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Tipe-tipe Media Transmisi


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Guided transmission media Kabel tembaga


Open Wires Coaxial Twisted Pair

Kabel serat optik

JARINGAN TELEKOMUNIKASI

Unguided transmission media infra merah gelombang radio microwave: terrestrial maupun satellite

Guided Transmission Media


Waves are guided along solid medium

Model Saluran Transmisi


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Kabel Tembaga
Paling lama dan sudah biasa digunakan Kelemahan: redaman tinggi dan sensitif terhadap interferensi Redaman pada suatu kabel tembaga akan meningkat bila frekuensi dinaikkan Kecepatan rambat sinyal di dalam kabel tembaga mendekati 200.000 km/detik Tiga jenis kabel tembaga yang biasa digunakan:
Open wire Coaxial Twisted Pair

Menurut Telegrapher's Equations, suatu saluran transmisi terdiri dari serangkaian komponen kutub dua yang jumlahnya tak terhingga
R menyatakan resistensi konduktor L menyatakan induktansi salurann C menyatakan kapasitansi antara dua konduktor G menyatakan konduktansi materi dielektrik yang memisahkan kedua konduktor

Impedansi karakteristik dinyatakan oleh

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Open wire
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Coaxial
Bandwidth lebar (45-500 MHz) Lebih kebal terhadap interferensi Contoh penggunaan : pada antena TV, LAN dsb. (D) (C) (B) (A)

Sudah jarang digunakan Kelemahan:


Terpengaruh kondisi cuaca dan lingkungan Kapasitas terbatas (hanya sekitar 12 kanal voice)

RG58 coax and BNC Connector


70 miles open wire from Hawthorne to Tonopah Photograph taken by Brian Hayes in 1999 (http://flickr.com/photos/brianhayes/321552411/)

Twisted pair
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Balance Signaling
A balanced transmission line is one whose currents are symmetric with respect to ground so that all current flows through the transmission line and the load
none through ground

Twisted pair dibangun dari dua konduktor yang dipilin


Kabel dipilin untuk mengeliminasi crosstalk

Pada suatu bundel twisted pair (lebih dari satu pasang), twist length (twist rates) masing-masing pasangan dibedakan untuk mencegah crosstalk antar pasangan Pengiriman sinyal pada twisted pair menggunakan balance signaling untuk mengeliminasi pengaruh interferensi (noise)

Note that line balance depends on the current through the line, not the voltage across the line It is also called differential signaling
Source: York County Amateur Radio Society

Examples of a Balanced Line


All using DC rather than AC to simplify the analysis
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V = +6 VDC I = 25 mA 6V

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V = +9 VDC

Example #1
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I = 25 mA

Example #2
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240 6V I = -25 mA I = -25 mA V = -6 VDC V = -6 VDC

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Notice that the currents are equal and opposite and that the total current flowing through ground = 25mA-25mA = 0

Note that the total current flowing through ground is again 0 Because the ground current is 0, the ground is not required

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V = +6 VDC
I = 20 mA

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Example #3
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FYI:
Coaxial is an example of unbalanced transmission line Many types of antenna (dipoles, yagi etc.) are balanced load So, to feed balanced antenna with unbalance transmission lines we have to use baluns (balanceunbalance)

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I = -25 mA

V = -6 VDC

Is the line balanced? No although the voltages are equal and opposite, the currents are not!

Twisted pairs Types


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Unshielded Twisted pair (UTP)

Unshielded Twisted pair (UTP) Shielded Twisted pair (STP)

Category 1- originally designed for voice telephony only, but thanks to some new techniques, long-range Ethernet and DSL, operating at 10Mbps and even faster, can be deployed over Cat 1 Category 2 - accommodate up to 4Mbps and is associated with token-ring LANs. Category 3 - Cat 3 cable operates over a bandwidth of 16MHz on UTP and supports up to 10Mbps over a range of 330 feet (100 m).
Key LAN applications include 10Mbps Ethernet and 4Mbps token-ring LANs.

UTP (cont.)
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Category 4
operates over a bandwidth of 20MHz on UTP can carry up to 16Mbps over a range of 330 feet (100 m). The key LAN application is 16Mbps token ring.

Category 5e
Cat 5e (enhanced) operates over a bandwidth of 100MHz on UTP, with a range of 330 feet (100 m).

The key LAN application is 1000BASE-T. The Cat 5e standard is largely the same as Category 5, except that it is made to somewhat more stringent standards. Category 5e is recommended for all new installations and was designed for transmission speeds of up to 1Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet). Although Cat 5e can support Gigabit Ethernet, it is not currently certified to do so.

Category 5
operates over a bandwidth of 100MHz on UTP Can handle up to 100Mbps over a range of 330 feet (100m). Cat 5 cable is typically used for Ethernet networks running at 10Mbps or 100Mbps.
Key LAN applications include 100BASE-TX, ATM, CDDI, and 1000BASE-T.

It is no longer supported, having been replaced by Cat 5e.

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UTP (cont.)
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Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)


Twisted pair cables are often shielded in attempt to prevent electromagnetic interference. Because the shielding is made of metal, it may also serve as a ground. However, usually a shielded or a screened twisted pair cable has a special grounding wire added called a drain wire. This shielding can be applied to individual pairs, or to the collection of pairs. When shielding is applied to the collection of pairs, this is referred to as screening. The shielding must be grounded for the shielding to work.

Category 6 - specified under ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-1, Operates over a bandwidth of up to 400MHz Supports up to 1Gbps over a range of 330 feet (100 m). Cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and other network protocols that is backward compatible with the Cat 5/5e and Cat 3 cable standards. Cat 6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. Cat 6 is suitable for 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) connections.

STP (cont.)
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Screened unshielded twisted pair (S/UTP)

Screened unshielded twisted pair (S/UTP)


Also known as Fully shielded (or Foiled) Twisted Pair (FTP), is a screened UTP cable (ScTP).

Shielded twisted pair (STP or STP-A) Screened shielded twisted pair (S/STP or S/FTP)

ET2080 Jaringan Telekomunikasi

Shielded twisted pair (STP or STP-A)


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Screened shielded twisted pair (S/STP or S/FTP)

1 Jacket 2 Rip-cord 3 Shield-foil

1 Jacket 2 Shield-foil 3 Drain wire 4 Solid twisted pair

4 Drain wire 5 Protective skin 6 Polymer tape 7 Solid twisted pair

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Category 7
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Cable Legend

Cat 7 is specified in the frequency range of 1MHz to 600MHz.


ISO/IEC11801:2002 Category 7/Class F is a cable standard for Ultra Fast Ethernet and other interconnect technologies that can be made backward compatible with traditional Cat 5 and Cat 6 Ethernet cable. Cat 7, which is based on four twisted copper pairs, features even more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise than Cat 6. To achieve this, shielding has been added for individual wire pairs and the cable as a whole

Optical Fiber Advantages


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Weight and Size

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Optical Fiber

Fiber cable is significantly smaller and lighter than electrical cables to do the same job

Material Cost
Fiber cable costs significantly less than copper cable for the same transmission capacity

Information Capacity
Recently, bit-rates of up to 14 Tbit/s have been reached over a single 160 km line using optical amplifiers

No Electrical Connection
Electrical connections have problems:
Ground loops (in a conductor connecting two points that are supposed to be at the same potential, often ground, but are actually at different potentials) causing noises and interferences Dangerous (must be protected) Lightning poses a severe hazard

No Electromagnetic Interference
Because the connection is not electrical, you can neither pick up nor create electrical interference (the major source of noise)

Longer distances between Regenerators (hundreds of kilometers) Open Ended Capacity


The maximum theoretical capacity of installed fiber is very great (almost infinite)

Better Security
It is possible to tap fiber optical cable. But it is very difficult to do and the additional loss caused by the tap is relatively easy to detect

Optical Fiber Elements


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Mengapa cahaya bisa bergerak sepanjang serat optik?


Karena ada fenomena Total Internal Reflection (TIR) TIR dimungkinkan dengan membedakan indeks bias (n) antara core dan clading
Dalam hal ini ncore > ncladding Memanfaatkan hukum Snellius

Core
Carries the light signal (pure silica glass and doped with germanium)

Cladding
Keeps light signal within core (Pure Silica Glass)

Coating
Protects Optical Fiber From Abrasion and External Pressures (UV Cured Acrylate)

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Remembering Snellius
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Critical angle
ncore > ncladding

At the critical angle we know that equals 90 and sin 90 = 1 and so

Numerical Aperture (NA)


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for rays where 1 is less than a critical value then the ray will propagate along the fiber and will be bound within the fiber (Total Internal Reflection)

where the angle 1 is greater than the critical value the ray is refracted into the cladding and will ultimately be lost outside the fiber
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Light Modes
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Fiber Transmission Windows (Bands)

Can be as few as one mode and as many as tens of thousands of modes

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Transmitter Light Sources


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Light Emitting Diodes (LED)


Used for multimode: 850 nm or 1300 nm Wide beam width fills multimode fibers Wider spectrum (typically 50 nm) Inexpensive Cannot modulate as fast as lasers

VCSELsVertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser


Used for multimode at 850 and 1300 nm Quite narrow spectrum Narrow beam width (does not fill multimode fibers) Much less expensive than FP or DFB lasers

Fabry-Perot (FP) and Distributed Feedback (DFB) Lasers


Used for singlemode: 1310 nm or 1550 nm Narrow spectrum (can be less than 1 nm) Narrow beam width (does not fill multimode fibers) Highest power and fastest switchingMost expensive (especially DFB)

Salah satu cara untuk mengidenifikasi konstruksi kabel optik adalah dengan menggunakan perbandingan antara diameter core dan cladding. Sebagai contoh adalah tipe kabel 62.5/125. Artinya diamater core 62,5 micron dan diameter cladding 125 micron Contoh lain tipe kabel:50/125, 62.5/125 dan 8.3/125 Jumlah core di dalam satu kabel bisa antara 4 s.d. 144

Klasifikasi Serat Optik


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Step Index Fiber vs Gradded Index Fiber


Pada step index fiber, perbedaan antara index bias inti dengan index bias cladding terjadi secara drastis

Berdasarkan mode gelombang cahaya yang berpropagasi pada serat optik


Multimode Fibre Singlemode Fibre

Berdasarkan perubahan indeks bias bahan


Step index fibre Gradded index fibre

Pada gradded index fiber, perbedaan index bias bahan dari inti sampai cladding berlangsung secara gradual Contoh profile gradded index:
Untuk 0 r a r = jari-jari di dalam inti serat a = jari-jari maksimum inti serat
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Multimode Optical Fiber

Step-index multimode. Used with 850nm, 1300 nm source.

Graded-index multimode. Used with 850nm, 1300 nm source.

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Singlemode Optical Fiber


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Bandwidth-distance product
Because the effect of dispersion increases with the length of the fiber, a fiber Information carrying capacity is often characterized by its bandwidth-distance product, often expressed in units of MHzkm. This value is a product of bandwidth and distance because there is a trade off between the bandwidth of the signal and the distance it can be carried For example, a common multimode fiber with bandwidthdistance product of 500 MHzkm could carry a 500 MHz signal for 1 km or a 1000 MHz signal for 0.5 km.

Fiber Optic Installation Safety Rules


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Keep all food and beverages out of the work area. If fiber particles are ingested they can cause internal hemorrhaging Wear disposable aprons to minimize fiber particles on your clothing
Fiber particles on your clothing can later get into food, drinks, and/or be ingested by other means

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Unguided Transmission Media


Provides a means for transmitting electromagnetic signals through the air but do not guide them (wireless transmission)

Always wear safety glasses with side shields and protective gloves Treat fiber optic splinters the same as you would glass splinters. Never look directly into the end of fiber cables until you are positive that there is no light source at the other end
Use a fiber optic power meter to make certain the fiber is dark. When using an optical tracer or continuity checker, look at the fiber from an angle at least 6 inches away from your eye to determine if the visible light is present..

Only work in well ventilated areas Contact wearers must not handle their lenses until they have thoroughly washed their hands. Do not touch your eyes while working with fiber optic systems until they have been thoroughly washed Keep all combustible materials safely away from the curing ovens Put all cut fiber pieces in a safe place. Thoroughly clean your work area when you are done Do not smoke while working with fiber optic systems. Source: http://www.jimhayes.com/

Electromagnetic Spectrum for Wireless Communication


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Transmission and reception are achieved by means of antennas


Radio wave and microwave Infra Red Light wave

3 kHz

300 GHz

400 THz

900 THz

For transmission, an antenna radiates electromagnetic radiation in the air For reception, the antenna picks up electromagnetic waves from the surrounding medium The antenna plays a key role

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Directional Antenna
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Omnidirectional Antenna
the transmitted signal spreads out in all directions and can be received by many antennas In general, the higher the frequency of a signal, the more it is possible to focus it into a directional beam

the transmitting antenna puts out a focused electromagnetic beam the transmitting and receiving antennas must be aligned
Dr. Yagi and his Yagi antenna (example of directional antenna)

Microwave
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Frequencies in the range of about 30 MHz to 40 GHz are referred to as microwave frequencies 2 GHz to 40 GHz
wavelength in air is 0.75cm to 15cm
wavelength = velocity / frequency

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Terrestrial Microwave

highly directional beams are possible suitable for point-to-point transmission

30 MHz to 1 GHz
suitable for omnidirectional applications

Terrestrial Microwave
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Applications
Long-distance telecommunication service
requires fewer amplifiers or repeaters than coaxial cable requires line-of-sight transmission Example
telephone system TV distribution

Limited to line-of-sight (LOS) transmission


This means that microwaves must be transmitted in a straight line and that no obstructions can exists, such as buildings or mountains, between microwave stations.

To avoid possible obstructions, microwave antennas often are positioned on the tops of buildings, towers, or mountains

Short point-to-point links


Data link between local area network closed-circuit TV

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Transmission characteristics
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Another apps: cellular communication, and LANs


Freq. Band 824 - 894 MHz 902-928 MHz 1.7 - 2.3 GHz 1.8 GHz 2.400-2.484 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.45 GHz 4 - 6 GHz Infrared Use Analog cell phones (AMPS) License free in North America PCS digital cell phones GSM digital cell phones global license free band 802.11, Lucent WaveLAN Bluetooth commercial (telecomm.) short distance line of sight Range Data Rate 20 km per cell 13 kbps/channel < 1 km per cell 16 kbps/channel 100 m - 25 km about 10 m 40 - 80 km 5 - 100 m 2 - 11 Mbps 1 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Mbps

The higher the frequency used, the higher the potential bandwidth and therefore the higher the potential data rate Band (GHz) | Bandwidth (MHz) | Data rate (Mbps) 2 7 12 6 30 90 11 40 90 18 220 274

Attenuation
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4d L = 10 log
d is the distance is the wavelength

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Satellite Microwave

repeaters or amplifiers may be placed farther apart for microwave systems - 10 to 100 km is typical Attenuation increases with rainfall, especially above 10 GHz The assignment of frequency bands is strictly regulated (http://www.postel.go.id/utama.aspx?MenuID=3&MenuItem=3)

Geostationary Satellites
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a satellite is a microwave relay station


link two or more ground-based microwave transmitter/receivers (known as earth stations or ground stations)

It is launched into an orbit above the equator at 35786 km


This orbit distance means that the satellite is orbiting the earth as fast as the earth is rotating. It appears to earth stations that the satellite is stationary, thus making communications more reliable and predictable Earth stations is less expensive because they can use fixed antennas

The satellite receives transmissions on one frequency band (uplink), amplifies or repeats the signal, and transmits it on another frequency (downlink)
An orbiting satellite operate on a number of frequency bands, called transponder channels

Delay is 250 -500ms for geostationary satellites Apps: television broadcasting and weather forecasting, and have a number of important defense and intelligence applications, VSAT

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VSAT
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Low earth orbit (LEO) and Medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites
For small mobile personal communications terminals, a network with significantly reduced transmission and processing delay is required Such a service could be provided by low earth orbit (LEO) and medium earth orbit (MEO) satellite systems These systems can provide direct personal-terminalto-personal-terminal connectivity (satellite phone services)

A Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 meters. Most VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1.2 m. Data rates typically range from 56 Kbit/s up to 4 Mbit/s VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous (geostationary) orbit (to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations).

LEO
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MEO
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around the Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of 2,000 kilometers (1,243 mi)) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of 35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi)) The most common use for satellites in this region is for navigation, such as the GPS

A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) typically is a circular orbit about 400 kilometers above the earths surface and, correspondingly, a period (time to revolve around the earth) of about 90 minutes One of apps: to provide satellite phone services, primarily to remote areas

Frequency allocation
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Fixed satellite service


Typical frequency bands for uplink/downlink 6/4 GHz 8/7 GHz 14/12 GHz 30/20 GHz usual terminology C band X band Ku band Ka band

Optimum frequency range for satellite transmission is 1 - 10GHz Below 1 GHz, there is significant noise from nature sources About 10 GHz, the signal is severely attenuated by atmosphere

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Mobile satellite service


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Broadcasting satellite service


Typical frequency bands for uplink/downlink 12 GHz usual terminology Ku band

Typical frequency bands for uplink/downlink 1.6/1.5 GHz 30/20 GHz usual terminology L band Ka band

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Broadcast Radio

Physical description
omnidirectional

Applications
AM broadcasting
Operating frequencies
MF (medium frequency): 300 kHz - 3 MHz HF (high frequency): 3 MHz - 30 MHz HF is the most economic means of low information rate transmission over long distances (e.g. > 300km)

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A HF wave emitted from an antenna is characterized by a groundwave and a skywave components. The groundwave follows the surface of the earth and can provide useful communication over salt water up to 1000km and over land for some 40km to 160km The skywave transmission depends on ionospheric refraction. Transmitted radio waves hitting the ionosphere are bent or refracted. When they are bent sufficiently, the waves are returned to earth at a distant location. Skywave links can be from 160km to 12800km.

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FM broadcasting operating frequencies


VHF (very high frequency): 30 MHz - 300 MHz

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Infrared

TV broadcasting
operating frequencies:
VHF UHF (ultra high frequency): 300 MHz - 3000MHz

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Does not penetrate walls


no security or interference problems

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So..youve heard about dB.. What is it?

no frequency allocation issue


no licensing is required

Apps: Infrared Wireless LAN

Decibel, Gain, dan Loss


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Decibel in Action

Power loss : penurunan daya sinyal Power gain : penguatan daya sinyal Decibel : satuan untuk menyatakan power loss/gain
Decibel merupakan satuan ukuran daya yang logaritmis Pertama kali digunakan oleh Alexander Graham Bell (satuan decibel digunakan untuk menghormati jasanya) Decibel : dB Alexander Graham Bell Born 1847 - Died 1922
Gain g = Pout/Pin Gain in dB gdB = 10 log (Pout/Pin) Loss L = Pin/Pout Loss in dB LdB = 10 log (Pin/Pout) Overall Gain g = g1*g2 Overall Gain in dB gdB = g1(dB) + g2(dB)
Contoh: - Bila daya output 10 Watt dan daya input 1 Watt, maka Gain = 10 dB - Bila daya input 10 Watt dan daya output 1 Watt, maka Loss = 10 dB (atau Gain = -10 dB)

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Power Levels in dB
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Rumus dB menyatakan ukuran daya Jika kita lebih tertarik akan perubahan pada tegangan maka faktor impedansi harus dimasukkan pada perhitungan dB
Pout Vout Zin = 20 log + 10 log g dB = 10 log Z P V in in out

Sampai titik ini kita masih melihat penerapan dB untuk menyatakan perbandingan daya Bagaimana cara menyatakan level daya absolut menggunakan dB?

Gunakan suatu daya referensi

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Daya referensi yang banyak digunakan adalah 1 mW Satuan dB yang dihasilkan adalah dBm Contoh: suatu level daya 10 mW bila dinyatakan di dalam dB adalah 10 dBm Daya referensi lain yang dapat digunakan: 1 Watt (satuan dB yang digunakan dBW)

P PdBm = 10 log 1 mW P PdBW = 10 log 1W

Contoh penggunaan dB

Daya pancar P1 = 1W atau +30 dBm Gain antena = 30 dB Redaman link = 110 dB Daya diterima terima P2,dBm = +30 dBm + 30 dB 110 dB +30 dB = 20 dBm Bila dinyatakan di dalam Watt P2 = 10 W.

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Redaman serat optik 0,5 dB/km


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Daya pancar P1,dBm = 0 dBm Redaman serat optik = 0,5 dB/km, maka redaman total serat optik = 0,5*40 =20 dB Daya terima P2,dBm = 0 dBm 20 dB = 20 dBm

Satuan lain yang biasa digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbadingan adalah Neper 1 Neper (Np) = 8,685889638 dB 1 dB = 0,115129254 Np

John Napier or Neper nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston (1550, 1617) Penemu Logaritma

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