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Direct and Indirect

1. Perubahan Stuktur kalimat Jika kita lihat pada kalimat direct speech, terdapat ciri-ciri yang identik yaitu terdapat tanda petik ("). Tada petik tersebut merupakan cara yang sering digunakan untuk membedakan mana yang direct atau yang indirect. Ketika klimat direct speech tersebut dirubah menjadi kalimat indirect speech, tanda petik tersebut pun dihilangkan atau digantikan dengan kata "that" atau "t " (untuk kalimat perintah). !isalnya" # Direct $peech Indirect $peech 'e said, "I ha(e a present ) r y u in my 'e said that he had a present ) r me in %& bag." his bag. %* 'e asked me, "+hy d y u c me late." 'e asked me +hy I came late. %, 'e rderd me, "d n-t bring a bag." 'e rdered me to didn-t bring a bag. .erubahan struktur kalimat juga terjadi jika pada direct speech menggunakan kalimat tanya, maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat a)irmati) (berita). /ntuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan kalimat tanya "yes-n 0uesti n" maka akan dirubah menjadi i)1+hether. 2 nt hnya" # Direct $peech Indirect $peech They asked me, "Do y u +ant t j in They asked me if/whether I +ant t j in %& us t play ) tball3" them t play ) tball. 'e asked me, "Does she +ant t 'e asked me if/whether she +ants t %* mary me3" mary her. /ntuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan 45&' 0uesti n (5hy, 5h , 5hat, 5hen, 5'ere, ' +), maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat a)irmati) dengan cara sebagai berikut" # %& %* %, %6 %4 Direct $peech 'e asked me, "+hy do y u c me late3" 'e asked me, "+hat does she eat3" 'e asked me, "+hen did y u c me3" 'e asked me, "+h are y u3" 'e asked me, "+h is she3" Indirect $peech 'e asked me +hy y u came late. 'e asked me +hat she ate. 'e asked me +hen I came. 'e asked me +h I +as. 'e asked me +h she +as.

2. Perubahan Tensis (Tenses)

$eperti yang dijelaskan dimuka, perbuahan dari direct ke indirect juga mempengaruhi tensis yang digunakan. Kebanyakan sis+a sulit memahami perubahan yang satu ini. /ntuk itu, penulis sengaja membuatkan tabel perubahan tensis agar mudah dimengerti. Di ba+ah ini adalah tabel .erubahan Tenses dari direct speech ke indirect speech. # %& %* %, %6 %4 %8 %9 Direct $peech Indirect $peech $imple .resent $imple .ast .resent 2 ntinu us .ast 2 ntinu us .resent 7uture .ast 7uture .resent .er)ect .ast .er)ect .resent .er)ect 2 ntinu us .ast .er)ect 2 ntinu us $imple .ast .ast .er)ect .ast 2 ntinu us .ast .er)ect 2 ntinu us

:tau bisa lebih dipermudah dengan tabel berikut di ba+ah ini, yaitu" # %& %* %, %6 %4 %8 %9 %= %> &% && Direct $peech ;& (eat) ;* (ate) :m1is1are D 1d es D 1d es n t Did n t 5as1+ere :m1is1are < ;-ing 5as1+ere <;-ing 'as1ha(e < ;, 5ill1shall1can1may1must 2 uld1might1sh uld1+ uld < &* ;&1be Indirect $peech ;* (ate) 'ad < ;, (had eaten) 5as1+ere Did Did n t 'ad n t < ;, 'ad been 5as1+ere < ;-ing 'ad been < ;-ing 'ad < ;, 5 uld1sh uld1c uld1might1had t 2 uld1might1sh uld1+ uld < ha(e< ;,1been

3. Perubahan Pronoun .erubahan pr n un dan p ssessi(e tergantung kepada sabjek dan bjek yang dipakai di direct speech (kalimat langsung) yang tentunya mempengaruhi perubahan pr n un pada indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung).

Kata ganti rang pertama (I dan e) pada rep rting speech (lihat penjelasan di a+al) berubah sesuai subjek yang ada di repr ted speech. # %& %* %, Direct $peech He said, ?I am busy.@ She said, ?I am un+ell.@ I said, ?I +ill be late.@ They said, ? e +ill n t permit %6 this.@ We said, ? e need t buy s me %4 cl thes.@ Indirect $peech He said that he +as busy. She said that she +as un+ell. I said that I + uld be late. They said that they + uld n t permit that. We said that we needed t buy s me cl thes.

Kata ganti rang kedua (!ou) di rep rting speech pada direct speech berubah sesuai bjek pada rep rted speech.

# Direct $peech Indirect $peech 'e said t me, ?!ou ha(e t c me +ith 'e t ld me that I had t g +ith %& me.@ him. %* $he said t me, ?!ou can g .@ $he t ld me that I c uld g . %, $he said t him, ?!ou can g .@ $he t ld him that he c uld g . Kata ganti rang ketiga ("e, she, it dan the#) pada direct speech tidak mengalami perubahan ketika dirubah ke indirect speech. # Direct $peech %& 'e said, ?She is a g d girl.@ %* $he said, ?The# ha(e in(ited us.@ They said, ?"e d es n t ha(e the %, necessary 0uali)icati ns.@ Indirect $peech 'e said that she +as a g d girl. $he said that the# had in(ited them. They said that he did n t ha(e the necessary 0uali)icati ns.

$. Perubahan %eteran&an waktu dan tem'at ((d)erbs of time and 'la*e) Tidak cuma itu, dalam perubahan dari direct speech ke indirect speech juga mempengaruhi ad(erbs khusunya ad(erb ) time (keterangan +aktu) dan ad(erb ) place (keterangan tempat). /ntuk itu anda +ajib memahami tabel di ba+ah ini. # Direct $peech %& # + Indirect $peech Then

%* T day

That day The neAt day The day a)ter %, T m rr + The ) ll +ing day : day later The ... a)ter %6 #eAt ... The ) ll +ing ... The ... be) re %4 Bast ... The .re(i us ... ... be) re %8 ... ag ... earlier The day be) re %9 Cesterday The pre(i us day The preceeding day %= The day be) re yesterday T+ day be) re %> 'ere There &% This That && These Th se

Di ba+ah ini adalah c nt h-c nt h direct dan indirect speech untuk menambah pemahaman mengenai penjelasan di atas. Direct $peech 'e said, DI ha(e a present ) r y u in my (<) bag. hereE (-) Indirect $peech 'e said that he had a present ) r me in his bag there.

'e said, DI d n t ha(e a present ) r y u 'e said that he did n t ha(e a present in my bagE ) r me in his bag.

(3)

'e asked, DD I ha(e a present ) r y u in 'e asked me i)1+hether he had a my bag3E present ) r me in his bag. 'e asked me +hy he had t ha(e a present ) r me in his bag.

(3) 'e asked me, D 5hy d I ha(e t ha(e a present ) r y u in my bag3

(F) 'e rdered1c mmanded me, DGring my bag here nowFE 'e rdered me, DD n@t bring y ur bag (F) hereFE

'e rdered1c mmanded me t bring his bag there then. 'e rdered me n t t bring my bag there.