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DISCUSSION Animal can generally be classified as vertebrate and invertebrate.

But scientifically animals are classified into two major clades !rotostomes and deuterostomes. Categori"ing animal can difficult due to diversity t#e $ingdom !osses but t#ere are general c#aracteristic of most animal suc# as animals are multicellular eu$aryotes. %#at im!ly t#at animals are made from various ty!e of cell t#at #as s!ecific function wit# genetic material &DNA' in t#e form of c#romosomes contain wit#in a nucleus t#us ma$e animals a com!le( being. %#ere are five main animal clades )ara"oa *adiata +o!#otroc#o"oa ,cdyso"oa and Deuterostomia. -irst is t#e )ara"o from !#ylum )orifera or better $nown as s!onges. %#ey are multicellular and t#eir body are !erforated wit# tiny #oles. S!ongs are a.uatic. /#at interesting about t#em is t#at t#ey #ave collar cells. Collar cells actually an e(tension of t#e !lasma membrane and consist of microvilli. %#e collar cells res!onsible to create water current t#at bring t#e food and o(ygen to t#e cells and carries away carbon dio(ide and ot#ers waste. Not only t#at collar cells also tra! and !#agocytes food !articles. %#ey rely on diffusion for gas e(c#ange and e(cretion of waste. S!onges are cable to re!roduce bot# se(ually and ase(ually. In se(ual re!roduction a bud from and brea$ free from t#e !arent s!onges and give rise to t#e new s!onges. If t#e bud attac#ed to t#e !arent s!onge a colony may form. 0ost s!onge is ca!able to !roduce eggs or s!erm #erma!#rodites. /#ic# means some of t#e cell develo! into s!erm cells and some into eggs cells. But t#ey !roduce s!erm and eggs at different time and cross fertili"e wit# ot#er s!onges. %#ey will release t#e mature s!erm into t#e water and t#e s!erm will be ta$en by ot#er s!onges of t#e same s!ecies. %#e "ygotes develo! into flagellate larvae and swim away from t#e !arent. %#e develo!ment stage ta$es !lace wit#in t#e jelly li$e meso#yl. %#e larva will find a solid object and attac#ed to it and start sessile life as a mature s!onge. Ne(t is *adiata w#ic# divided into two !yla Cnidaria and Cteno!#ora. ,ac# !yla are t#en subdivided into several classes for e(am!le !#ylum Cnidaria consist of 1ydro"oa Scy!#o"oa Cuba"oa and Ant#o"oa. Cnidarians #as two body s#a!e !oly! and medusa. )oly! #as dorsal mout# surrounded by tentacles suc# as 1ydra w#ile medusa jelly fis# form. Cnidarians !osses s!eciali"ed cell called cnidocytes containing stinging organelles. Cnidocytes located es!ecially on t#e tentacles. %#e cnidocytes contain nematocysyts containing stinging 2t#read3 ca!sule t#at come in various ty!e for e(am!le stic$y long and coil around !rey and some even !araly"ing !rey animals by injecting !rotein to(in. %entacles are used to ca!ture !rey and !us# it into t#e mout#. 4astrovascular cavity serve for digestion !ur!ose and e(!ulsion of waste. 4as e(c#ange and e(cretion occur by diffusion t#is is because t#e body is t#in to do so. %#ey #as #ydrostatic s$eleton w#ic# com!romise of two sets of contractile cells acting on t#e water filled gastrovascular cavity. One of t#e clases of Cnidaria is 1ydro"oa 1ydra. 1ydra lives in fres# water and attac#ed to roc$ or a.uatic !lant. %#ey re!roduce ase(ually by budding w#en t#e condition is favourable and se(ually w#en t#e condition is less favourable and form "ygote t#at covered wit# s#ell for !rotection.. %#ey ca!able to re!roduce in two modes due to t#e fact t#at t#ey are differentiate as male and females. Not only t#at t#ey may form a colony if t#e bud remain attac#ed to t#e !arent. %#e

difference between !ylum Cteno!#rora and and Cnidaria is t#at Cteno!#ores tentacles are e.ui!!ed wit# ad#esive glue gel and do not #ave stinging nematocysts . -latworm is t#e sim!lest bilaterally symmetricall tri!loblastic animal in !#ylum )laty#elmint#es. %#ey are acoelomate no body cavity due to t#eir flat and elongate bodies. -lat worm #ave definite anterior and !osterior end wit# a sim!le brain and !aired of sense organ. ,veryt#ing are concentrated at t#e 2#ead3 !art of t#e flatworm. As mention earlier t#ey are tri!loblastic #ave t#ree definite tissue layers. %#e outer e!idermis derived from ectoderm t#e inner endodermis derived from endoderm and t#e middle tissue layer develo!s from mesoderm. Not only t#at t#ey also lac$ of circulatory organ. %#ey de!end solely on diffusion t#roug# t#e body wall. %#e !#ylum are t#en subdivided into four classes class %urbellaria class %rematoda class 0onogenea and class Cestoda. 0embers from t#e class %ubellaria are free5living marine flatworm in#abiting mostly fres# water #abitat. %#ey #ave a sim!le brain eyes!ots ot#er sensory organ and muscular !#aryn( concentrated on t#e 2#ead3. %#ey also #ave an organ t#at able to function as 6 in !rotone!#ridia. A structures res!onsible to maintain t#e osmoregulation metabolic waste dis!osal and as re!roductive organs. ,(am!le of s!ecies from t#is !#yla is )lanarians. %#ey found in !onds and .uiet stream. %#ey are carnivorous tra!!ing animals in mucous secretion. %#e muscular !#aryn( are used to suc$ed t#e !ray and also !arts of digestive system. %#e nutrient are distributed to all !arts of t#e body by diffusion aided by #ig#ly branc#ed gastrovascular cavity. ,(cretion are also done by diffusion but some are !ass out t#roug# !rotone!#ridia a blind tubule at t#e end of flamed bulbs. %#ey able to re!roduce se(ually and ase(ually. In ase(ual re!roduction an individual constrict in t#e middle and divides into two. %#ey are #erma!#rodites so t#ey two of t#em come toget#er in co!ulation and e(c#ange s!erm cells and cross fertili"ed t#e eggs. %#en t#ere are flu$e member of clases 0onogenea and %rematoda. %#ey e.ui!!ed wit# #oo$s and suc$ers to become eligible !arasite. %#e a.uatic snail serves as t#eir intermediate #ost. Ne(t is a ta!eworm. %#ey from class Cestoda and also a !arasite. %#ey #ave long flat ribbonli$e and also e.ui!!ed wit# suc$ers and #oo$s on t#e 2#ead3 or scole(. %#e #oo$s enable t#em to attac#ed to #ost for ta!e worm t#e intestine. %a!e worm as a long c#ain segment called !roglottids and eac# one of t#em able to function as re!roductive organs wit# male an d female re!roductive organs. %a!eworm #as no mout# nor a digestive system so digested food from #ost is absorbed across t#e worm body wall. %#ey also lac$ of sense organ. Ne(t is !#ylum Nemertea is consist of carnivorous !roboscis worm. %#ey #ave !roboscis a long #ollow muscular tube t#at can be ra!idly everted from t#e anterior end of t#e body function to ca!tured !rey. Some of t#e !roboscis is s#ar! and secrete to(ic fluid t#at immobili"ed !rey. -or !#ylum 0ollusca t#ere are 7 classes )oly!laco!#ora 4astro!oda Bivalvia and Ce!#alo!oda. -irst is class )oly!laco!#ora consist of c#itons. %#ey lac$ of eyes and tentacles. In#abits roc$y intertidal "one and anc#or to t#e roc$ by using broad flat food t#at also used for movement. Class 4astro!oda &snail slugs conc#s sea slugs and relatives' in#abit marine water but some also living in fres# water or on land. %#ey !ossess a well develo!ed

#ead wit# tentacles sim!le eyes and use t#eir broad flat foot to move. %#ey #as no gills but #as a mantle t#at function as lungs. As for t#e class Bivalvia &clams oysters scallo!s and relatives' t#ey are enclosed by two s#ells t#at o!en ventrally and #inges dorsally. %#e s#ell is made u! from calcium carbonate. Some of t#em attac# !ermanently to t#e substrate w#ile ot#er burrow t#roug# roc$ and woods. %#ey are sus!ension feeders and lac$ of radula belt of teet# in t#e mout# region. %#ey able to swim e(am!le scallo!s by cla!!ing t#e two s#ell toget#er. /#ile class Ce!#alo!ods are fast swimmer and also a !redator of it $ind. %#eir mout# are surrounded by tentacles and #as a well develo! #ead wit# a com!le( eyes. ,(am!le of animal from t#is class is s.uid octo!ods and cuttlefis#. %#ey #ave suc$ers covered tentacles for #olding !rey and strong #orny bea$s use to $ill t#e !rey. %#ey move by t#e means of filling t#e cavity wit# water and ejecting it t#roug# si!#on. %#is also t#eir means of defence mec#anism. Not only t#at t#ey #ave in$ sacs and contracting c#romato!#ores to c#ange colour. %#e streamline body also aid t#eir swimming efficiency. Annelids are segmented worm are member from t#e !#ylum Annelida. %#ey #ave turbular body wit# ring li$e segment. %#e segmented !art also $nown as se!ta. %#e segmentation actually facilitates locomotion by alternating contraction between longitudinal and circular muscle. %#ere are t#ree classes for t#is !#yla )olyc#aeta Oligoc#aeta and 1iruidnea. *es!iration occur t#roug# s$in or by gills. -or )olyc#aeta class t#ey !osses !ara!odia function in locomotion and gas e(c#ange wit# a setae attac#ed. %#ey #ave well develo! #ead wit# eyes and antennae. Not only t#at some may e.ui!!ed wit# tentacles and !al!s. %#ey re!roduce by releasing t#e male and female gametes bot# at t#e same time during a s!ecific time !eriod./#ile or class Oligoc#aeta live in fres# water and in moist soil. %#ey are all #erma!#roditic lac$ of develo! #ead and #ave bristle for eac# segmented body. %#ey everyt#ing along #is away in t#e soil. Not only t#at t#ey a!!ear slimy due to !roduction of mucous for !rotection. 4as e(c#ange ta$es !lace t#roug# moist s$in and t#ey #ave an efficient close closed circulatory system. %#ey also #erma!#roditic. During co!ulation two worms !ressing t#eir ventral surface and glued toget#er followed by e(c#ange of s!erm. %#en t#e eggs are laid in a cocoon t#e s!erm earlier will !assed over it and fertili"ed into tiny worm wit#in ca!sule.Ne(t is round worm from t#e !#ylum Nematoda wit# a t#readli$e covered wit# toug# cuticle. It #as a #ydrostatic s$eleton due to fluid5filled !seudocoelom. %#e fluid also !lay a vital role in trans!orting nutrient and distribution. %#ey lac$ of circulatory structure and se(es are se!arate. Some of t#em are a !arasite Ascaris. %#ey #oo$ to t#e #uman intestine and able to re!roduce ra!idly. )#ylum Art#ro!od #as a lot of sub!#yla and classes. One of t#em is Arac#nids w#ic# com!romise of s!iders scor!ions mites and ot#ers. %#ey !osses 8 !airs of joint a!!endages. ,ac# !air #as it own function for e(am!le t#e first !aired are used to !enetrate w#ile t#e second one are used to #old and c#ew food. S!iders #ave 9 eyes arrange in two rows. /#ile gas e(c#ange too$ !lace at t#e boo$ lugs t#is !rovide a large surface area for t#is !ro!ose. S!ider are able to secrete sil$ due to uni.ue gland s in its abdomens. %#e sil$ serve as a building material for t#e s!iders even to encase t#eir eggs and to tra! !rey. After mating t#e male s!ider will be eaten by t#e female. %#en t#ere are sub!#ylum Crustacea includes lobsters crabs s#rim!s and relatives. %#ey are !rimary consumer for algae and detritus. %#eir s!ecial features are nauplius larva, #ave only t#ree !airs of a!!endages. %#ey also

c#aracteri"ed by mandible biramous a!!endages and !airs of antennae as sensory organ for touc# and taste. %#ey also able to detect gravity sense organs statocysts. %#ey live in a a.uatic environment and #ave gills for gas e(c#ange. %#ey #ave se!arate se(es and male use s!ecial a!!endages to transfer s!erm into female. Ne(t is class Insecta or better $nown to t#e common as insect. %#ey !osses articulated trac#eated and #e(a!ods. %#e body consist of t#ree distinct !art t#e #ead t#ora( and abdomens. %#ey #ave a !airs of antennae and a com!ound eyes on t#eir #eads. Not only t#at t#ey #ave a com!le( mout# !arts t#at ada!table to !iercing c#ewing and suc$ing. -urt#ermore t#eir #ig# metabolic rate is due to effective organ delivery system. 0ost insect undergo com!lete metamor!#osis egg larva !u!a and adults. Sea star is t#e e(am!le of class Asteroidea from t#e !#ylum ,c#inodermata. %#ey are carnivorous and scavengers. %#eir vascular system does not allow ra!id movement. %#at w#y t#ey are slow moving or stationary. %#ey #ave : to more t#an ;< arms !rotruding from t#e central disc of t#e body. %#e gas e(c#anges ta$e !lace at t#e dermal gills t#e e(tension of body wall. %#ey secretes en"yme to digest t#e food and #ave a very !oor circulatory system. %#e metabolic waste was !ass t#roug# t#e body by diffusion. Starfis# able to regenerate if one of t#eir 2#and3 be cut off. Ne(t is sea urc#in from class ,c#inoidea. %#eir s$eletal !lates are flattened and fused to form a solid s#ell called test. %#ey feed on tiny organic !articles and obviously t#ey are marine animal. %#ey #ave s!ine covered body and use t#eir feet tube for locomotion and sometimes !us# t#emselves wit# moveable s!ine. Sea cucumbers members of class 1olot#uroidea. %#ey c#aracteri"ed by fle(ible elongated body. Not only t#at t#ey !ossess t#e most develo! circulatory system in t#eir class to trans!ort o(ygen and nutrients. %#ey live at t#e bottom of t#e sea and t#ey used t#eir tentacles to obtained food. =ertebrate are animals wit# bac$5bones or a vertebrate column. Com!romise of various s#a!e and si"e t#ey mig#t not #ave save c#aracteristics in term of a!!earance but for t#e sim!licity sa$e only a few class will be discussed. %a$e lam!reys Petromyzon is a jawless vertebrate assign to class Ce!#alas!idomor!#i s!end t#eir live in t#e ocean but return to fres# water to re!roduce. %#e y #as a circular suc$ing dis$ around t#eir mout#. %#is enables t#em to attac# to a fis# and suc$ing t#e blood and soft tissue. 1ence t#ey are !arasite. %#ey are ell s#a!e animals and does not #ave fins wit# smoot# s$in &no scales'. %#ey su!!orted by cartilaginous s$eleton and a well develo! notoc#ord. Ne(t is class C#ondric#t#yes includes s#ar$s rays and s$ates. 0ost of t#em are ocean dwellers and also $nown as cartilaginous fis#. ,ven t#ey matured t#e cartilaginous embryonic s$eleton e was retain. All of t#em !osses strong jaws and two !airs of fins w#ile t#e s$in contains !lacoid scales. %#is give s#ar$ a sand5!a!er5li$e te(ture s$in w#en touc#. %#e similar scales can be found in t#e mout# cavity as teet#. Not only t#at t#eir teet# is embedded in t#e fles# and not attac#ed to t#e jawbones. S#ar$ #as a streamline body w#ic# made t#em ada!ted to swimming. S#ar$s #ave se!arate se( and fertili"ation is internal by t#e means of t#e male transferred s!erm to t#e female cloaca. %#en t#e eggs will be fertili"ed at t#e female oviducts. Ne(t is bony fis#. %#ey from class sarco!terygians c#aracteri"e by overla!!ing dermal scale cover t#e body. Not only t#at t#ey are ovi!arous #ence t#ey lay eggs and fertili"e t#em e(ternally. -ut#ermore t#ey #ave lungs and can e(c#ange gases in t#e air and

t#e lungs also serve as t#e swim bladder. %#is acts as an air sacs t#at #el!s regulate buoyancy. %#en for t#e class am!#ibia and subdivided into t#ree orders w#ic# are Urodela Anura and A!oda. %#ey undergo metamor!#osis from larva to adult. %#e embryos of frogs and toads are called tad!oles. %ad!oles #ave gills and tails and feed on a.uatic !lant. A few c#anges occur during metamor!#osis suc# as t#e disa!!earance of gills and gills slits tail reabsorbed and limb emerge. Am!#ibians may breat# t#roug# t#eir moist s$in and also t#eir lugs. %#ey #ave t#ree c#amber #eart wit# bot# !ulmonary and systemic circulation. -or re!tiles t#ey #ave a dry s$in covered wit# scales to !revent t#emselves from drying out. %#e same t#ing goes wit# t#e eggs it #as !rotective leat#ery s#ell around t#e s#ell. 1owever fertili"ation need to be done internally by t#e means t#e male need to use co!ulatory organ to transfer s!erm into t#e female re!roductive trac$. +ater t#e embryo develo! by surrounded by amnions wit#in !rotective s#ell. /it# t#e #ard #orny scales obviously not suitable for gas e(c#ange t#us t#ey need lung to res!ire. %#eir lungs are divided into many c#ambers t#us increasing t#e surface area. Not only t#at t#ey also ectot#ermic t#eir body tem!erature fluctuates wit# t#e tem!erature of t#e surroundings. 0ost of t#e re!tiles are carnivores e.ui!!ed wit# well5develo!e sense organ and limbs ada!ted to running. Birds #ave a re!tilian ty!e scales on t#eir legs and lay eggs. Not only t#at t#ey #ave a lig#t yet fle(ible and strong and !resent a flat surface to t#e air. -urt#ermore feat#er also !rotect t#e body and decrease water and #eat loss. %#ey also #ave ot#er ada!tation to flig#t suc# as com!act and streamline bodies fusion of bones giving t#em rigidity for flying. ,ven t#oug# t#ey #ave bones but it is lig#t and strong. 0oreover t#e bones are #ollow and #as air s!aces. %#ey #ave efficient lungs wit# air sacs and 2one5way3 air flow t#roug# t#eir lungs. %#ey also !oses effective res!iratory and circulatory system t#at !rovide t#em wit# #ig# metabolic rate w#ic# really needed wit# t#e tremendous muscular activity flying re.uired. %#e most recogni"able features of mammals are #air and mammary glands. 0ammals lead internal fertili"ation and vivi!arous. 0ost mammals develo!s !lacenta an organ of e(c#ange between develo!ing embryo and mot#er. It delivers nouris#ment and carry away waste !roduct from t#e baby. %#e limbs of mammals also ada!ted to running and wal$ing climbing even swimming. 0ammals are classified into t#ree class 1olot#eria 0etat#eria and ,ut#eria. %#ere e(ce!tion for conceiving baby monotremes from subclass 1olot#eria lay eggs and carry in t#e !ouc# on t#e abdomen and $ee! warm in a nest. %#ey lactate t#eir young but wit#out ni!!les and t#e young la! u! mil$ secreted by t#eir mot#er mammary glands.

CONC+USION %#e basic c#aracteristic of sub!#ylum vertebrata and invertebrate were described.

)*AC%ICA+ 8> ANI0A+IA > =,*%,B*A%,S AND IN=,*%,B*A%,S OB?,C%I=,S I. II. III. State t#e fundamentals c#aracteristics of members of !#ylum )orifera and !#ylum Cnidaria Identify members of t#e t#ree major classes of cnidarians Describe t#e body forms of cnidarians and describe t#e re!roduction of t#ose s!ecies alternating between !oly!s and medusa

IN%*ODUC%ION 0A%,*IA+S Com!ound microsco!e )re!ared slide of Hydra and Obelia

)*OC,DU*, ,(!eriment @> Cnidarians Hydra @. %#e !re!ared slide of Hydra was observed. ;. %#e structured was identified and functions 6. %#e observations was drawn and labels

Obelia @. %#e !re!ared slide of Obelia was observed. ;. %#e structured was identified and functions 6. %#e observations was drawn and labels