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Packed Bed Reactor Specification Sheet

Item Name : Desulphurizer Item No: REC-102




Number of Reactor used: Author: Chan Soo Fong


Total= 2 (1 Operate and 1 Standby) Supporting Calcs. On Page: 74-91


Reactor Shape : Cylindrical



PROCESS DATA
Operating temperature (C ) 370
Operating Pressure (MPa) 1.9
Mechanical Design Temperature (C ) 407
Mechanical Design Pressure (MPa) 2.09
Gas Flow (g/s) 10226
Zin Oxide Bed
Reactant Shape Extruded Pressure Drop Calculated (kPa) 4.1855
Reactant Nominal Diamater (mm) 4.5 Void Fraction 0.7
Bed Depth (m) 6.188
Bulk density (g/cm3) 5.6
Bed Diameter (m) 2.063
Ceramic Balls
At the top of zinc oxide bed
Size (inch) Volume (m3)
4.5 0.3821
4 0.3396
At the bottom of zinc oxide bed
5 0.4245
4 0.3396
3 0.2547
Nozzle
Inlet Gas Nozzle Diameter (m) 0.55
Outlet Gas Nozzle Diameter(m) 0.55
Draining Zinc Oxide Nozzle Diameter (m) 0.55
Construction & Materials
Shell Material Stainless Steel 304
Shell Diamter (m) 2.063
Shell Tangent Length (m) 6.279
Shell Thickness (m) 0.03509
Shell Corrosion Allowance (m) 0.002
Ellipsoidal Head
Height (m) 1.032
Thickness (m) 0.03509
Inlet and Outlet Nozzle
Diameter (m) 0.55
Draining zinc oxide nozzle
Diamater (m) 0.55
Length (m) 0.5
SUMMARY OF MECHANICAL DESIGN
Parameters Values
Design temperature 407
Design pressure 2.09MPa
Head and closure Ellipsoidal Head (This type of shape is cost effective as
proved in the calculation in the appendix)
Pratical design stress, f 66.2N/mm
2

Wall thickness of reactor 35.09mm
Weight of vessel shell 176792.8N
Weight of zinc oxide 5.301 x 10
6
N
Weight of ceramic balls 24372N
Weight of mineral wool 5563N
Total weight of reactor 5519kN
Effective column diameter, D
eff
2.233m
Total weight of reactor 5519kN
Effective column diameter, D
eff
2.233m
Loading per unit length of reactor, F
w
2858.2N/m
Bending moment at tangent line, M
x
64708.8Nm
Circumferential pressure stress,

23.95N/mm
2

Longitudinal pressure stress,

47.91N/mm
2

Dead weight stress,

18.52N/mm
2

Bending stress,

N/mm
2

Critical buckling stress,

418N/mm
2

Type of skirt design Straight cylindrical skirt
Skirt height 1 m
W
total
5520.2kN
Wind load, F
w
2.858kN/m
Bending moment at skirt base, M
s
83.36Nm
Bending stress in the skirt,

0.542 N/mm
2

Skirt thickness 47mm
Type of flange Slip-on (The reactor does not subject to extreme
service situation and it is less exprensive) (Sinnott,
R.K., 2005)
Pitch circle diameter 4.2m
Circumference of bolt circle 4200
Minumum number bolts required, N
b
22
Bolt design stress, f
b
125N/mm
2

Bolt area, A
b
2166mm
2
Bolt root diameter,d 50.84m
Compressive load on the base ring per length, F
b
876491N/m
Bearing pressure 5N/m
2

Base ring width (minimum), L
b
175mm
Base ring thickness, t
b
14mm

APPENDIX - EQUIPEMNT DESIGN
DESULPHURIZER 102 - REC
REACTOR SELECTION
The reaction occurs in the reactor of desulphurization at 370 at 1.9MPa is as below:
H2S (g) + ZnO (s) ZnS (s) + H20 (g) H
rxn
o
= -84.5kJ/mol (Equation 1)
(Carnes, L.C. and Klabunde, K.J., 2001)
Feed contacts with zinc oxide to remove sulphur in the form of hydrogen sulphide. Zinc oxide acts as a
consumable reactant as it participates in the chemical reaction which is demonstrated in the equation 1
(Montemayor, A., 2008). On the other hand, the capacity of sulphur in zinc oxide is low at reduced
temperature. Thus, elevated temperature is required to contact the feed with zinc oxide (Patent Storm
LCC, 2005). When feed is contacted into a very hot zinc oxide, immediate chemical reaction will occur
(Montemayor, A., 2008). Thus, catalyst is not necessary to accelerate this reaction. In short, this is
classified as non-catalytic gas-solid chemical reaction.
The reactor selected for desulphurization process is single-bed adiabatic packed bed reactor. It is a type
of tubular fixed bed reactor, whereby solid particles are packed inside (Gavhane, K.A., 2009). Adiabatic
operation is acceptable since the heat released from the reaction is not significant, whereby this is
performed by less than 1% of the reactants. Thus, cold shot and intermediate cooling are not necessary
(Smith, R., 2005). Moreover, packed bed reactor is simple with maximum productivity per unit volume
of reactor. Fluidized-bed reactors is not considered as it is suitable for highly exothermic and
endothermic reactions only (Derouane, E.G. et al. ed., 2000). In addition, low operating cost is required
(Packed bed Reactor (PBR), n.d.). This operation does not require heat removed or supply and utility
such electricity. The only cost incurred is the zinc oxide. Apart from that, hydrogen sulphide is a
flammable, toxic and harmful substance (Phillips Petroleum Company, 1998). The reactor chosen is able
to treat dangerous and toxic elements (Eigenberger, G., n.d.).
REACTOR DIMENSIONS
The specification sheet and configuration of reactor is attached at the following page.
The reactor consists of:
a) An outer shell of the reactor
b) A nozzle for gas inlet and outlet respectively
c) Ceramic balls at the top and at the bottom respectively
d) Zinc oxide bed
e) Baffles
f) A draining nozzle for zinc oxide
g) Insulator
a) An outer shell of the reactor
The reactor is a cylindrical vessel. Its fabrication cost is less compared with others (Yahoo, 2012). When
settling of zinc oxide bed, channelling may occur (Edlund, D., 2011). The inlet feed gas makes a channel
in the zinc oxide bed and this results that the inlet feed gas does not come in contact with the zinc oxide
(Rao, 2010). This can be solved by placing the reactor vertically instead of horizontally (Edlund, D.,
2011). The diameter of outer shell of the reactor is 2.063m and length of 6.7137m.
b) A nozzle for gas inlet and outlet respectively
The feed gas enters the reactor at the top and then flow through the bed of zinc oxide. The feed gas
should not enter at the bottom of the reactor as fluidization may occur (Towler, G. and Sinnott, R.K.,
2012). On the other hand, the size selected for gas inlet and outlet nozzles diameter is 550mm. Flow
restriction is taken into account to avoid large pressure drop and vibration caused by flow (Sinnott, R.K.,
2005). The strength of the shell of the reactor is reduced at the opening and should give compensation
by reinforcing. The diameter of reinforcing pad calculated is 1100mm where the nozzle is located in the
middle of reinforcing pad.
c) Ceramic balls at the top and at the bottom respectively
At the bottom of the zinc oxide bed, lower head space is occupied by inch ceramic balls. A layer
contains 5 inches of inch of ceramic balls, followed by 4 inches of inch of ceramic balls and 3
inches of inch of ceramic balls. This layer acts as a support to the zinc oxide bed (Rousseau, R.W.,
1987).
At the top of the zinc oxide bed, a layer contains 4.5 inch of 1 inch of ceramic ball followed by 4 inches
of inch of ceramic balls covered the zinc oxide. Noted that the size of the ceramic balls is selected by
progressively smaller towards the surface of zinc oxide to improve distribution of gas and scale
elimination. This can avoid feed gas from moving the zinc oxide, which would results in undesirable gas
distribution and attrition. Since the ceramic balls are denser and larger size than the zinc oxide, these
balls may move downwards to the zinc oxide bed. To overcome this problem, a floating screen is
installed at the top of the zinc oxide bed before the balls are added. The scree has a thickness of 20mm.
The screen should be puncture-free and openings should be small to retain zinc oxide. Besides, zinc
oxide may shift during the operation, the floating screen should not tacked to the shell of reactor, but to
let it stay on the surface of zinc oxide bed freely (Rousseau, R.W., 1987).
With a layer of ceramic balls at the top and at the bottom respectively, the zinc oxide bed is hold and
this lead to stable reaction. Thus, the zinc oxide is not subjected to abrasion damage from vibration
(Tipton Ceram Corp., n.d.).
d) Zinc oxide bed
The Ergun Equation is as follow:

= -
()

[
()

]
where z = length down the packed bed, P = pressure and = void fraction

From the above equation, reducing the bed length will reduce the pressure drop. However, caution
should be taken to have a bed length adequate to prevent bypassing of zinc oxide (Whitaker, S. and
Cassano, A.E., 1986). Height to diameter ratio of zinc oxide bed is recommended to set as minimum
three. This is to ensure that the residence time of feed gas in the bed is sufficient (Focus Technology Co.,
Ltd., 2012). The residence time for the process is 10.85s. On the other hand, the void fraction is the main
crucial element to determine the pressure drop when gas passes through a packed bed (Wijngaarden, R.
et al, 2008). According to the Ergun Equation, the higher the void fraction, the lower the pressures drop.
However, the pressure drop should be neither too high nor too high. Low pressure can cause poor flow
distribution while high pressure is not economical (Rousseau, R.W., 1987). Assumption is made when
calculating the size of the bed is the void fraction is approximately 0.6 with uniform packing. Thus, the
diameter of zinc oxide bed is 2.063m while the length is 6.188m.

e) Baffles
A good flow distribution requires employing the head and bottom space. An economical method is to
utilize a baffle plates which is welded at the inlet and outlet nozzle symmetrically respectively. Baffles
can be solid or perforated. At the top of the head space, it should be big to reduce the momentum of
the inlet feed gas and redirect the flow to protect the ceramic balls and zinc oxide. At the bottom of the
head space, the baffle is surrounded by a small and strong screen to retain the ceramic balls on top. The
screen has a 50% open area (Rousseau, R.W., 1987). This baffle avoids the any particles exit and enters
into the downstream process (Towler, G. and Sinnott, R.K., 2012). The diameter of the baffle is same as
the diameter of nozzle, which is 550mm.
f) Draining nozzle for zinc oxide
A nozzle is located at the bottom of the reactor to drain out spent zinc oxide (Guisnet, M. and Ribeiro,
F.R. and Guisnet, M., 2011). The draining is carried out by gravity flow. The spent zinc oxide contained
up to 20 wt% of sulphur (Arnold, K. and Stewart, M., 1999). The size of the draining nozzle should be
larger than the size of zinc oxide to avoid plugging. The diameter of draining nozzle is 550mm and the
length is 0.5m. Spent zinc oxide is normally non-toxic and disposes as solid waste (Sun Jian et al., 2006).
g) Insulator
To maintain adiabatic system, an insulator is used to cover the reactor to prevent heat loss to the
surrounding. The insulator used is mineral wool. Unlike cellulose, mineral wool does not deteriorate. It
also does not melt when it contacts with high temperature vessel (HomeBuildingRemodeling, 2008).

DETAILS OF INTERNALS
Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide is selected in the desulphurization unit due to several factors. First of all, zinc oxide is utilized
to eliminate gaseous hydrogen sulphide due to its well-predictable reaction kinetics and adsorption (or
absorption) ability. In addition, used zinc oxide is normally non-toxic for solid waste disposal. When
comparing to other metal oxides from copper or iron, zinc oxide is comparatively more stable and not
readily eliminated in the existence of hydrogen, ie hydrogen in the hydrogen sulfide as indicated in
Equation 1 (Sun Jian et al., 2006).
The physical properties of zinc oxide are as follow:
Parameters Descriptions
Colour White or light gray (Focus Technology Co., Ltd.,
2012).
Sulfur adsoption capability High, approximately 150-200 mg-S/g sorbent
This reduces the inventories of zinc oxide and
decrease the replacement rate.
(Liu. K., Song, C. and Subramani, V. ed., 2010).
Crushing strength (N/cm) 50 (Focus Technology Co., Ltd., 2012)
The strength is high enough to tolerate impact
when loading and operation of the reactor
(Towler, G. and Sinnott, R.K., 2012).

The Ergun equation indicates that particle diameter decreasing with increasing pressure drop. On the
other hand, it also demonstrated that when the mass velocity increase, the pressure drop also increases
(Brockel, U., Mier, W. and Wagner, G. ed., 2007). Extremely small particles sizes should not utilized
because they began to move when the flow velocity rise and thus the pressure drop increases. Beside,
large particles can prevent plugging (Gavhane, K.A., 2009). However, extremely large particles size
should not be utilized as distance of diffusion to the active sites inside the particle rises (Salmi, T.O.,
Mikkola, J.P. and Warna, P., 2009).The particle diameter is normally ranging from 2 to 5mm (Suppes,
G.J., 2002). Thus, the zinc oxide particles selected is 4.5mm for the reactor (Sud-Chemie, 2007).
Furthermore, the extruded shape is utilized for zinc oxide. Extruded shape has larger external surface
area per unit volume. This able to minimise external mass transfer and heat transfer limitations (Towler,
G. and Sinnott, R.K., 2012). Extruded shape also assists in accessing of the heated natural gas stream into
the particle (Denny, P.J., et al., 1990). On the other hand, other shape such as spherical is not suitable as
it is utilized when zinc oxide is moving, for instance in slurry, fluidized-bed and moving-bed reactors. In
addition, sharp edge is also not suitable because it will be rounded gradually due to erosion (Towler, G.
and Sinnott, R.K., 2012).
It is important that the bed must be packed uniformly to avoid channelling (Eigenberger, G., n.d.).
Ceramic balls
Ceramic balls are utilized because of:
Inactive and stable in any circumstances.
Able to resist high temperature and pressure
Are not subject to melt even contact with strong alkaline and acid
Less impact caused by the force when loading
(Tipton Ceram Corp., n.d.).
The properties of ceramic balls are shown below:
Size (inch) 1
Crushing Strength (N) 833 1960 4410 5580
(Rakannusa Corporation (M) Sdn. Bhd., n.d.)
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
The material selected for the construction for the shell reactor, nozzle and baffle is type 304 stainless
steel (SS 304). It is a T 300 Series Stainless Steel austenitic. It contains at least 18% chromium and 8%
nickel, with a maximum of 0.08% carbon (Lenntech Water treatment & purification Holding B.V, 2009).
Natural gas contains hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. These impurities are very corrosive. In the
existence of these elements, carbon dioxide forming carbonic acid which can cause hydrogen
embrittlement. Moreover, hydrogen sulphide is very toxic when the concentration is low. In the sulfide
stress cracking area, suitable metal is required. Less than 22 Rockwell C hardness of steel should utilize
in the region where sulfide-stress cracking is a problem (Arnold, K. and Stewart, M., 1999). The SS 304
has Rockwell C hardness of less than 14, which able to withstand hydrogen embrittlement (Hurst
Corporation, n.d.).
SS 304 is a corrosion resistant material. The chromium content resists corrosion in oxidizing condition
while nickel resists corrosion in non-oxidising environments (Sinnott, R.K ,2005). Moreover, type 304
stainless steel contains less carbon, which indicates that less precipitation of carbide in heat-affected
area when welding is carried out and a higher resistance to intergranular corrosion (ASM Aerospace
Specification Metals Inc, n.d).

This type of steels resists fire and heat. Thus, this allows reactor to resist scaling and maintain strength,
especially when it is at high temperature (ARK stainless, 2005).

Apart from that, it characterized by high ductility (ASM Aerospace Specification Metals Inc, n.d). This
gives warning when fracture is likely to occur and permits preventive action to be taken.

OPERATING CONDITIONS
Temperature Pressure Gas Flows
370 1.9MPa 10226g/s

DISTRIBUTION THROUGHT THE ZINC OXIDE BED

From the pressure profile down PBR, it shows that the pressure drop is 4.1855kPa. The pressure at the
end of the reactor is 1995.8145kPa. On the other hand, from the volumetric flow profile down PBR, the
volumetric flow increases as the pressure drop increases. This shows that gas is distributed in bed with
pressure.
OPERATING/MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
The lifespan of the zinc oxide bed depends on the hydrogen sulphide content (Arnold, K. and Stewart,
M., 1999). It is designed based on 1 year before the replenishment is required (Montemayor, A., 2008).
Replenishment of zinc oxide
Replenishment of zinc oxide is considered instead of regeneration due to several factors. One of the
factors is less quantity of zinc oxide is utilized (ie from the mass balance, 1.766g/s zinc oxide required
compared to the 10225.6g/s feed) which causes the regeneration process costly (Guisnet, M. and
Ribeiro, F.R., 2011). Moreover, the cost of zinc oxide is reasonable due to the manufacture cost of zinc
oxide is low compared to other materials, such as molecular sieves, zinc-titanium oxide. Thus,
regeneration of zinc oxide is not economical and advisable (Sun Jian et al., 2006). Besides, zinc oxide has
a low regeneration capability (Wieckowska, J., n.d.).
The zinc oxide beds need regular replenishment. Two beds of zinc oxide are located in series, a lead or
lag arrangement (Arnold, K. and Stewart, M., 1999). This series arrangement minimizes the necessity of
the total zinc oxide because the first reactor operated to higher sulphur retention (Montemayor, A.,
2008). The first bed, the lead unit, functions as the working unit to eliminate all the hydrogen
sulphide when the treatment period begins with its outlet containing increasing hydrogen sulphide as
the time passes. The gas exits from the first reactor flows to the second bed, the lag unit, for further
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Pressure Profile down PBR
Length of the Reactor (m)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
k
P
a
)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
6860
6865
6870
6875
Volumetric Flow Profile down PBR
Length of the Reactor (m)
V
o
l
u
m
e
t
r
i
c

F
l
o
w

(
k
g
/
h
)
eliminating the remaining hydrogen sulphide in gas when the first reactor outlet begins to meet the
specification. The zinc oxide is regard as spent when the first bed inlet and outlet concentrations are
equivalent. After that, the gas is entered to the second reactor. The spent zinc oxide is disposed from
the first bed and the fresh zinc oxide is replenished. The enable the gas flows in the second bed without
interruption (Arnold, K. and Stewart, M., 1999). The movement of beds between first and second bed is
conducted by using valve in connecting pipe (Roger, B., n.d.).
CALCULATIONS
REACTOR DIMENSIONS
Calculate the length and diameter of zinc oxide bed
H2S (g) + ZnO (s) ZnS (s) + H20 (g)
Components H2S ZnO ZnS H2O
Mass reacted/product (g/s) 0.7411 1.766 2.114 0.3923

Operating hour = 8500 per year; ZnO need to replenish annually
Mass of ZnO = 1.766

x 8500h x 3600

= 54039600g
Density of ZnO = 5.60

(WolframAlpha, 2011); Assume = 0.6 with uniform packing


Loading depth recommended: min. L/D = 3 (Focus Technology Co., Ltd., 2012)
Take L/D = 3
Weight of ZnO = (1-)

L
54039600g = (1-0.6)(5.60

)r
2
4(2r)]
Thus, r = 103.1cm = 1.031m
Therefore,
D = 2r = 2(1.031m) = 2.063m
L = 3D = 3(2.063m) = 6.188m

Calculate reactor diameter and length
D = 2.063m (based on diameter of zinc oxide bed)
Total height of ceramic balls = 4.5 + 4 + 5 + 4 + 3 = 20.5 in. = 20.5 in. x

= 0.5207m
Let the thickness of screen = 20mm=0.02m
L = 6.188 + 0.5207 + 0.02 = 6.729m

Calculate Pressure Drop

=
()

[
()

]
Where
G = Superficial mass velocity (kg/m
2
.s) = Fluid viscosity (kg/m.s)

o
= Fluid density (kg/m
3
) = Void fraction
g
C
= Conversion factor D
P
= Diameter of particles in bed (m)
Thus,

=
(

)()
(

)(

)()(

)
[
(

)(

)
()
((

))]
= 4.1855kPa

Residence time
Volumetric flowrate of feed gas, v
o
=

6861.8m
3
/h
Volume = r
2
h = (

)
2
(6.188) = 20.68m
3

Thus, residence time =

= 10.85s
Assume no change in pressure and temperature in reactor since the effect of disturbance is very small,
thus residence time = space time
The space velocity for operating condition for ZnO is between 1000 to 2000 h
-1

Thus, residence time = Between to

)
to

)
=Between 3.6s to 1.8s
This shows that residence time for the reactor is more than enough.

Nozzle diameter
Mass flowrate, W =

; = 5.365kg/m
3
(From HYSYS value)
Optimum pipe diameter, D
opt
= 8.41

(Ray, M.S. and Sneesby, M.G., 1998)


= 8.41

= 566.7mm
Optimum pipe diameter is higher than the nearest standard pipe size due to the construction materials
are higher than normal carbon steel (Ray, M.S. and Sneesby, M.G., 1998). Thus, the diameter selected
for nozzle is 550mm.

Welded pad
Diameter of welded pad (Nozzle is located at the middle) = 2 x 550mm = 1100m

DISTIBUTION THROUGHT THE REACTOR
MATLAB CODE
%%Reactor of Desulphurization unit

%%Given parameters:
Gasenter=10226*0.001*3600; %kg/h
z=6.188; %m
Dp=4.5/1000; %m
T=370+273; %K
voidfrac=0.7;
r=(2.063./2); %m
Po=2000; %kPa
gc=1.296*10^7; %kg/(h2.m.Pa)

%%Superficial mass velocity
Ac=pi.*r.^2; %m2
G=Gasenter./Ac %kg/(h.m2)

%% For feed at 390C and 2000kPa
vis=0.07574; %kg/(m.h)
deno=5.365; %kg/m3
vo=Gasenter./deno %m3/h

%%Find beta
Part1=G.*((1-voidfrac)./(voidfrac^3));
Part2=deno.*gc.*Dp;
Part3=(150.*(1-voidfrac).*vis)./Dp;
Part4=1.75*G;
beta=((Part1./Part2).*(Part3+Part4))./1000; %kPa/m

%%Plot Pressure against Length of Reactor
z=[0 1 2 3 4 5 6.188];
y=(1-((2.*beta.*z))./Po).^0.5;
P=y.*Po; %kPa
subplot(2,1,1); plot(z,P);
title('Pressure Profile down PBR')
xlabel('Length of the Reactor (m)')
ylabel('Pressure (kPa)')
grid on

%%At The Exit of The Packed-Bed Reactor
FinalP=((1-((2*beta*6.78))./Po).^0.5)*Po; %Pa
disp('Pressure at the End of the Reactor =')
disp([num2str(FinalP) 'kPa'])
DeltaP=Po-FinalP; %kPa
disp('Pressure Drop =')
disp([num2str(DeltaP) 'kPa'])

%%Plot Volumetric Flow against Length of Reactor
v=(vo./y);
subplot(2,1,2); plot(z,v);
title('Volumetric Flow Profile down PBR')
xlabel('Length of the Reactor (m)')
ylabel('Volumetric Flow (kg/h)')
grid on


MECHANICAL DESIGN
Design temperature
The strength of SS304 metal reduces with increasing temperature. Thus, the maximum allowable design
stress will rely on the material temperature (Sinnott, R.K., 2005). 10% above the normal operating
temperature allow in the reactor.
Design temperature = 370C X 110% = 407C

Design pressure
According to British/American standards, 5 to 10% above the normal working pressure is required for
design pressure in order to prevent spurious operation when minor process is disturbed (Sinnott, R.K
,2005).
Taking 10% above the normal working pressure,
Design pressure = 1.9MPaX 110% = 2.09MPa

Practical design stress
According to table 13.2 in Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering Series: Chemical Engineering
Design Volume 6,
Temperature (C) 400 450
Typical design stress (N/mm) 100 95
(Sinnott, R.K ,2005)
The typical design stress for design temperature, 407C is determined by interpolation.



-10 =



Typical design stress at design temperature, 407C = 99.3N/mm
2
According to table 13.1 in Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering Series: Chemical Engineering
Design Volume 6, the design stress factor is as follow:
Property Austenitic stainless steels
Minimum yield stress or 0.2 per cent proof stress,
at the design temperature
1.5
(Sinnott, R.K ,2005)
Practical design stress, f =



Practical design stress, f =

= 66.2N/mm
2


Wall Thickness
The joint factor, J = 1.0
The equation of mimimum practical wall thickness is: e =


Substitute all the variables into the above equation: e =
()()
()()()
= 33.09mm
Add corrosion allowance 33.09mm +2 mm = 35.09mm
Assumption is made that a minimum corrosion allowance of 2.0mm is used when there is no severe
corrosion. (Sinnott, R.K ,2005)
There is a least amount of wall thickness needed to make sure that the column is rigid enough to
withstand its own weight and any incidental weights. The value of wall thickness obtained from the
calculation above is 35.09mm. The minimum thickness according to the British/American Standards is
7mm (Sinnott, R.K ,2005). Thus, the value obtained is acceptable.
Design of head and closure
Ellipsoidal Head
Minimum thickness:
e =

=
()()
()()()()
= 32.67mm
Ratio of major to minor axis = 2:1
Add corrosion allowance 32.67mm +2 mm = 34.67mm
Assumption is made that a minimum corrosion allowance of 2.0mm is used when there is no severe
corrosion (Sinnott, R.K ,2005).
Torisherical Head
Minimum thickness:
e =

()
where = (3+

) = (3+ ) = 1.77m
e =
()()()
()()()()

= 59.11mm
Add corrosion allowance 59.11mm +2 mm = 61.11mm
Assumption is made that a minimum corrosion allowance of 2.0mm is used when there is no severe
corrosion (Sinnott, R.K ,2005).
From the calculation above, ellipsoidal head is the most cost-effective (Sinnott, R.K ,2005).
The thickness of head is taken as the thickness of wall, which equivalent to 35.09mm (Sinnott, R.K
,2005).

Height of Ellipsoidal Head
H =

= 515.8mm

Dead weight of vessel
The major sources of dead weight load comprising of:
a) Weight of vessel shell
b) Weight of zinc oxide bed
c) Weight of ceramic balls
d) Weight of insulator-Mineral wool

a) Weight of vessel shell
For steel reactor, the estimated weight of a cylindrical vessel fitted with domed ends can be calculated
by the following equation (Sinnott, R.K ,2005):
W
v
= 240C
v
D
m
(H
v
+0.8D
m
)t
whereby
W
v
= Weight of shell, excluding internal fittings, such as plate (N)
C
v
= Factor for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports, for which, 1.08 for vessel with only a
few internal fittings, 1.15 for distillation column, or same vessels, with several manways, and with plate
support rings, or similar fittings
D
m
= Average diameter of vessel = (D
i
+ t x 10
-3
) (m)
H
v
= Height or Length (m)
t = Thickness of wall (mm)
Thus,
C
V
= 1.08
D
m
= (2.063+ 41 x 10
-3
) m = 2.104m
W
v
= 240C
v
D
m
(H
v
+0.8D
m
)t
= 240(1.08)(2.104)(6.729

+0.8(2.104))(41)
= 188094N
b) Weight of zinc oxide
Weight of zinc oxide = Mass of zinc oxide = 540396kg x 9.81m/s = 5.301 x 10
6
N
c) Weight of ceramic balls
Mass of ceramic balls (4.5 inches layer of 1 inch ceramic balls)
= r
2
L = (1.35 g/cm
3
) (

)(

)
2
(114.3mm) = 515.8kg
Mass of ceramic balls (4 inches layer of inch ceramic balls)
= r
2
L = (1.38 g/cm
3
) (

)(

)
2
(101.6mm) = 468.7kg
Mass of ceramic balls ( inch ceramic balls in the bottom head space)
=

) D
3
= (1.35 g/cm
3
) (

)(

)(

)
2
(2063mm)
3
= 101.5kg
Mass of ceramic balls (5 inches layer of inch ceramic balls)
= r
2
L = (1.35 g/cm
3
) (

)(

)
2
(127mm) = 573.1kg
Mass of ceramic balls (4 inches layer of inch ceramic balls)
= r
2
L = (1.38 g/cm
3
) (

)(

)
2
(101.6mm) = 468.7kg
Mass of ceramic balls (3 inches layer of inch ceramic balls)
= r
2
L = (1.4 g/cm
3
) (

)(

)
2
(76.2mm) = 356.6kg
Weight of ceramic balls = Mass of ceramic balls x g
= (515.8kg + 468.7kg + 573.1kg + 468.7kg + 356.6kg + 101.5kg) x 9.81m/s
= 24372N
d) Weight of insulator
Mineral wool density = 130kg/m
3
Thickness of mineral wool = 50mm (Assumed)
Volume of Insulation = D H
v
t = (2.063m)(6.729m)(50 x 10
-3
)m = m
3

Weight = Vg = (2.181m
3
)( 130kg/m
3
)(9.81m/s) = 2781.5N
Double this to permit fittings and so on = 5563N
Total Weight = Weight of vessel shell + Weight of zinc oxide + Weight of ceramic balls + Weight of
Insulator = 5519kN

Wind loading
For smooth cylindrical column, wind pressure can be calculated by:
P
w
= 0.05u
w
2
Whereby, u
w
= wind speed (km/h) which is 160km/h (Sinnott, R.K., 2005)
P
w
= wind pressure (N/m
2
)
Thus, P
w
= 0.05(160)
2
= 1280N/m
2

Mean diameter, including insulation, D
eff
= 2.063 + 2(35.09 + 50) x 10
-3
= 2.233m
Loading (per linear metre), F
w
= P
w
D
eff
= (1280)(2.233) = 2858.2N/m
Bending moment at bottom tangent line, M
x
=

=
()()

= 64708.8Nm

Analysis of stresses
At bottom tangent line,
Longitudinal stress,
L
=

=
()()
()
= 23.95N/mm
2
Circumferential stress,
H
=

=
()()
()
= 47.91N/mm
2

Dead weight stress,
w
=

)
=

()
= 18.52N/mm
2
(compressive)
Bending stresses:
D
o
= D
i
+ 2t = 2063 + 2(45) = 2153mm
I
v
=

(D
o
4
- D
I
4
) =

(2153
4
- 2063
4
) = 1.656 x 10
11
mm4

b
=

)=

) = N/mm
2
The resultant longitudinal stress is:

z
=
L
+
W

b

b
is compressive and therefore negative

z
(upwind) = 23.95 18.52 + 0.4112 = +5.841 N/mm
2

z
(downwind) = 23.95 18.52 0.4112 = +5.019 N/mm
2

Torsional stress does not exit, thus the principal stress will be
z
and
h
. The main difference between
the principal stresses is on the down-wind side, which is 47.91-5.019 = 42.89N/mm
2
. This is less than the
maximum allowable design stress. On the other hand, radial stress is negligible (Pi/2) = (2.09/2) =
1.045N/mm
2






Up-wind Down-wind

Check elastic stability (buckling)
Critical buckling stress,
c
= 2x10
4
(

) = 2x10
4
(

) = 418N/mm
2
Buckling stress

=
W

b
= 18.52 + 0.4122 = 18.93N/mm
2

Critical bucking stress > buckling stress (satisfactory)

Vessel support
Vessel support can be classified as saddle support, skirt support and bracket support. Saddle support is
not selected because it is mounted for horizontal vessel. Skirt supports are selected instead of bracket
support because it is suitable for vertical vessel and it does not apply concentrated loads on the vessel
shell (Sinnott, R.K., 2005).
A skirt cylinder skirt (
s
= 90
o
) of carbon steel, maximum allowable stress 89N/mm
2
. The Youngs
modulus is 200000N/mm
2
(Sinnott, R.K., 2005).

= 5.365kg/m
3
(Value obtained from HYSYS)
Approximate weight = V

g = (

x 2.063
2
x 6.729)(5.356)(9.81) = 1182N = 1.182kN
Weight of vessel = 5519kN
Total weight = 1.182 + 5519 = 5520.2kN
Wind loading = 2.858kN/m
Bending moment at the base of the skirt, M
s
= F
w
x
()

= 2.858 x
()

= 108.9kNm
For the first trial, use the skirt thickness, t
s
as the same value as the bottom section of the reactor,
45mm

5.841
5.019
47.91 47.91

bs
=

()
=
(

)
()
= 0.7085N/mm
2

ws
(test)

=

()
=
(

)
()
= 18.52N/mm
2

ws
(operating)

=

()
=
(

)
()
= 18.52N/mm
2
Maximum
s
(compressive) = 0.7085 + 18.52 = 19.29N/mm
2

Maximum
s
(tensile) = 0.7085 18.52 = -17.81N/mm
2

Use the joint factor as 0.85
Criteria for design:

s
(tensile)

fsJsin
-17.81 9 x x sin (9)
-17.81

s
(compressive)

E(


)sin
19.29 x x (


) sin (90)
19.06
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2mm for corrosion, gives a design thickness of 47mm
Base ring and anchor bolts
Let the pitch circle diameter be 4.2m
Circumference of bolt circle = 4200
Number of bolts required, at minimum suggested bolt spacing =

= 21.99
Closet multiple of 4 = 20 bolts
Take bolts design stress = 125 N/mm
2

M
s
= 108.9kNm
Take W = operating value = 5519kN
A
b
=

(9

)] = 2166mm
2

Recommended A
b
= 2030mm
2
(Sinnott, R.K., 2005)
D
Ab
=

=
()

=50.84mm
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length
F
b
=

=
( )
()()


()
= 876491N/m
Take fc

= 5N/mm
2
; Lb =

= 175mm
This is the minimum width. The actual width rely on chair design.
Actual width required = L
r
+ t
s
+50mm = 2063 + 45 + 45 + 50 +50 = 2253mm
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:
fc =


= 0.389N/mm
2
t
b
= 150

= 14mm