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We hope that this pamphlet will, in its own way, provoke a radical change in the understanding of the role

that government can play in economic policy. We hope to spark a conversation about what the state can do to use its power to specify the problems it wishes to solve through technological advance and innovation, thereby ensuring that those advances are able to take place. [USSHER, 2011, p. ]

A partir da experincia inglesa ,Mariana Muzzaco toma como premissa o fato que o [...]Government has defined its role in economic policy as working to ensure a macroeconomy and infrastructure that is conducive to private sector activity, only intervening where there is a supposed market failure; beyond that it leaves the job of wealth creation to the market. evidenciar que em funo de tal forma E, tem como objetivo

de conceber o papel da poltica

econmica []opportunities are being missed [].[USSHER, 2011]

Este entendimento justificado por meio de evidncias de outras experincias de inovaes, em especial a americana, a partir das quais ressalta que i) ii) [...] networks and connections really matter , [...]where the network exists, it takes a nimble, interventionist, knowledge-hungry state to catalyse them into action. e iii) E, a partir da experincia norte-americana que ela constata que [.] innovation is far more likely to happen when it is commissioned via a multitude of contracts for particular advances or technological solutions, rather than by for example providing tax credits for general research and development, or badgering the banks to lend more to certain parts of the economy. [USSHER, 2011, p. ]

Em funo do exposto acima,

o objetivo do livro vai de encontro ao quase[...]challenges

consenso do papel miniminalista do Estado e, explicitamente

this minimalist view of the state in the field of economic policy, arguing that a far more proactive role is required. Ou seja, ela defende um papel para o

Estado que no s vai alm do implcito no Estado Minimo, como no Estado do Estar (aqui entendido pelo orientado pelas correo das falhas de mercado. Tal superao expressa de forma sinttica na expresso: [] gone way beyond creating the right infrastructure and setting the rules..

Em outras palavras, para ela existe no mbito tecnolgico um importante papel empresarial para o Estado, o qual concebido como [] a leading agent in achieving the type of innovative breakthroughs that allow companies, and economies, to grow, not just by creating the conditions that enable innovation. Rather the state can proactively create strategy around a new high growth area before the potential is understood by the business community (from the internet to nanotechnology), funding the most uncertain phase of the research that the private sector is too risk-averse to engage with, seeking and commissioning further developments, and often even overseeing the commercialisation process. Atentem-se que para ela necessrio []to go beyond the role of the state in stimulating demand, or the role of the state in picking winners in industrial policy, where taxpayers money is potentially misdirected to badly managed firms in the name of progress, distorting incentives as it goes along. Instead it is a case for a targeted, proactive, entrepreneurial state, able to take risks, creating a highly networked system of actors harnessing the best of the private sector for the national good over a medium- to long-term horizon. It is the state as catalyst, and lead investor, sparking the initial reaction in a network that will then cause knowledge to spread. The state as creator of the

knowledge economy. [MUZZARCO, 2011, pp. 19/20]

Neste sentido, no captulo 1 ela

[]sets the scene by summarising the

academic framework regarding the debate around growth; whereas a generation ago, technological advance was seen as something that was externally given, there is now extensive literature to show that actually it is the rate, and direction, of innovation that drives the ability for economies to grow. is provides the justification for increased focus on the role that government can play to facilitate precisely that innovation, while at the same time exploding some of the myths that abound in Westminster, the European Commission and Washington about what actually drives innovation and growth. [MUZZARCO, 2011, p. 21]

No captulo 2 ela ultrapassa a agenda clssica da poltica adotaa pelos policymaking e articulada a partir da correo das chamando ateno para falhas de mercado,

o conceito de entrepreneurial risk-taking como o

novo conceito articulador da ao do Estado no mbito da inovao tecnolgica . Eis suas palavras [] the importance of the governments role in investing

where the private sector will not, in the most uncertain risky areas. But rather than understanding this through the usual lens of market failures, the concept of entrepreneurial risk-taking is introduced. The public sector has indeed fulfilled an important role in undertaking the most risky research, even when that research was not basic. [MUZZARCO, 2011, p. 22]

No captulo 3, ela supera o framework dos Sistema Nacional de Inovao, E mesmo arguindo [] that it is only by creating a so-called national system of innovation built on sharing knowledge that the necessary, if not suficient, conditions start to be established. Ela vai alm, e, [] develops the

concept of the entrepreneurial state where not only is there a fully functioning national system of innovation, but this system is catalysed by proactive, flexible, decentralised action on the part of government. [MUZZARCO, 2011, p. 22]


MAZZUCATO, Mariana, The Entrepreneurial State. LONDON: DEMOS/The Open University, 2011 USSHER, Kitty, Preface in MAZZUCATO, Mariana, The Entrepreneurial State. LONDON: DEMOS/The Open University, 2011