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LAB REPORT

SEMICONDUCTOR

NAME ROLL NO.

HINA RAFIQUE 13-ELE-09 2ND SIR ADNAN

SEMESTER SUBMITTED TO,

Institute Of Engineering & Fertilizer Research,FSD

TO USE SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE AS A FULL WAVE RECTIFIER.


APPARATUS:- DIODE,CRO,PROBE,FUNCTION GENERATOR,DMM.

THEORY: RECTIFIER:A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification.

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF RECTIFIER. 1) HALF WAVE RECTIFIER. Half wave rectifiers:In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave rectification requires a single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a three-phase supply. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current; half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers, and much more filtering is needed to eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.

2) FULL WAVE RECTIFIER.

Full-wave rectification:-

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct current), and yields a higher average output voltage. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer, or four diodes in a bridge configuration and any AC source (including a transformer without center tap), are needed.[3] Single semiconductor diodes, double diodes with common cathode or common anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as single components.

Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes. For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-back (cathode-tocathode or anode-to-anode, depending upon output polarity required) can form a full-wave rectifier. Twice as many turns are required on the transformer secondary to obtain the same output voltage than for a bridge rectifier, but the power rating is unchanged.

Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes.

WORKING:The full wave rectifier circuit consists of two power diodes connected to a single load resistance (RL) with each diode taking it in turn to supply current to the load. When point A of the transformer is positive with respect to point C, diode D1 conducts in the forward direction as indicated by the arrows. When point B is positive (in the negative half of the cycle) with respect to point C, diode D2 conducts in the forward direction and the current flowing through resistor R is in the same direction for both halfcycles. As the output voltage across the resistor R is the phasor sum of the two waveforms combined, this type of full wave rectifier circuit is also known as a bi-phase circuit.

As the spaces between each half-wave developed by each diode is now being filled in by the other diode the average DC output voltage across the load resistor is now double that of the single half-wave rectifier circuit and is about 0.637Vmax of the peak voltage, assuming no losses.Where: VMAX is the maximum peak value in one half of the secondary winding and VRMS is the rms value. The peak voltage of the output waveform is the same as before for the half-wave rectifier provided each half of the transformer windings have the same rms voltage value. To obtain a different DC voltage output different transformer ratios can be used. The main disadvantage of this type of full wave rectifier circuit is that a larger transformer for a given power output is required with two separate but identical secondary windings making this type of full wave rectifying circuit costly compared to the Full Wave Bridge Rectifier circuit equivalent.

DIAGRAM:-

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:Sr. no. Vin (rms) volts 12.90 12.79 18 17.49 15.36 Vin (p-p) volts 36.5 36.4 54.3 52.47 46.24 V(out) (p-p) volts 18 17.86 23.4 26.235 22.32 Vout (dC) volts 10.86 10.74 13.8 13.11 11.23 fo hz 9.6 9.6 11.6 10.8 9.8 V(out) (rms) volts 35.8 35.7 53.6 51.76 45.82 Vdc 2vo/3.14 volts 11.46 11.375 14.90 14.76 11.14

1 2 3 4 5

CONCLUSION:A full-wave rectifier is a circuit that converts both half-cycles of the AC voltage waveform to an unbroken series of voltage pulses of the same polarity. The resulting DC delivered to the load doesn't pulsate as much.

REFERANCE:Williams, B. W. (1992). "Chapter 11". Power electronics : devices, drivers and applications (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Macmillan.