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Dosen : Ir.SYARIFFUDDIN MAHMUDSYAH,M.Eng.

SUMBER ENERGI UNTUK PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK Permasalahan GHG (Gas Rumah Kaca) serta Solusi dengan ENERGI BARU TERBARUKAN

Oil rig & ocean drilling for oil

Oil extraction

Primary Recovery oil rig drilling Only removes 1/3 of a deposit. Secondary Recovery Force water or gas into wells. As oil prices increase, more expensive and aggressive secondary recovery methods will need to be used.

9. Uses of oil - Processing Crude Oil

Oil products

Oil Use Issues

Processing As it comes from the ground, oil is not in a form suitable for use, and must be refined. Multiple products can be produced from a single barrel of crude oil. Oil Spills Accidental spills only account for about 1/3 of oil pollution resulting from shipping. 60% comes from routine shipping operations.
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Advantages of oil use

More concentrated than coal, burns cleaner, and is easily transported through pipelines. Ideal for automobile use. Difficult to extract. Causes less environmental damage than coal mining.

Natural Gas Use

Drilling requirements similar to oil. Hard to transport - flamed off at oil fields. As demand increases, new transportation methods will be developed and implemented. o Liquefaction at -126 F (1/600 volume of gas) Least environmentally damaging fossil fuel. Almost no air pollution. Use is increasing (45% from 1985-2003).
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MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

FLUE GAS CO2 CAPTURE KM-CDR PROCESS

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

Process Flow for Amine Absorption


Flue Gas Outlet CO2

Purity : 99.9 %

ABSORBER

STRIPPER

C.W.

Flue Gas Cooler

C.W.

Flue Gas
C.W.

Reboiler
Steam

MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

Features
KEPCO & MHIs proprietary Flue gas CO2 capturing Technology Hindered Amine Solvent KS-1 with the special proprietary equipment Proprietary energy efficient process Enables large scale unit by MHIs FGD experiences Advantages

KS-1 solvent - High CO2 Loading - Negligible Corrosion - Negligible Solvent Degradation Process - Low Utility & Solvent Consumption - Easy operation & Maintenance Economy - Minimize Operation Costs - Scale of Economy by Large Scale Unit
CONFIDENTIAL

MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

Amine Reaction Mechanism


Mono-ethanol Amine (MEA)

2 R-NH2 + CO2
R-NH2 + CO2 + H2O

R-NH3+ + R-NH-COOR-NH3+ + HCO3-

Sterically Hindered Amine (KS-1)

2 R-NH2 + CO2

R-NH3+ + R-NH-COO-

R-NH2 + CO2 + H2O

R-NH3+ + HCO3-

MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

MHIs Experience on Flue Gas CO2 Recovery


PILOT PLANT

Location
Capacity

: Nanko Power Plant, Osaka, Japan


: Flue Gas 600 Nm3/H CO2 Recovery Rate 2 Ton/D : April, 1991

Start Up

Purpose of the Plant Development of Energy Minimizing Solvent Development of Equipment Size Minimizing Technology Result of the Development

New Solvent KS-1 and KS-2 have been developed. These two solvent can reduce steam consumption about 20% than MEA.
New high efficient and very low pressure loss Packing (KP-1) has been developed. Energy efficient steam systems have been developed.

MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

Malaysia Commercial Plant


Client
Location

: Petronas Fertilizer (Keda) Sdn. Bhd.


: Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia

Flue Gas Source : Steam Reformer Flue Gas


Comp. N2 O2 H2O CO2 Ar SOx NOx vol.% 67.79 0.85 22.28 8.08 1.00 0.85 ppmv 160 ppmv

Capacity

: CO2 Recovery 210 Tons/day Max

CO2 Recovery % : 90% Solvent Use of CO2 : KS-1 Solvent : Urea Production

Start of Operation : October 1999 Project Scope : Turnkey Lumpsum

MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

Operating Result of Malaysia Commercial Plant


CO2 Capturing CO2 purity : : Max. 210 Metric ton/day 99.95 % vol.dry

Utility requirement :
Steam Electricity Cooling water Chemical requirement : 1.5 ton/ton-CO2 18 kWh/ton-CO2 159 m3/ton-CO2

Solvent

0.4-0.5 kg/ton-CO2

MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.

MHIs Experience on MEA Flue Gas CO2 Recovery


150 T/D CO2 Capture Plant
Client Location Feed Gas : Kokusai Tansan : Chiba, Japan : Naphtha Cracked Heavy Oil Firing Boiler Flue Gas
System

Capacity
Use of CO2 Start Up

: Flue Gas 36,500 Nm3/H


: Dry Ice, Etc. : April, 1994