion mixing ratio Table : Ion load for water quality of flow water
Item Ion Max.conc (ppb) M.W (g./mol) Considered ETA, NH4 Ion load ( x 10-9 eq/) not considered ETA, NH4

ETA
NH4+ N2H4 Na+

5,000
500 50 20

61.08
17.00 32.00 23.00 total

81.86
29.41 1.56 0.87 115.05 Max organic acid x 1

NA
NA 1.56 0.87 3.78 Max organic acid x 5 0.56 0.42 1.66 1.67 1.31 2.17 7.80

Anion ClSO4-2 SiO2Acetic acid Glycolic acid Formic acid 20 20 100 20 20 20 35.50 96.06 60.08 60.05 76.05 46.02 total

0.56 0.42 1.66 0.333 0.263 0.435 3.67

30

4. Review of Experimental Results (7)


The SGBD Ion Exchangers cation/anion mixing ratio
Table. Calculated Resin Volume with system ion loads
Ion Load of System (x10-9 eq/) ETA considering Cation Anio n Max organic acid x 1 Max organic acid x 5 115 3.67 7.80 Calculated Resin Volume capacity (x 10-9 resin) ETA considering 63.9 3.1 2.1 ETA not considering 6.5 3.1 2.1

Item

Resin

ETA not considerin g


3.78 3.67 7.80

Removal Capacity of Resin * (eq / resin) 1.8 1.2 1.2

SG BD demineralizers cation/anion resin mixing ratio - the ratio of cation and anion resin was 10 : 1 considered ETA load - the ratio of cation and anion resin was 1 : 3 excluded ETA load - The Mixing ratio of Resin (margin : ETA elution effects) 3 : 1
31

5. Conclusions (1)
Saturated IX with ETA Capture the Na and Cs ion
Satisfaction of PWR FSARs Requirements

Confirm the cation IX Resin Selectivity in ETA solution + + + + +


Cs > Na > ETA NH4 > H

Verify the Cs ion Selectivity of H-, ETAsaturated IX

No load IX Resin for ETA or NH4

Confirm the Na ion Selectivity in ETA solution


Satisfaction of EPRI secondary water Guidelines

32

5. Conclusions (2)

1
Establish Spent Resin change Criteria

2
Standardization Spent Resin Criteria and Mixing IX Resin

3
Obtain ion Selectivity for
H-type ion

Technical Effects
Examined Nas behavior in system

33

5. Conclusions (3)
Reduce Spent IX resin(370t/yr) Save the Cost(3.3billionWon/total

Reduce works on Radiation area Min. Radiation Exposure

Min. Low Level Radioactive Wastes

Other Effects
Water quality treatment tech. Max. removal Capacity of Resin Co-works Solving Problem example with another team

34

Thank you for your attentions !

35