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Table of Contents

B. ESCAP

IRONLESS ROTOR DC MICROMOTORS AND STEP MOTORS



1.0 INTRODUCTION 347
2.0
TABLE OF INTERNATIONAL UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS GERMANE TO MICROMOTOR
APPLICATIONS
347
3.0 ADVANTAGES AND UNIQUE FEATURES OF AN IRONLESS ROTOR MOTOR 347
4.0
CONSTRUCTION OF THE ESCAP

MICROMOTOR
349
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
General Construction and Geometry
Stator Housing Assembly
Rotor Assembly
Brush Holder End-Cap Assembly
d.c. Tachometers
349
350
350
350
350
5.0
REVIEW OF PHYSICAL LAWS GOVERNING ESCAP

MOTOR APPLICATIONS
351
5.1
5.2
5.3
Rectilinear Motion
Rotational Motion
Basics of DC Circuits
351
352
355
6.0 BASIC MOTOR PHYSICS 356
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Simplified Coil In a Magnetic Flux
Escap

Micromotor Energy Flow and Conversion


Development of the Equivalent Circuit
Fundamental Equations of the lronless Rotor Motor
356
357
357
358
7.0
GEARBOXES APPLIED WITH ESCAP

MOTORS
366
7.1
7.2
7.3
Efficiency
Stall Rating of Gearbox
Inertia Transfer
366
366
366
8.0 CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF DC MICROMOTORS 367
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
General Comments
Summary of Feedback Techniques and Components
Ironless Rotor Micromotor Model With Laplace Transform Notation
Open Loop Control Considerations
Closed Loop Control Considerations
Servo Amplifiers and Control Techniques
Additional Comments
367
367
369
369
370
371
376
345
9.0 TUTORIAL SELECTION OF MICROMOTOR APPLICATION PROBLEMS 376
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
Two Problems In Angluar Motion
Drive Motor Application Problem
Drive Motor Selection Problem
Gearbox Application Problem
Case Study: The "DC 300" Cartridge Drive
Dynamic Braking of a DC Micromotor
Example of Graphing Motor Characteristics
Considerations For Tachometer Applications
Light Chopper Drive Motor
376
376
379
388
381
387
388
389
390
10.0
REVIEW OF ESCAP

STEP MOTORS
390
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10

Description
Advantages and Unique Features
Detent Torque
Holding Torque
Dynamic Characteristics
Damping Considerations
Resonance
Accuracy
Motor Drive Techniques
Application Example
References
380
391
392
392
394
396
396
396
397
397
401

346
B. ESCAP IRONLESS ROTOR DC MICROMOTORS AND STEP MOTORS*
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter on dc micromotors is intended as a tutorial review of the major engineering considerations required for the proper
selection and application of ironless dc micromotors and tachometers. The text has been prepared for publication by Stock Drive
Products with the permission of Portescap U.S.
2.0 TABLE OF INTERNATIONAL UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS GERMANE TO MICROMOTOR APPLICATIONS
The International System of Units is used throughout this chapter, and Escap products are specified in this system of units.
Consequently, the following tables have been prepared for the convenience the reader. A more complete treatment of the
International System of Units and Conversion Factors is presented in the Designers Data Section of this handbook.
3.0 ADVANTAGES AND UNIQUE FEATURES OF AN IRONLESS ROTOR MOTOR


Absence of Rotor Poles
no cogging (no preferred rotor position)
very low torque and back EMF variation with rotor position
Small Rotor Inertia
rapid mechanical response
Low Rotor Inductance
negligible electrical time constant
low torque ripple
low electrical noise
minimum brush/commutator electro-erosion
Precious Metal Brush/Commutator System
negligible voltage drop at the brushes
Negligible Hysteresis and Eddy Current Losses
Very Stable Magnetic Field
very high over excitation to nonlinearity or demagnetization
low stray fields
High Power to Volume Ratio
intense magnetic field
narrow air gap
high fill factor of copper conductor
Continuous Copper Winding
excellent dynamic balance
_____________
* Prepared and Edited by: Peter J. Thornton. P.E.
* Printed with the permission of Portescap U.S.
* ESCAP

Registered Trademark of Portescap.


347

348

Low Internal Friction


tow starting voltage
low no-load current
High Efficiency
Good Compatibility with Simple Servo Drive Electronics
Linear Characteristics
4.0 CONSTRUCTION OF THE ESCAP

MICROMOTOR
4.1 General Construction and Geometry
Figure 1 shows the major subassembly breakdown of the motor. Brushes, housing, rotor and magnet are clearly shown. The
primary feature is the self supporting "basket" construction of the rotor. In this geometry (Figure 2), the rotor is a perfectly
wound (one conductor placed next to its neighbor without gap) surface of a right circular cylinder bonded to an insulating disc
which supports the coil and commutator segments. The coil is wound in a unique skew configuration giving both electrical
symmetry and mechanical stability. Precious- metal brushes and commutator are used to provide a near zero voltage drop, low
friction and long life (Figure 3). Multiwire brush construction is employed to provide parallel contact redundancy.
Finally (Figure 4) the motor is assembled around a central permanent magnet and core which supports the bearings, outer
magnetic return path and also the brush holder.
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4.2 Stator-Housing Assembly
The stator consists of the central cylindrical permanent magnet, the core which supports the bearings, and the steel tube which
completes the outer magnetic return path. All three of these parts are held together by the motor front plate, or the mounting
plate. The magnetic core is magnetized diametrically after it has been mounted in the magnetic system. Owing to the low
permeability of the permanent magnet, the magnetic resistance is great enough to allow neglect of the weakening of the stator
field due to the rotor current.
4.3 Rotor Assembly
The ironless rotor, in the form of a cylinder, rotates around the magnetic core. In Escape motors, the rotor is made in the form of
a skew wound coil and is fixed to a disc carrying the commutator. According to the motor dimensions, the commutator has
between 5 and 13 segments. The small commutator diameter results in low sliding-speed and the small friction gives high
efficiency. The perfectly symmetrical construction of the skew wound coil makes for smooth and silent running. The crossing of
the wires makes the self supporting rotor winding (armature) highly stable mechanically.
4.4 Brush Holder End-Cap Assembly
The endcap includes the brush system. Owing to the use of precious metals for the brushes and the commutator segments, the
low contact resistance of the brushes is maintained throughout the life of the micromotor and ensures starting at very low
voltages.
4.5 d.c. Tachometers
The construction of the Escap

tachometer is identical to that of the motor. However, some engineering differences in the brush
commutator system form the basic distinguishing features of the tachometer. The precious metals used for commutator and
brushes have been selected to combine maximum life time with low noise performance. Unlike tachometers with carbon brushes,
the use of precious metal brushes allows operation at very low currents (<1 mA). Like any device with sliding mechanical
contacts, the generator, under certain cir cumstances, may exhibit disturbances in the output signal of a very short duration
(order of magnitude of 1 S).
This in no way alters the rms value of the signal. in certain electronic circuits it may however be adviseable to provide a high
resistance parallel path at the amplifier input or a simple filter circuit. The choice of the generator will essentially depend upon:
Electronic considerations, such as desired value of signal and tolerated ripple, mechanical considerations, such as stresses on the
shaft or resonance phenomena between generator and drive system.
We would add that the cleanliness of the signal depends to a large extent on the precise alignment of motor shaft and driven
shaft, and that under severe conditions shielding of the tacho leads may be useful. The standard models are designed for
operation at temperatures ranging from -30 C to +65 C (-20 F to +150 F); higher temperatures reducing the life of the
sleeve bearings. Ball bearings are also available.
Every coil is switched twice per revolution, at the positive and negative brush. The ripple frequency per revolution is therefore
twice the number of coils or number of commutator segments. The minimum peak-to-peak amplitude of ripple theoretically
attainable depends upon the number of coils (which is always odd) and is
4.89% for 5 coils
2.51% for 7 coils
1.52% for 9 coils
1.02% for 11 coils
0.73% for 13 coils
350
The actual value is largely determined by the precision of manufacture, primarily in coil winding.
typically generator output signal, 5
segment commutator
a) value of the induced voltage(1 V) with
actual ripple of 90 mV(9%)
b) (scale 10 times larger than a) minimum
theoretical ripple, frequency per revolution
equals twice the number of commutator
segments.
c) actual ripple value, twice per
revolution
d)signal for one complete revolution of
rotor

Figure 5 Tachometer Output Signal
5.0 REVIEW OF PHYSICAL LAWS GOVERNING ESCAP

MOTOR APPLICATIONS
5.1 Rectilinear Motion
5.1.1 Velocity, sometimes referred to as speed, is equal to distance (displacement) traveled per unit time (second).
Thus, v = dx
dt
(v)velocity = (x)distance meters
(t) time second
5.1.2 Acceleration is defined as the change in velocity per unit time. Therefore:
(a) acceleration = dv = dx
dt dt
v = V
o
+ at
5.1.3 Displacement is the distance traveled after time (t).
Thus:
(x) = v
0
t + 1 at + x
0

2
and with zero initial velocity (when v
0
= 0 and x
0
= 0)
x = 1 at
2
351
5.1.4 Force is defined as a mass (m) multiplied by the acceleration (a) which it is experiencing.
Thus: F = ma
Conversely, the mass of a body is represented by the force per unit acceleration.
5.1.5 The concept of inertia comes into play when describing the amount of force that is required to accelerate a body. A small
inertia requires less force to achieve a given acceleration than does a body with a larger inertia. Thus, load inertia is a critical
consideration when making a motor application.
5.1.6 When a force is applied to a body which is free to rotate about some axis, the product of the magnitude of the force and its
force arm is called the moment of the force about the axis.
The force arm is defined as the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the axis of rotation.
It is this property of a moment of a force which produces torque and thus rotation of a body (load).
5.1.7 Work and energy
Work is defined as the product of displacement and the component of force in the direction of displacement. Thus:
W = Fx
The kinetic energy of a moving body is expressed as:

Thus, the work done in accelerating a body equals the increase in its kinetic energy.
5.1.8 Mechanical power

Average power:
and instantaneous power:
and under constant force: P = Fv
5.2 Rotational Motion
5.2.1 Angular velocity

NOTE: 2 radians = 1 rotation (360)
By definition a radian is an angle whose arc length is equal to the radius of the arc.
Also, "speed" should not be used to describe angular velocity. Rotational speed can only be expressed as RPM or RPS.
352
5.2.2 Angular acceleration

Under acceleration angular velocity changes as follows:
=
o
+ t
5.2.3 Angular displacement after time (t) is defined as:

5.2.4 Handy equations of angular rotation physics with constant angular velocity
( = constant and
o
= 0)
= t
alternate forms: w =
with constant acceleration ( = constant):

where =
o
+ t
a =
with constant acceleration () and with zero initial velocity (
o
= 0):

angular acceleration of a load (J) with constant torque (M) is:
a =
5.2.5 Moment of inertia. The moment of Inertia (J) of a body referred to an axis of rotation is the product of the mass of the
body and the square of the distance between the center of mass and the axis of rotation.
J = mr
353
For a flywheel:
(J) = mr
and for a homogeneous disc:

5.2.6 Energy, work and power
Rotational kinetic energy is expressed by:

And work (W) is defined as:
dW = Md
where M is the torque causing the displacement ().
Under constant torque the work done over a given displacement is stated as:
W = M (
2
-
1
)
Now
but is rate of doing work (Power)
and
Hence, power P = M (under constant torque)
Net work = change in kinetic energy

and

M = J = J which is the rotational analogue of Newton's second law, F = ma in linear motion.
354
5.2.7 Momentum
The law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a system can only be changed by external forces acting
on the system.
In rectilinear motion the system momentum is given as the product of mass and velocity (mv).
Whereas angular momentum is:
L = J
5.3 Basics of DC Circuits
5.3.1 OHM'S law

R = resistance
E =voltage
I = current
(ohms)
(volts)
(amperes)
variations:
E = lR and l =
5.3.2 Power
P = power (watts)
Power input to a network is computed as:
P = El
and the power (heat) dissipated in a resistance is given by:
p = l R
5.3.3 Kirchhoff's rules
Point rule: The algebraic sum of the currents toward any point of a network is zero.
i = 0
loop rule: The algebraic sum of the voltage sources and the lR products in any loop of a network equals zero.
E + iR = 0
5.3.4 Series and parallel resistance
The equivalent resistance of resistors in series is the sum of the individual resistances.
Thus: R = R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ ... R
N

The equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel is computed as:

A special solution for only 2 parallel resistors is;

355
6.0 BASIC MOTOR PHYSICS
6.1 Simplified Coil In a Magnetic Flux
Generator (Tacho)
Action:
displacement (d)
Reaction:
induced Emf (E)



Motor
Action:
current (i)
Reaction:
Force (F)



= 4500 Gauss
Force = f (, l, i)
Torque = f (, l, i)
Emf = f (, l, )
Torque is current (i)
dependent
Emf is speed ()
dependent
356
l is a constant as determined by the winding length (l) and the magnetic flux density ().
l = K
T
torque constant (motor)
l = K
v
voltage constant (Tacho)
6.2 Escap

Micromotor Energy Flow and Conversion


6.3 Development of the Equivalent Circuit
V
o
= applied terminal voltage
L
m
= rotor inductance
R
m
= rotor resistance
E
i
= motor's induced back Emf
i = circuit current flow
Summation of loop voltage drops yields:

357
Since the Escap

rotor inductance is 100 to 1,000 times less than that of conventional "iron-core" motors it can be neglected.
Therefore, the Lm term vanishes and the simplified voltage loop equation becomes:
V
o
= R
m
i + E
i

6.4 Fundamental Equations of the Ironless Rotor Motor
6.4.1 Motor Model

Since V = Rl + E we can substitute K
v
for E since the back emf is equal to the angular velocity () multiplied by the motor
constant (K).
Where K
v
is the back emf constant and K
M
is the torque constant.
V = Rl + K
v
and M = K
M
l.
NOTE: K
v
= K
M
= K
This equality exists only when K
v
and K
M
are expressed in metric units.
NOTE: K
v
=

Therefore:
V = Rl + K
where K K
v
= K
M

358
This same equation can be derived in another way as follows:
Air gap power in = air gap power out
(from Figure 9)
El = M
Kl = M
Kl = M or l =
Power ln = dissipation + power out.
(from Figure 10)
Vl = lR + El
Vl = lR + M
Vl = lR + Kl
V = lR + K
Alternate Forms:
6.4.2 Torque Speed
359
The complete torque expression including mechanical losses is:
M = M
L
+ M
f

M
L
= M - M
f
M
f
= Friction Torque
M
L
= Load Torque
M = Motor Torque
NOTE: the origin of the torque speed characteristic (Figure 12) is shifted to (M
f
, l
NL
).
At no load current (l
NL
) the no load speed (w
0
) is:

at a particular load (M
L
) the corresponding speed () is:

In actual applications
M
f
<< M
L
and l
NL
0
where
0
= (neglecting M
f
)
=
0
- M
L

By definition stall torque is computed by: M
STALL
=
6.4.3 Power
360
By definition: P
OUT
= M
L
(Mechanical Power)

at peak power:

NOTE: Maximum mechanical power out cannot exceed 1/4 the stalled power input.
6.4.4 Efficiency
By definition: =
P
OUT
= M
L

Where l
L
= load current
l
S
= stall current
l
NL
= no load current
361
Now P
lN
= Vl
L
but V = l
S
R
P
lN
= l
S
l
L
R

Solving for l
L
:

Substituting in efficiency equation:

6.4.5 Thermal Considerations
There is actually only one major criteria that should be taken into account when selecting an ironless rotor DC motor. The final
armature temperature must not exceed its maximum rated value so that no separation in the winding occurs under high
centrifugal force.
Given this consideration, it is evident that the ambient temperature (
0
), the two thermal resistances (R
th1
= rotor to case;
R
th2
= case to ambient), and the average power dissipation (P
d
), have to be very precisely evaluated in a given application.
P
d
= lR (Watts)
= P
d
(R
Th1
+ R
Th2
) (C)
Where R
Th1
& R
Th2
are (C/Watt)
The equation for the final armature (rotor) temperature is:

f
=
0
+

f
=
0
+ (R
Th1
+ R
Th2
)P
d
C
The change in rotor resistance with temperature is expressed as:
R
f
= R[1 + (.004)(
f
- 20)]
where "R" is that rotor resistance at 20C and .004 is the coefficient of thermal resistance for copper at 20C, in OHMS/C.
362
R
f
is the new resistance at temperature
f
.
The maximum continuous average current is limited by the following thermal consideration:

MAX

0
= = (R
TH1
+ R
TH2
) R
f
l
MAX


Where
MAX
is the maximum permissible rotor temperature (ie 100C for a standard motor). The increase in rotor temperature
versus time with a constant dissipated power is:

where: t is elapsed time in seconds

1
is thermal time constant of coil (seconds).

2
is thermal time constant of tube (seconds).
6.4.6 Dynamic Performance
6.4.6.1 Starting under load conditions can be expressed as follows:

substituting:
363
The solution for (0) = 0 is:
(see figure 14)
Where
but (mechanical time constant of motor from catalog)

NOTE: Speed of rotation (RPM):

6.4.6.2 Starting an unloaded motor can be stated as follows:
Where: M
L
= 0 and J
L
= 0
=
M
and

=
0


This means that after infinite time the unloaded motor (assume zero friction torque M
f
) will attain the no-load angular velocity
corresponding to the power supply voltage. Thus:

and
0
=

under these no load conditions.


364
For an unloaded motor the initial acceleration would be:

Where: M
d
= motor starting torque
J
M
= rotor inertia
l
d
= current corresponding to the starting torque
Integration of the function (t) with initial conditions of (t = 0) = 0:

(t = 0) = 0


+ c = 0 or c =



this new function is graphed in figure 15.
365
7.0 GEARBOXES APPLIED WITH ESCAP

MOTORS
where g = gear ratio

7.1 Efficiency: P
lN
= M

P
OUT
= P
lN

NOTE: Efficiency will change with temperature due to factors such as lubrication, gear mesh, etc.
7.2 Stall Rating of Gearbox:
M
STALL
= gM where M
STALL
is motor stall torque

This torque (M) must never be permitted to exceed the maximum stall torque rating of the gearbox as stated In the catalog.
Expressed as a motor current limit:

7.3 Inertia Transfer
Acceleration of the load J
L
is expressed as:
366
Where:
(J
LM
) is the load inertia referred to the motor shaft.
8.0 CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF DC MICROMOTORS
8.1 General Comments
Due to its inherent qualities the Escap

micromotor is very suitable for a wide range of application types. The principal modes of
operation are:
Open loop direct drive
Closed loop velocity servo
Closed loop position servo
8.2 Summary of Feedback Techniques and Components
8.2.1 Position feedback is required when critical positioning of the load is required such as in:
Welding robot head location
Daisy wheel printer positioning
Aircraft indicator drive
The most frequently used position feedback transducers (sensors) in use today are:
Potentiometers
Synchros and resolvers
Linear synchro
Optical encoders
Hall effect transistors
Linear variation differential transformer
Magnetic pickup
8.2.2 Velocity feedback is utilized when precise speed control of the motor is required or where a prescribed velocity profile is
required to obtain controlled acceleration and deceleration: Examples of motor applications where velocity feedback might be
required are:
Daisy wheel printer ramping up and down of print wheel velocity to obtain minimum character positioning time.
Tape drive applications requiring constant tape speed or maximum acceleration and deceleration of the tape.
Carriage drive to obtain maximum accelerate/decelerate characteristics.
Plotter pen drive where the pen is required to trace a prescribed path in a given time.
The most frequently used velocity feedback devices are:
Tachometers
Optical encoders (velocity decoding)
367
Motor back-emf sensing
Phase locked quartz-based frequency comparator system
8.2.3 In summary, position control systems can be categorized into three primary functional areas:
Fixed displacement (point-to-point position)
Translation/velocity profile
A combination of both velocity and position
8.2.4 The most elementary components of a servo system are:
Motor
Position transducer
Velocity transducer
Amplifier
Controller (logic & comparator)
Power source
These are arranged in block diagram form in figure 17.
The feedback transducers are either analog or digital sensors. Typically, tachometers and synchros are examples of analog
feedback devices whereas optical encoders and pulse counters are examples of digital devices.
368
Controllers also fall into either the analog or digital category or a combination of both. The operational amplifier is the basic
analog element while the microprocessor is a digital control device.
8.3 Ironless Rotor Micromotor Model With Laplace Transform Notation
Figure 18 ironless Rotor Micromotor Model With Laplace Notation
V
lN
= input signal
e
emf
= back emf
K = motor constant
l = motor current
S = Laplace operator
M
f
= motor friction torque
M
L
= load torque
J
M
= motor inertia
J
L
= load inertia
= motor velocity
= displacement
Note that with negligible inductance the classic Laplace term of reduces to .
This property is reflected in a negligible electrical time constant for ironless rotor motors which, in practice, never exceeds 1 %
of the motor unloaded mechanical time constant.
8.4 Open Loop Control Considerations
The typical open loop operating mode for an Escap

micromotor is a battery powered drive motor application. The high efficiency


and excellent regulation makes the micromotor well suited for these applications. We know from the torque speed
characteristics that a motors operating velocity is given by:
Thus, the regulation term defines how much the motor RPM will fall off with increasing torque. Proper choice of R and K is
critical especially in an open loop mode.
Generally speaking, over a certain operating range, constant torque can be obtained by using a constant current power supply.
This simply makes use of the fact that motor torque (M) = Kl. Within its current rating, a battery is well suited for use with a
micromotor as a constant current source.
369
Conversely, over a low torque operating range, a constant, motor output RPM can be maintained by using a constant voltage
power supply since
This mode of operation is only successful in low torque ( l l
NL
) applications where the lR term is kept at a minimum.
Obviously, as the torque demand increases the current must also increase and thus, the lR term increases and so does motor
power dissipation 1R.
It should be remembered that
Therefore for "good" regulation the power dissipation is greatly reduced for any given load torque. We again
see that the regulation is critical to the proper selection of a motor.
8.5 Closed Loop Control Considerations
8.5.1 ln an incremental motion control servo system the sensed position and/or velocity parameters, whether they be in digital
or analog form, are ultimately converted into control feedback signals and then into voltage and current form as drive power to
the motor. The motor thus executes this power command and the resulting motion is once again detected by the sensors. Thus,
the feedback loop is "closed". This is illustrated in figure 17 in block diagram form.
8.5.2 Velocity profile
A key consideration in designing a servo system for Incremental motion is the velocity profile of the motor/load.
The design goal is to optimize this profile, while minimizing some other parameter such as peak current or power dissipation.
A common design problem may require an optimum velocity profile which will provide for minimum power dissipation (P
d
) and
minimum time (t

) to perform a certain displacement ().


Equations for this incremental motion are:
Torque:
Displacement:
Power Dissipation:
The simultaneous satisfaction of these equations while optimizing the desired conditions will result in a parabolic velocity
profile.
Such a profile has an efficiency of 1.0. Other velocity profiles such as the trapezoid and triangle have efficiencies of 0.89 and
0.75 respectively.
In practice the trapezoidal velocity profile, being reasonably close to ideal, is generally used. Also, the ramp-up and ramp-down
constant acceleration is a simple matter to accomplish from a controls point of view. The trapezoidal velocity profile and its
associated drive current profile are shown in figure 19. The drive circuit for the trapezoidal profile must provide a constant
current pulse. Both positive and negative.
370
Figure 19 Trapezoidal Velocity Profile and Drive Current Profile
8.6 Servo Amplifiers and Control Techniques
8.6.1 General comments
To thoroughly cover the topic of servo control systems and their design would be an exhaustive exercise and certainly beyond the
scope of this text. Whole chapters and even books have been written on individual areas of the total topic such as: damping,
torsional resonance, amplifier design, etc. The intent of this text is to cover, in summary fashion, some of the salient issues in
order to provide the reader with an overview of servo amplifiers and control techniques. The reader is encouraged to study
further, his areas of interest. The references at the conclusion of this section represent an excellent library for further study.
Amplifiers fall into two major categories: class A (linear) amplifiers, and switching amplifiers. Transistors may be used for either
type but SCR's are often used in high power switching amplifiers.
Simple speed control amplifiers are usually operated in a single quadrant and therefore are not bidirectional (no negative
torque). The true servo amplifier however, is capable of bidirectional drive and is able to operate in all four quadrants.
8.6.2 Linear amplifiers
The linear operating characteristics of a class A amplifier with no significant control lag within its designed bandwidth, make it the
obvious choice for motor control applications. A single transistor speed control system is shown in figure 20.
A single transistor amplifier has a relatively low gain and therefore requires a large error signal before it will react. Higher gain
can easily be obtained by adding additional stages of amplification. Figure 21 gives an example of a speed control circuit having
two stages of current amplification and an integrated circuit (lC) incorporating a dual voltage amplifier.
371
Transistor servo amplifiers are characterized by two primary output (drive) stages and consist of two basic circuit
configurations. They are:
(a) The bridge or "H" consisting of four transistors and requiring a single dc power source; and,
(b) The "T" consisting of two complementary transistors and requiring two dc power sources.
See figure 22 for "H" and "T" circuits.
The advantages and disadvantages of the bridge and "T" servo output stages are listed in the following tables.
Bridge "H" Stage
Advantages
single power supply
some voltage protection
Disadvantages
difficult to drive in linear class
difficult to obtain feedback
372
373
"T" Stage
Advantages
easy to drive
good feedback


Disadvantages
requires 2 power supplies
requires careful biasing to avoid dual
conduction
dead zone in characteristics
Both the "T" and "H" circuits may be operated as linear amplifiers or in the switching or "bang bang" mode. However, the "T" is
most often used as a linear amplifier while the "H" circuit seems to be more common in switching amplifiers.
8.6.3 Switching amplifiers
Switching amplifiers are the most versatile and perhaps most widely used servo drivers. There are three basic schemes used to
control power by switching amplifiers.
These methods are:
Pulse width modulation (PWM)
Pulse frequency modulation (PFM)
Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
The output waveforms of these three schemes are shown in figure 23.
All three of these control methods vary the power delivered to the motor by modulating the average power output over a given
time period. This can be observed in figure 23 where the average power is represented by the area under the curve during a
given period. The wider the pulse or the more frequent the pulse rate the greater the power.
The generation of the pulses is performed by the controller logic and pulse generator circuits which in turn drive the output
amplifiers. Command signals and feedback signals of course control the pulse generation.
Technically speaking, the SCR amplifier is a PWM amplifier but with a part sine wave output instead of a square wave. The SCR
is also a lower frequency device and must be accompanied by a separate turn off circuit. SCR's are limited to high current and
low switching rates. These features generally make SCR controls less suitable for Escap

micromotors.
374
8.6.4 Selection of switching frequency
The major considerations in the selection of the switching frequency (f
s
) are:
f
s
must be above the servos dynamic response capability.
Rule of thumb: f
s
> 10f
BW
where few is system bandwidth.
f
s
must be above the major system resonance points.
f
s
>f
Res
.
The switching period must be greater than the transistor switching delay time (Td)

8.6.6 The ramp generator
One important element in a switching servo drive system is the ramp generator. This is the circuit responsible for generating
various sloping waveforms required for a particular velocity profile. Figure 24 shows a typical ramp generating circuit.
8.6.6 Phase locked loop servos
Phase locked loop servo (PLS) has become a very popular means of obtaining precise velocity control. This method exhibits
excellent speed regulation. The principal of operation is simple.
Basically the frequency of a feedback pulse is compared with a command frequency. The system adjusts itself until the
feedback is identical to the command at which time the system is said to be "phase locked". In this way the system output
velocity is stabilized to the speed corresponding to the command.
375
8.6.7 Back emf servo control
A back-emf servo utilizes the generated back-emf of the motor as a means of gaining velocity feedback information: The linearity
and symmetry of the Escap

mircromotor make it an excellent candidate for use in a back-emf servo. This scheme is low cost
and is well suited where low to medium performance is required. Please refer to the reference material for a detailed treatment of
the subject.
8.7 Additional Comments
The subject of dc servo systems is vast. Thoroughly covering all aspects of the subject is beyond the scope of this text. The
reader is encouraged to conduct his own research to gain wider knowledge of the topic. Please consult the references at the end
of this section for further reading on the following aspects of dc micromotor control:
Damping of ironless dc motors
System instability
Damping of ironless dc motors
System instability
System bandwidth
Torsional resonance
Circuit design
Back-emf servos
9.0 TUTORIAL SELECTION OF MICROMOTOR APPLICATION PROBLEMS
9.1 Two Problems In Angular Motion
(A) It is required that a system reach a rotational speed of 2000 RPM in 20 MS. Initial velocity is zero. What is the angular
acceleration required?

(B) It is required that a system have an angular displacement of 3 radians in 20 MS. Initial velocity is zero. What is the angular
acceleration?
9.2 Drive Motor Application Problem
Customer has a "sniffer" drive problem. It is to be battery operated and the carbon brush motor he has selected consumes
excessive current. This motor has a 12 VDC rating, 14,000 RPM no load speed, a 5 ohm rotor, and 150 ma no load current. The
operating conditions under load are a terminal voltage of 6 volts and 300 ma.
a) What is the load torque?

M
L
= K(l l
NL
) = 76.7 x 10
-4
(0.3 0.15) = 11.5 x 10
-4
Nm = 0.16 oz-in
376
377

378

b) What is the motor speed?

C) What is the efficiency?
P
out
= M
L
= 11.5 x 10
-4
x 586.7 = 0.675 watt
P
in
= Vl - 6 x 0.3 = 1.8 watt
= P
out
/P
in
= 37.5%
9.3 Drive Motor Selection Problem
This customer powers the above sniffer by Nickel-Cadmium rechargeable batteries of 1.25 - 1.30 volts per cell output. He would
like to use the least number of cells consistent with optimum efficiency and reasonable motor life. Small size is desirable.
a) What is your motor recommendation?

Try 22C11-216, R
a
= 6.0 ohms @ 90F

l = l
NL
+ l
L
= 0.119 +0.007 = 0.126A

V = 6.36 Volts (5 cells = 6.25 6.50 Volts)
b) What is the efficiency?
P
out
= M
L
= 11.5 x 10
-4
x 586.7 = 0.675 watt
P
in
= Vl = 6.36 + 0.126 = 0.801 watt

C) How does this efficiency compare to the motor's peak efficiency?

l
NL
= 0.007A


max
= 84.4% (0.998 effective)
379
d) What is temperature of rotor above case?
P
a
= lR
a
= (0.126) x 6 = 0.095 watt
T = RP = 9 x 0.095 = 0.86C negligible
9.4 Gearbox Application Problem
A customer has a machine tool application where he needs exactly one revolution of a shaft in 1.0 1.5 seconds. He has a 24
VDC supply available and load friction is 5 oz-in, inertia is 0.05 oz-in-s. Position of the output shaft will be sensed externally and
on-off control applied to the motor.
a) What would your first try be using a B24?
initially assume start-up and shut down times negligible relative to one second. Speed therefore is one revolution
in approximately one second or 60 RPM. Gear ratio is needed of approximately 100. Selecting the smallest 24
VDC Motor, try the 26P11-210-100 with B24 ratio 128.
b) What would the motor and gearbox output speeds be under load?
Convert friction load to metric:
M
Lf
= 5 oz-in x 70.62 x 10
-4Nm
/oz.in = 353 x 10
-4
Nm
Motor speed loaded:

output speed:

c) What time to speed (95%)?
Convert Inertia to metric:
J
L
= 0.05 oz-in-s x 7.062 x 10
-3 Kgm
/oz-in-s = 3.53 x 10
-4
Kgm
J
M
= 5.3 x 10
-7
Kgm
3 = 0.057 Sec
d) Assuming equal times to start and stop, how long does it take from start to rest with a total angle of 1.0
revolution?
Ref: Figure 15
For 3 = 2.05 = 2.05 x 5.6 x 0.019 = 0.22 Rad
380
Start
Slow
Stop
0.22 Rad
5.84 Rad
0.22 Rad
0.057 Sec
1.043 Sec
0.057 Sec
Total 6.28 Rad 1.16 Sec
9.5 Case Study: The "DC 300" Cartridge Drive
9.5.1 "DC 300" cartridge specifications
Excerpts from the "DC 300" cartridge specifications per American National Standard's ANSI X3.55-1977 and ANSI X3.56-1977
necessary for our purposes are the following:

Friction force = F
f
The worse case tangential force required at the outer driving radius (r
a
= .445 in) of the belt capstan to maintain a constant
operating speed.
F
f
= 4.5 oz (1.25N)

Total inertia = mr
a
2
The total equivalent inertial mass of all cartridge elements must not exceed m, given in linear units referred to the external
radius (r
a
) of the belt capstan.
m = .002 oz s
2
/in (.022 kg)

Inter block gap (lBG)


The minimum length of the inter block gap should be:
lBG = 1.2 in (30.5 x 10
-3
)

Drive ratio:
The ratio of the tape velocity, v
t
, to the tangential velocity of the external driving radius of the belt capstan, v, (which is also
equal but opposite to the tangential velocity of the drive roller) shall be:
V
t
/V = .76
381
9.5.2 System requirements
Density = 6400 bits/in (DC300XL)
Tape read-write speed: v
to
The common speed for most applications is:
V
to
= 30 in/s
therefore v
o
= 30/.76 = 39.5 in/s (lm/s)
Tape rewind speed =V
trw
The common speed for most applications is:
V
trw
= 90 in/s
therefore: v
rw
= 90/.76 = 118 in/s (3m/s)
Acceleration or deceleration time on read-write mode (t
a
; t
d
):
(lBG - .15 - .3)/V
to
Where;
.15 in., block integrity.
Block integrity is a safety factor where a portion of the tape is DC erased before information block.
.3 in., distance between read head and write head
Acceleration or deceleration on rewind mode can vary from one system to another,
however, it is greater than 75 ms.
External drive roller radius:
r
c
= .25 in (6.35. 10
-3
m)
9.5.3 Model of Drive
with
v
o
=39.5 in/s
M = .002 oz s
2
/in
r = r
c
= .25 in.
F
f
= 4.5 oz.
382
9.5.4 Solution
Because the greatest average power dissipation in the motor armature is when reading or writing on start-stop mode with the
smallest increment (or block) of information (128 bits = .02 in.), this will be used for an example of the worst case. The following
results were obtained with a 23D21-216E Escap motor.
Torque
T
m1
= (J
m
+ mr
2
)v
o
/rt
a
+ F
f
r
T
m2
= F
f
r
T
m3
= (J
m
+ mr
2
) v
o
/rt
d
+ F
f
r
Current
l
1
= T
m1
/k
l
2
= T
m2
/k
l
3
= l
m3
/k
Voltage
U
1
= Rl
1

U
2
= Rl
1
+ kv
o
/r
U
3
= Rl
2
+ kv
o
/r
U
4
= Rl
3
+ kv
o
/r
U
5
= Rl
3

Dissipated power
P
d1
= Rl
1
2
P
d2
= Rl
2
2
P
d3
= Rl
3
2
383
Average dissipated power =

when
where:
l
1
= A + B
l
2
= B
l
3
= A + B
Therefore,
in our case this will be:
2.32 W
Optimal drive roller radius r
o
, which minimizes the average dissipate power, can be obtained by:
r optimum which minimizes
This results in the following optimal radius:

if F
f
= 0, no friction force, "matching inertia"
r
o
= ( (m
2
/J
m
2
) + (t
a
2
+ .5t
a
t
o
)F
f
2
/J
m
2
v
o
2
)
-1/4

r
o
= .15 in
The above results can be tabulated in the following curve:
384

385
386
9.8 Dynamic Braking of a DC Micromotor
Many times customers not only ask for the acceleration characteristics but also need to know the dynamics of stopping. This
addresses the case of dynamic braking of a motor with both friction and inertial load. Gearhead parameters are included for
completeness; however, a ratio and efficiency of unity may be used for cases involving direct motor output.
If we assume a switch closure across the motor terminals at time zero, the time to stop, t
s
, is calculated by the following
expression:
where

m
is the unloaded motor time constant (catalog value)
J
L
is the load inertia (Kg m
2
)
J
m
is the motor inertia (Kg m
2
)
is the gearbox efficiency (expressed as a decimal number less than unity)
g is the gearbox ratio (expressed as a number greater than unity)
W
L
is the load speed prior to braking (R/S)
K is the motor constant (Nm/A)
M
L
is the torque (Nm)
R is the rotor resistance (ohms)
Note that the units of t
s
are the same as
m
.
Example as follows:
A 22C11-210-5/B24.0-128 drives a 10 oz-in load at 55 rpm.
Load inertia is 2 x 10
-4
Kgm
2
.
The time to stop is:

t
s
= 0.50 second
Due to the high deceleration torque developed by dynamic braking, care must be exercised when using a gearbox that the
resulting reverse torque does not exceed the torque rating of the gearbox (both first stage and last stage ratings). Please refer to
Section Two paragraph 5.0 of this handbook dealing with Minimization of Gear Train Inertia and the effects of "back driving"
through a speed reducer.
387
9.7 Example of Graphing Motor Characteristics
The graph of motor characteristics is based upon the following given information:
Motor: 26P11-216-35
Continuous Current: 0.6 Amp.
Max Desired rotor temp.: 85C
Ambient temp.: 40C
Resistance at 20C: 9.4
Torque constant: 3.10 oz. in./Amp.
Supply voltage: 12 vdc
No Load Current: 0.02 A
Thermal resistance: R
TH1
= 5C/W
R
TH2
= 14C/W
Calculate:
R
T
= R
20
[1 + 0.004 (T-20)]
R
85C
= 1.26 X 9.4 = 11.8
P
lN
= l
2
R = 0.6
2
x 11.8 = 4.25 watts continuous
T = 5C/W x 4.25 = 21C
Case Temp T
CASE MAX
= 85 21 = 64C
9.71 MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS
26P11-216-35
12 VDC
K = 3.10 oz in/A
R
20
= 9.4
l
NL
= 0.02A
R
TH1
5C/W
R
TH2
14C/W
T
A
= 40C

388
9.8 ConsideratIons for Tachometer Applications
The most significant considerations of a tachometer application are:
1. Voltage Constant (k
v
) expressed as volts per 1,000 RPM (V/K RPM). This defines the signal output of the tach In
terms of Its mechanical input in RPM.

2. Linearity expressed as a percent. This defines the stability of the voltage constant over a given speed range and load
condition. Between 500 and 5000 RPM Escap tachs have an unloaded linearity of 0.2% and with a 10 K load
0.7%. Because Escap uses precious metals in the brushes and commutator there is no requirement for a minimum
current flow to keep the brushes "clean". Therefore, Escap tachs may be used with high load impedances to take
advantage of the 0.2% unloaded linearity.

3. Ripple is a result of the frequency of the induced emf. The ripple frequency is equal to twice the number of
commutator segments (coils) multiplied by the Revolutions per Second (RPS).
f
R
= 2 N (RPS)
The ripple is modulated on the peak of the base output signal. For a 9 segment tach the peak-peak ripple is
approximately 1.52% of the peak output voltage.
The effect of ripple can be minimized by choosing a high enough voltage constant and/ or operating RPM so as to
improve the signal to noise ratio. Filtered output can also be used but the result is to integrate the tach output thus
reducing its response to quick changes in RPM.

4.
A.C. Variation is a fluctuation in the base generator output signal. It is caused by non-symmetry in the coils. Escap

tachs are characterized by their precise coil winding and thus have an absolute minimum of a.c. variation. The
frequency of a.c. variation is equal to twice the RPS.
f
AC
= 2 (RPS)
The amplitude of a.c. variation in Escap

tachometers is approximately 3% of total ripple.



5.
Thermal Stability. The temperature coefficient of Escap

tachometers is - 0.02%/C due to the use of Al cc


magnets which are very stable and therefore will require little if any temperature compensation.

6.
Inertia. The Escap

tachometer is a low inertia device and is therefore well suited for certain applications which
cannot tolerate non-active load inertias, i.e.: sensing velocity characteristics of a very low mass load such as a print
wheel.
Since the tachometer is primarily used as an analog sensor for measuring system speed (RPM) the designer usually
begins by selecting a tachometer having an output signal (over entire system speed range) which is compatible with
other system requirements and limitations such as: amplifier gain and saturation level; electrical noise; etc. There is
no single "cook book" approach to tachometer selection. The designer must, as always, match his skills against the
advantages and disadvantages of all of the elements involved.
389
9.9 Light Chopper Drive Motor
This application is for a motor to drive a slotted wheel which in turn interrupts (chops) a light beam at a frequency of 200 H
z
. The
chopper wheel has only a single slot and an inertia of 0.2 gcm. Supply voltage available is 4 Vdc.
Given: V
o
= 4 Vdc Max
M
L
= 0.2 gcm (2 x 10
-4 NM
)
Chopper freq. = 200 H
z
Solution:
= 2f = 2 x 200 =
P
in
= M
L
= 2 x 10
-4
x 1.257 x 10
3
= 0.25 Watts
Propose to use 16 C11-210 Motor
From catalog: K = 23 x 10-4 Nm/A
R =7.5
l
o
= 0.015A
Now:
V
o
= Rl + K V
o
= (7.5 x 0.102) + 23 x 10
-4
x 1257 = 3.66 volts
4 Volt supply is acceptable and motor choice checks out.
10.0 REVIEW OF ESCAP

STEP MOTORS
10.1 Description
The Escap

family of permanent magnet step motors are the result of a unique patented technology.
The motors can be built with one phase per stack, with two or more phases per stack (each phase-covers a given angular
sector) or with two or more phases imbricated in one single stack. Patents are protecting these different designs. The-following
described motor has two phases arranged in one single stack. This new step motor design is based upon a homoheteropolar
structure. Figure 25 illustrates the motor's design in a simplified mechanical schematic.
390
The motor is in the form of a thin axially magnetized disc made from somarium cobalt magnetic alloy. A special magnetization
process allows for a high number of magnetic poles and small step angles. The magnetic path is closed by the use of "C" shaped
silicon iron lamination cores. These cores are symmetrically arranged in the two stator halves. These lamination cores act as the
stator "teeth" and are surrounded with a "bean" shaped coil for each electrical phase.
The magnet is fixed to a shaft by virtue of two end-bells thus, forming the rotor assembly. It should be obvious that the inertia
of such a rotor assembly is very low an advantage of this motor. Figure 26 shows the construction of the Escap

step motor.
The two stator halves forming the housing are precision molded of Ryton. This material has a very good modulus of elasticity, low
shrinkage, and excellent thermal stability. The four bean shaped coils are identical and are manufactured by standard winding
methods.
10.2 Advantages and Unique Features
The advantages and unique features of the Escap

P series motors can be summarized as follows:


Very low rotor inertia (12 x 10
-7
kgm
2
for P532)
High torque
Low mass
Low volume
High power/mass ratio (150 W/kg
-1
for P532)
Excellent acceleration (140,000 rad/S
2
for P532)
High efficiency
391
Low resonant frequency (250 H
z
for P532)
Low system cost (motor/control package)
Linear torque vs. ampere-turns characteristic
Capable of very high step rates
Low mechanical time constant
No risk of demagnetization
Compatible with simple low cost drive circuitry
10.3 Detent Torque
The P series step motor does provide some holding torque with the windings do-energized. This torque is the result of an
interaction between the rotor poles and the stator poles. For this motor design the detent torque is a fourth harmonic of the
fundamental sinusoid torque curve and is defined as
T
q
= 2T
4
Sin (4N
4
)
During manufacture of the motor it is possible to increase or decrease the detent torque over a range of almost zero to about
10% of the one-phase-on holding torque.
10.4 Holding Torque
The P series motor is a two phase step motor. With one phase energized with a dc current, the rotor poles will align themselves
with the corresponding stator poles of the energized phase. A motor so aligned is in a position of stable equilibrium. If an external
torque is applied to the motor shaft causing the rotor and stator poles to misalign, a counteracting torque is developed which
tends to restore the original condition of equilibrium. This restoring torque is called the static holding torque and its value varies
with rotor position. This torque is zero when the rotor and stator poles are aligned and increases with the angle of misalignment
up to some maximum value for the particular motor (static torque characteristics).
With two phases energized the static holding torque is obtained by adding the torques of the two phases energized separately.
Theoretically the two-phase-on scheme produces 2 times the torque developed with one-phase-on. In practice the actual static
torque is less because the individual torque curves are not sinusoidal.
Under conditions of negligible detent torque the mathematical expression for Static holding torque (one-phase-on) is given by:
T = ni sin N
where N = number of pole pairs (25 for 100 steps per revolution)
= torque per ampere-turn (a motor constant)
ni = number of ampere-turns
= total mechanical displacement (0 to 360)
The torque curves of Figures 27 and 28 present a graphic explanation of the various torques under one and two-phase-on
operation. A review of these curves yields the following helpful observations:
(A) One-phase-on
The stable equilibrium positions of the detent torque and the holding torque are the same.
The stiffness of the stable equilibrium positions is increased by the detent torque.
(B) Two-phases-on
The stable equilibrium positions of the holding torque (phase 1 + 2 and 1 2) are unstable
positions of the detent torque.
The stiffness of the stable equilibrium positions is decreased by the detent torque.
392
T
1
DETENT TORQUE AMPLITUDE
T
2
THEORETICAL MAXIMAL DYNAMIC TORQUE WITH ONE PHASE ENERGIZED
T
3
THEORETICAL MAXIMAL DYNAMIC TORQUE WITH TWO PHASE ENERGIZED
T
4
HOLDING TORQUE AMPLITUDE WITH ONE PHASE ENERGIZED
T
5
HOLDING TORQUE AMPLITUDE WITH TWO PHASES ENERGIZED
A, B STABLE EQUILIBRIUM WITH ONE PHASE ENERGIZED
C, D STABLE EQUILIBRIUM WITH TWO PHASES ENERGIZED
A, C, B, D

SUCCESSIVE ROTOR POSITIONS WHEN HALF-STEPPING (8 STEP SWITCHING
SEQUENCE)
Figure 27 Descriptive Torque Curves
393
T
2 THEORETICAL MAXIMAL DYNAMIC TORQUE WITH ONE PHASE ENERGIZED
T
4
HOLDING TORQUE AMPLITUDE WITH ONE PHASE ENERGIZED
L
TL
A, B
A', B'
AMOUNT OF APPLIED LOAD
COUNTERACTING TORQUE WHEN LOAD L IS APPLIED
STABLE EQUILIBRIUM WITH ONE PHASE ENERGIZED
STABLE EQUILIBRIUM WHEN LOAD L IS APPLIED
Figure 28 Descriptive Torque Curves
10.5 Dynamic Characteristics
The performance curves of the P312 and P532 step motors are shown in Figure 29. It should be noted that the start-stop torque
versus speed will be affected by both the load inertia and friction. However, the pull-out torque is usually affected by friction
alone. It should be realized however, that in some cases static friction and running friction are often different values.
A good dynamic behavior can be claimed when this motor is compared to equivalent hybrid type 3.6 motors with a rare-earth
cobalt magnet, or even to traditional hybrid type 1.8 motors. For the same number of steps per second, the P532 is rotating
twice as fast as a 1.8 motor; the mechanical work is therefore equivalent, as long as torque is at least half the torque of the
competition motor. It is effectively the case, even though the volume and the mass
394
395
are respectively 27% and 42% lower. The rotor inertia is 5 times lower but, as a matter of fact, should be multiplied by 4 in order
to compare the inertia of both motors on a shaft which runs at the same speed. As far as mechanical power is concerned, the
P532 motor is equivalent to a size 22 motor, 2" long, with 1.8 times more volume, 2.4 times more mass and 2.5 times more
equivalent inertia.
The reason why the P532 has good performances with regard to its volume and its mass is essentially because of its low inertia
and low magnetic losses (due to a total silicon-iron magnetic circuit which weighs only 50g). At 1000 steps per second, the P532
needs 0.4W and conventional 1.8 motors need 0.7W to 1.1W. At 2000 steps per second, this becomes 1.1W against 1.9 and
2.9W. At 5000 steps per second, the P532 needs 4W, of which 1W is due to friction in the ball bearings viscous friction of the
magnet in the air gap. Referred to a chopper drive, the Joule power in the coils represents about 6W. A total of 10W power losses
can so be figured out. This rough calculation gives an idea of the motor efficiency, since the available mechanical power is more
than 20W.
10.6 Damping Considerations
At low speed, the P532 and P312 have less losses than other step motors. Thus, the damping of the settling oscillations will need
longer time. However, the damping effect created by the short-circuit of the coils or simply by connecting the coils across a low
source impedance is better, up to 3000 steps/s. At 1600 steps/s for example, an 80% power loss increase can be achieved by
short-circuit of only one coil or by connecting one phase across an adapted low resistance. Similar measurements with size 22 by
2" long hybrid typemotors, shows that no damping effect occurs after 800 to 1500 steps/s under the same circumstances.
The effect on damping by increasing the load inertia is to increase the settling time and overshoot amplitude. Likewise the
effect on damping by increasing the load friction is to decrease the settling time and overshoot amplitude. Friction sometimes
improves system performance.
10.7 Resonance
The mechanical resonance of a P532 motor with no load inertia is about 190 Hz. It is calculated by the following expression:

where: T is the holding torque,
N is number of pole pairs
J is total inertia
From this formula it can be observed that load inertia will reduce the primary resonant frequency. In applications where the
motor must be operated near its primary resonance the addition of load inertia may provide a safer operating speed range.
However, higher order harmonics may appear at higher speeds as inertia is increased. The addition of friction can sometimes be
used to reduce the severity of resonance.
10.8 Accuracy
Step accuracy is defined as a non-cumulative error which represents the step to step error in one full revolution. Inertia and
viscous friction do not affect step accuracy. Friction does however, create a dead band around the normal resting position of the
motor. This is due to the fact that the rotor comes to rest in a position where the static torque matches the friction
396
torque of the system. Thus, the rotor is offset from its ideal rest position by an angle where the static torque curve equals the
friction. This is called position accuracy and is not to be confused with step accuracy which is really a mechanical property of
the motor. It should be obvious that the steeper the static torque curve the better will be the position accuracy. This is very
important in selecting the proper step motor.
10.9 Motor Drive Techniques
The performance of a step motor is greatly influenced by the type of drive circuitry utilized.
An obvious advantage of any step motor is its compatibility with digital electronics. The motor making a fixed incremental
displacement (step) for each single pulse of energy supplied to it.
Although step motors can be run closed loop, they have the cost saving advantage of being able to operate quite satisfactorily
in open loop mode. Provided, of course, that the response characteristics (torque, speed, etc.) of the motor are not exceeded.
The three types of driver configuration recommended for the Escap

steppers are: resistance limited, (unipolar or


bipolar), or a bipolar chopper type.
The unipolar drive system is low cost and most commonly used in lower performance applications. Its disadvantage is due
to the fact that only one winding per phase is in use at any particular time.
The bipolar drive developes higher motor performance since both windings per phase are utilized. This requires either
series or parallel connected windings. Also the bipolar requires a dual polarity power supply or a transistor bridge for each motor
phase. Bipolar driving yields a 2 increase in low speed torque for the same electrical input power as delivered by a unipolar
drive.
The bipolar chopper drive is known for its high performance and improved efficiency (due to the absence of external
resistance). This type of drive is best used at higher speeds.
A chopper drive may cause audible noise due to the motor laminations vibrating at the chopper frequency. Single step motion
is with a high acceleration due to the short current rise time of a chopper drive. The response therefore can be more oscillatory
especially at speeds near the natural resonance of the motor.
Half step techniques usually reduces resonant effects, and microstepping schemes will completely eliminate resonance and speed
instability problems.
10.10 Application Example
10.10.1 Description
The application is a matrix dot printer carriage drive. The carriage is moving along a metallic bar; its weight is 5 oz. and the
friction is 4 oz. in. The motor has a 3.6 step angle and has to be able to drive the carriage at 1200 steps per second. The motion
is transferred from the motor shaft to the carriage through a pulley and a cable. An acceleration time of 100 ms is allowed from
standstill to 1200 steps per second. The supply voltage is specified below or equal to 24V.
10.10.2 Mechanical Requirements
When the P532 has to replace a 1.8 motor without any change in the electronics, especially the number of pulses per second, or
in the carriage travel speed, one has to provide the system with a half diameter pulley. This sometimes creates a problem as far
as the cable is concerned. In the present application, no pulley diameter is specified but we don't want the reflected inertia to be
higher than 4 times the motor inertia. This will lead to the same kind of cable problems.
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The motor inertia is J
M
= 1.2 x 10
-6
kg.m
2
The load inertia should be less than 4 x 1.2 x 10
-6
kg.m
2

J
L
4.8 x 10
-6
kg.m
2
If the pulley diameter is D = 0.45", then
x 5 x 28 x 10
-3
= 4.6 x 10
-6
kg.m
2

The stress on each cable strand due to this radius of curvature is

d is the diameter of a single cable strand
E = 2 x 10
11
N/m
2
(Young's modulus of elasticity)
A good steel will tolerate = 1500 N/mm
2
; let's use = 700 N/mm
2
for a more conservative calculation. Then

In addition, there will be a stress on the cable during the acceleration phase. It will be negligible, because there is no drastic
acceleration requirement. Nevertheless if the P532 is used with a high acceleration rate like 10
5
steps/S
2
, there will be an
additional force on the cable:
F = m. = (5 x 28 x 10
-3
)
Using a 0.5 mm cable diameter, the steel section will be approximately 0.12 mm
2
. This means an additional stress of

Then
Finally, each strand diameter must be as low as 0.0015". In addition, the cable should be teflon coated.
It may be easier to find a steel band in that thickness, instead of a cable. The following design may be used in that case
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10.10.3 Electrical Requirements
Each motor coil has 320 turns and R = 12 resistance. One should decide now if the coils will be connected in series, or in
parallel. If a series connection is chosen, then the back emf will be (peak value)

= Torque per ampere-turns = 4.6 x 10
-4 Nm
n = Number of turns per coil = 320

E
emf
= 22V
If a parallel connection is chosen, then the back emf will only be

The requirement made about the supply voltage assigns the coil connection to be parallel.
Suggested driving technique: drive the P532 with constant voltage applied to an IC (SGS L 293), using a 2-phases-on scheme.
This supply voltage calculation can be done as the following.
a) Required torque

= 0.032 Nm (4.56 oz. in.)
Let's use a 1.5 factor to get a more conservative system. It becomes:
T
s
= 1.5 x 0.032 = 0.048 Nm (6.76 oz. in.)
b) The required number of ampere-turns; torque is related to the number of ampere-turns in the coils. With the influence of
the detent torque subtracted out, the running torque, which is times lower than the holding torque, is 0.048 Nm.
A running torque of 0.048 Nm consequently needs the holding torque to be
0.048 x 2 = 0.068 Nm (9.57 oz. in.)
This torque can be reached if the number of ampere-turns in the 2 phases is 100 A-T.
C) Required supply voltage
The voltage calculation is referred to

It is difficult to use this differential equation as it is. Our purpose is to get an idea of the supply voltage and the following
approximation will give it close enough
E = Rl + E
emf

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Normally is not negligible above 1000 steps/s. but it is hard to figure out.
With 100 A-T input power, the temperature raise is approximately 10C, the phase resistance the becomes
R = 6 (1 + 0.004 x 10) 6.25 ohms
then

The voltage drop in the transistor is about 1V; finally E = 14V
The experiment shows that the actual value must be E = 15V
If a 10 series resistor is used to improve dynamic performances, then

An analog experiment indicates E = 19V
A further experiment result is the maximum running torque 0.042 Nm (5.92 oz.in.) slight less then expected. The difference
represents the losses inside the motor which we did not take cared of.*
The above calculation is only a guide and cannot replace experiment. An undesirable resonace frequency cannot especially be
predicted by the above formulas.
*If the motor is running at 400 steps/s with 15V supply voltage (400 steps/s is the frequency when the acceleration ramp starts),
then the back emf is only 3.6V. It means that the current will raise to 1.6A. The chip cannot tolerate this current very long;
consequently one should not leave this frequency for more than one step. If the motor is suddenly stopped, the current becomes
very high and must be switched off by using the inhibit function of the IC. When the series resistor is connected this situation is
not as critical.
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Physical Properties of Small DC Motors Using an Ironless Rotor: Dr. Erich JuckerPortescap
Reliability and Life of DC Motors: The New REE SystemDr. Marc HeyraudPortescap
Selecting Low Inertia d-c Servomotors for Incremental Motion: Dr. Marc HeyraudPortescap
Damping of D.C. Motors with Ironless Rotors: Dr. Erich JuckerPortescap
Inductance of Micromotors with lronless Rotors: Jean-Bernard KurethPortescap
DC Motors, Speed Controls, Servo Systems: An Engineering Handbook by Electro-Craft Corp.
Regulate motor-shaft speed better with an inactive bridge: James M. Pihl, Electronic Design, Feb. 15, 1978
Control the speed and phase of a dc motor by comparison against a control frequency: Mike Yakymyshyn, Electronic Design, 16
Aug. 1977
Incremental Motion Control, DC Motors and Control Systems: Dr. Benjamin Kuo and Dr. Jacob Tol, SRL Publishing Co., 1978
Individual collections of application engineering data and instruction material by the following persons:

F. Prautzsch
H. Dumas
A. Ugnat
V. Liengma
P. Thornton
Portescap
Portescap
Portescap
Portescap
Portescap
A New Family of Multipolar P.M. Stepper Motors: Dr. Claude OudetPortescap
Various Step motor application and training notes prepared by: R. Welterlin and A. UgnatPortescap
Ironless Rotor D.C. Motors, A Consideration For Magnetic Tape Transport Design: A. UgnatPortescap

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