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CHAPTER I 1.

1 INTRODUCTION
MEANING OF WELFARE MEASURES: Labour Welfare is a term which must necessarily be elastic, bearing a somewhat different interpretation in one necessary country from another, according to the different social customs, the degree of industrialization and educational level of the workers. Welfare means faring (or) doing well. It is a comprehensive term, and refers to the physical, mental, moral and emotional well-being of an individual. Trade unions and governmental and non-governmental agencies. It is rather difficult to define the term labour welfare precisely because of the relatively of the concept. Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. The welfare measures need not be in monetary terms only but in any kind/forms, DEFINITION OF WELFAREMEASURES: According to the committee on labor welfare, welfare services should mean: Such services, facilities, and amenities s adequate canteens, rest and recreation facilities, sanitary and medical facilities, arrangements for travel to and from place of work, and for the accommodation of workers employed at a distance from their homes; Such other services amenities and facilities, including social security measures, as contribute to the conditions under which workers are employed.

MAIN FEATURES: 1. It is the work which is usually undertaken within the promises (or) in the Vicinity of the undertakings for the benefit of the employees and the members of their families. 2. The purpose of providing welfare amenities is to bring about the development of the whole personality of the worker his social, psychological, economic, Cultural and intellectual development to make him a good works. A good citizen of a good member of the family. SCOPE OF WELFARE WORK: Conditions of work environment Workers health services Labor welfare programme Labor s economic welfare programme General welfare wor

LABOR WELFARE ACTIVITIES UNDERTTAKEN BY THE ORGANISATIONS. Certain facilities are provided at the site of work itself, such as subsidized canteens, crches, medical facilities. Some facilities relate ti the economic needs of workers such as co-operative credit societies, consumers co-operative stress, staff benefitfunds, the educational assistance to workers children. TYPES OF WELFARE ACTIVITIES: 1) 2) Welfare measures inside the work place, and Welfare measures outside the work place.

WELFARE MEASURES INSIDE THE WORKPLACE: Conditions of the work environment

Conveniences Workers health services Women and child welfare Workers Recreation Employment follow-up Economic services Labour management participation Workers education

WELFARE MEASURES OUTSIDE THE WORKPLACE: Housing bachelors quarters. Family residences. according to types and rooms. Water, Sanitation, waste disposal. Roads , lighting, parks, recreation playgrounds. Schools, nursery, primary, secondary and high school.

LABOUR WELFARE PROVISIONS: Chapter v of the act provides for welfare facilities. Specifically, the act provides for adequately screened washing facilities for the use of male and female workers. WELFARE FUNDS: In order to provide welfare facilities to the workers employed in mica, iron- ore, manganese ore and beedi rolling, welfare funds have been established to supplement the efforts of employers and the state governments under respective enactment. The funds have been credited by levy of less on production, consumption (or) export of mineral, and in the case of beedi rolling, on the number of sticks rolled. The funds are used to provide medical facilities, housing, drinking water, schooling, recreative, and to forth.

APPROACHES TO LABOUR WELFARE: Approaches to employee welfare refer to the beliefs and attitudes held by agencies which provide welfare facilities. Some agencies provide welfare facilities inspired by religious faith, others as a philanthropic duty and the like. ADMINISTRATION OF WELFARE FACILITIES: 1) Welfare policy 2) Organization for welfare 3) Trend analysis 4) Opinion survey The DISBURSED SCOPES, ITEMS AND RATIOS OF EMPLOYEES WELFA RE FUND: The disbursed scopes, items and ratios of the employees' welfare fund are given in accordance with Paragraph 1, Article 7 of Employees' Welfare Fund Act as follows: The disbursed scopes and items: WELFARE BENEFITS: Wedding, funeral, bearing benefits for injury and disease, emergency aid and loan, disaster assistance etc. EDUCATIONAL GRAINTS: Subsidies for employees' advanced study and educational fees for their children etc. RECREATION ACTIVITIES: Culture and health activities, group activities, tourism and recreation facilities etc. OTHER WELFARE ITEMS: Festival grants, interests subsidy for the housing loan, employees' deposit insurance, purchasing house with employee deposit, child-care and spouse dependants subsidies, retired employees' benefits and other benefits etc.

1.2 COMPANY PROFILE


Hi-Grade Shoe is the flagship of Sri Achariya Groups. It has started in the year 2003 the company has export the uppers to Portugal, Italy etc., Since we have a good relationship with customers we have grown and extending it to full shoes. The Strength of the growth is purely based on the quality of the product. Organization has efficient workforce to satisfy the customers in all aspects. The Organization believe in systems and following international standards such as 5S, TEI, ITR, ERP, Training Center etc., Our Founder and Managing Director Mr. K.S. Sivakkumar, a dynamic business man has started this organization in the year 2003, Sri Achariya Group is growing up exponentially. Now the group has three units currently engaged in activities ranging from leather processing to producing finished shoes. Our team comprises of qualified professionals and experienced technicians, whose average experience is more the 15 years in the shoe industry. The entire team is quality conscious and our emphasis is on customer satisfaction. We are giving importance to Customer and Quality. Our collections are designed for and reflect the strong personality of an unconditional and well determined people whos looking for quality, purity, sophistication and simplicity. Our Motto is CUSTOMER SATISFACTION WITH QUALITY AND ON TIME DELIVERY.Our group has built up strong customer relations through confidence building measures and an atmosphere of trust and friendship. Every customer is assured of full confidentiality in terms of style, quality and price. We are always ready to comply with our customer requirements in every aspect of factory set up, pre & post production matters including sampling procedures, product standards, product safety, shipping, etc and labour-laws. Some of the outstanding features of Sri Achariya Groups are: a) b) c) d) e) More than 800 dedicated workers Capability of making more than 3000 pairs per day Eco Friendly R & D Cell Sample Division

Manufacturer of all kinds of leather for Indian & Global Market Hi-tech Enterprises is very competent and have got proficient, accomplished skills with experience in developing almost all types of finished leathers (from Raw to Finish) from all materials like Cow, Buffalo, Goat and Sheep that are made by Indian leather industry. Because of my unsurpassed knowledge and experience in sharing my views with well experienced technical friends / colleagues who are excel in production with different tanneries and in marketing MNC chemical companys representatives for Indian leather industry. By conducting various articles - trials regularly at consistent basis, we (Hi-tech Enterprises) have acquired extensive and broad customer acceptability with good inter-personnel relationship, outstanding and extraordinary customer contacts over the periods. We have strong and well experienced technical team to support you in making enough Articles in volume and value for all efforts & money that you are going to invest in leather part. Good inter personnel skill oriented team to solve all your problems in leather. And furthermore we have reputed well known MNC chemical manufacturing companies Agencies with us.

1.6 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

LABOUR WELFARE: Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. The welfare measures need not be in monetary terms only but in any kind/forms Employee welfare includes monitoring of working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health, industrial relations and insurance against disease, accident and unemployment for the workers and their families. Labor welfare entails all those activities of employer, which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages or salaries. CONCEPT: Labor Welfare may be viewed as a total concept, as a social concept, and a relative concept. The total concept is a desirable state of existence involving the physical mental, moral and emotional well-being.These four elements together constitute the structure of welfare, on which its totality is based. The social concept, welfare measures implies the welfare of man, his family and his community. All of three aspect, are interralated and work together in a three- dimensional approach. The relative concept, of welfare implies that welfare is relative in times and place. It is a dynamic and flexible concept and hence its meaning and content differ from time to time, region to region, industry to industry and country to country, depending upon the value system, level of educational, social customs, and degree of industrialization, and general standard of the social- economic development of people. Labour welfare implies thw setting up of minimum desirable standard and provides facilities like health, food,

clothing, housing, medical assistance, education, insurance, job security, recreation etc. such facilities enable the worker and his family to lead a good work life, family life and social life. Labor welfare also operates to neutralize the harmful effects of large-scale industrialization and urbanization. DEFINITION: The oxford dictionary labor welfare as efforts to make life with worth living for a workmen chambers dictionary defers welfare as a state of facing (or) doing well freedom from clamity enjoyment of health, prosperity, etc. In the words of R.R.Hopkins, welfare is fundamentally as attitude of mind in the part of management influencing the method which by management activities are undertaken obviously the emphasis here is on the attitude of mind. E.S proud definition welfare works as voluntary efforts in the part of employers to improve the existing industrial system and condition of thew employment in their own factories. SOCIAL SECURITY The connotation of the termsocial security varies from country to country with different political ideologies. Medical care Sickness benefit Unemployment Old age Employees injury Family Maternity Invalidity Survivors

In socialist countries, avowed goal is complete protection to every citizen form the cradle to the ideologies.

Social security may be two types. 1) Social assistance under which the state finances the entire cost of the facilities and benefits provided. 2) Social insurance, under the take organizes the facilities financed by contributions from the workers and employees with (or) without a subsidy from the state. Social securitys in India: At present both types, at social securities schemes, all envogue in our country. Among the social assistance scheme all the most employees. The social insure mental, which has gained much under acceptance man the social assists method. APPRAISAL OF WELFARE SERVICES: One of the main obstacles in the effective enforcement of the her provision of the factories act has been the quantitative and qualitative in adequacy of the inspection staff. Women workers do not make use of crche facilities either because they are dissuaded by the management to bring their children with them (or) because they have to face transport difficulties. At present, the labor welfare officers is not able to enforce laws because ha has to work under the pressure of management STATUTORY WELFARE SCHEMES: The statutory welfare schemes include the following provisions: 1. Drinking Water: provided. 2. Facilities for sitting: In every organization, especially factories, suitable seating arrangements are to be provided. 3. First aid appliances: First aid appliances are to be provided and should be readily assessable so that in case of any minor accident initial medication can be provided to the needed employee. 4. Latrines and Urinals: A sufficient number of latrines and urinals are to be provided in the office and factory premises and are also to be maintained in a neat and clean At all the working places safe hygienic drinking water should be independently

condition. 5. Canteen facilities: Cafeteria or canteens are to be provided by the employer so as to provide hygienic and nutritious food to the employees. 6. Spittoons: In every work place, such as ware houses, store places, in the dock area and office premises spittoons are to be provided in convenient places and same are to be maintained in a hygienic condition. 7. Lighting: Proper and sufficient lights are to be provided for employees so that they can work safely during the night shifts.

8. Washing places: Adequate washing places such as bathrooms, wash basins with tap and tap on the stand pipe are provided in the port area in the vicinity of the work places. 9. Changing rooms: Adequate changing rooms are to be provided for workers to change their cloth in the factory area and office premises. Adequate lockers are also provided to the workers to keep their clothes and belongings.

10. Rest rooms: Adequate numbers of restrooms are provided to the workers with provisions of water supply, wash basins, toilets, bathrooms, etc. NONSTATUTORYSCHEMES: Many non statutory welfare schemes may include the following schemes: 1.Personal Health Care (Regular medical check-ups): Some of the companies provide the facility for extensive health check-up 2.Flexi-time: The main objective of the flextime policy is to provide opportunity to employees to work with flexible working schedules. Flexible work schedules are initiated by employees and approved by management to meet business commitments while supporting employee personal life needs 3.Employee Assistance Programs: Various assistant programs are arranged like external counseling service so that employees or members of their immediate family can get counseling on various matters.

4. Harassment Policy: To protect an employee from harassments of any kind, guidelines are provided for proper action and also for protecting the aggrieved employee. 5.Maternity & Adoption Leave Employees can avail maternity or adoption leaves. Paternity leave policies have also been introduced by various companies. 6.Medi-claim Insurance Scheme: This insurance scheme provides adequate insurance coverage of employees for expenses related to hospitalization due to illness, disease or injury or pregnancy. 7.Employee Referral Scheme: In several companies employee referral scheme is implemented to encourage employees to refer friends and relatives for employment in the organization.

2.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION The purpose of the research methodology is to describe the research procedure includes the overall research design and collection method .this section is important because it is hard to discuss methodology with using technical term.

DEFINITION: Research is simply the process of finding solution and to the problem after a through study and analysis of the situational factors. "Research is thus an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement ". Research design data collection sampling technique tools for data analysis

Purpose of the study Type of investment Study setting Sampling unit Sampling design Sampling technique Sampling method Primary source Secondary source Data collection method

: descriptive study : casual study : non-contrived : Ambur : sampling size100 : non probability sampling : convinces sampling : individual respondent : books and journals : personally administered questionnaire

RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the specification of method and procedure for acquiring the information needed to structure or to solve problem .it is the overall operation pattern of frame work of the project that stipulate procedures. Descriptive research design

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN Descriptive research is contract to explorative research is market by the prior formulation of specific question. The problem perhaps as a result of exploratory study, before the project is initiated. He should b able to define clearly what he want to measure and to step-up appropriate and specific means for measuring it.

2.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD There data was collected through primary data secondary data Primary data Information as collected from the respondent through questionnaire by direct contact Secondary data sampling data was collected from the various books record and internet Sampling plan Sampling is used to collect data from limited numbers where as census is used for large numbering. Sampling unit The sampling unit comprises of the company Hi-Grade Shoes Ambur. Sampling size Sample size for the study is 100 employees Sampling Techniques The Researcher used probability sampling under that the stratified sampling as a sampling technique for the project. Probability sampling In probability samples, each member of the population has a knownnon-zero probability of being selected. Probability methods include randomsampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. Stratified sampling Stratified samplingis commonly used probability method that is superior to random sampling because itreduces sampling error. A stratum is a subset of the population thatshares at least one common characteristic. The researcher firstidentifies the relevant stratums and their actual representation in thepopulation. Stratified sampling isoften used when one or more of the stratums in the population havea low incidence relative to the other stratums.

TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS

Statistical tools were used to find inference between the variable and analyzing the results. The following tools are used. Percentage analysis Correlation
1. PERCENTAGE METHOD:

The percentage method was extensively used for findings various details. It is used for making comparison between two or more series of data. It can be generally calculated. No. of respondents favorable Percentage of Respondents = Total no. of respondents 2. PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage analysis refer to a special kind of ratio; percentages are used in making comparison between two more series of date percentage are used to describe the relationships. Formula: % = d/n 100 Where, d is the number of the respondents. n is the base of figure or the sample group. CORRELATION: The correlation technique is useful in explaining the relationship between two or more variables. The degree of relationship between variable under consideration is measured by the use of correlation technique. Formula: Ndxdy - (dx) (dy) r = ___________________________________ Ndx - (dx) Ndy - (dy) Where, N number of paired observation X Number of observation on one variable. Y Number of observation on another variable. x 100

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Labour welfare has the following objectives: * To provide better life and health of the workers conditions in Hi-Grade Shoes Ambur * To make the workers happy and satisfied. * To relieve workers from industrial fatigue and to improve intellectual, Cultural and material conditions of living of the workers. * To welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers due to legal provisions and collective bargaining. * To labor welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are added to the existing ones from time to time. * To welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or by any social or charitable agency.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This project titled a study on labour welfare measures in Hi-Grade Shoes Ambur The total workforce of the organization was around 1200 Consisting industrial workers, technicians, operators, office, staff, Secretaries, field staff, technical executives and non- technical executives, Managers. The corporation comprises six major production units viz., Mine-1, Mine-2,thermal power station-1,thermal power station-2,expansion and Almost all the officers are situated in the industrial promises, with a sample size Of hundred respondents, who are employees of Hi-Grade Shoes This study further will be useful for the orgin analyzing the perception Or opinion of employees with respect to the welfare measures provided to them in HiGrade Shoes.

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The sample size of the study, which consists of 100 employees, cannot be generalized and applied for general public. Opinions are dynamic; hence, the results of the study based on these opinions are likely to differ The above- mentioned study is carried out in only the particular company and so the observations and results are not applicable for any other companies. The result also depend upon the integrity of respondents in giving true and fair opinion and their level of knowledge in the subject under study. Data of similar companies were not available for comparison. The workforce of the company is too large and hence all of them could not be contacted for views and opinions on the research topic