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MARINTEK

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Subsea lifting operations
Stavanger - Dec. 1-2 2010
Peter Chr. Sandvik
MARINTEK
Theory related to subsea
lifting operations
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Content
Introduction, main criteria for safe lifting
Lifting dynamics, simple equation of motion
Static and dynamic forces, wave forces on small objects
Mass, stiffness and damping
Response (motion) calculation, resonance
Large structures, 6 degrees of freedom
Wave forces on long structures (e.g. pipes)
Snatch and impact loads
Statistics used for estimation of extremes
Stability
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The installation often gives the highest
life-time forces on subsea equipment
General
Templates,
protection structures
Suction anchor
Snatch at lift-off or after slack
Impact after uncontrolled
pendulous motion
Local loads from wave impact
Wave forces in the splash zone
Wave forces in the splash zone
Soil penetration forces (and soil
failure)
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Lift in general
Is the structure designed
for the loads occurring
during lifting and
deployment?
Hydrodynamic
forces
Limited lifting height
may give large
compressive forces
from the slings
Measures:
Lifting frame
Spreader beam
Reinforcement
(compression
bar)
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Operation criterion:
Ensure safe operation
Avoid:
Excessive pendulummotion in air
Slack wire (when not intended)
Overload (in any lifting equipment)
Too hard landing (and second lift-off)
Do:
Ensure acceptable stability
Have ability to handle unexpected changes
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Static forces may be unknown
Example: Drainage when H-frame is taken on board
W = mg
B = gV
W
s
= mg - gV
W = Weight in air
B = Buoyancy
Ws = Submerged weight
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Wreck recovery
Unknown weight,
weight distribution
and stability
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Lift in air
Steel structure with GRP covers
Dimensions: 18 x 18 x 7 m
Mass: 180 tonnes
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Wave forces in the splash zone
1
2
18 x 18 x 7 m, 180 tonnes
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Wave forces in the splash zone
Example: Template (3- 8)
Large dynamic forces (140 T)
3 4 5
6 7 8
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Details should be checked
Example: Template structure
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Damaged cover
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-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Tensi on (kN)
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
!
!
Wire tension when lowering a body through
the splash zone
Example
}
Splash zone
dynamics
Reducing
Weight in air
Weight
in water
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Forces on the lifted object (Newtons, or kN)
Dynamic forces:
Damping
Inertia, moving object
Inertia, wave force
Slamming force
r r r
r
r
d
v v c v c
v
v
c F
2 1 0
+ + =
( ) ( ) x c V m x m m F
a a i

+ = + =
( ) ( )

a a iw
c V m V F + = + = 1
2 2
2
1
r
a
r s s
v
dh
dc
V v A c F = =
x = body motion
= wave particle motion
c
s
= slamming coefficient
c
a
= added mass coefficient
(depth dependent)
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Wave kinematics (1)
Profile of regular waves
propagating in x direction
Wave number (deep water)
Wave length
Propagation speed
Max. wave slope
kx) t ( = sin
0
2
2
4 2
T
g
k = =

2
56 . 1
2
T
k
= =

T
T
v
w
56 . 1 = =

0
2
0
max
4

T
k
dx
d
=
)
`

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Heave force and pitch moment on a long member
(It is conservative to assume small body, concentrated loads)
Wave force on an element dx:
Maximum total wave force:
dx c A f
a

2
) 1 ( + =
length wave
L
L
F
F
= =

sin
0
0
2
0
) 1 (
a
c L A F + =
Harmonic wave:
amplitude
frequency
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
L / Wavelength
F

/

F
0
,





M

/

F
0

L
Force
Moment
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Wave kinematics (2)
Reduction with depth
Reduction of wave kinematics with depth
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Depth reduction
Z

(
m
)

T = 4s
T = 6s
T = 10s
T = 14s
T = 20s
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
4
T
z
kz
e e R
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Shielding-effect from the crane vessel
Example of analysis results
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Tp (s)
M
a
x

l
i
f
t
w
i
r
e

f
o
r
c
e

(
k
N
)
Wavedir. 180 deg.
Wavedir. 165 deg.
Wavedir. 150 deg.
x
y
2
1
3
4
5
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Hydrodynamic data:
Added mass, m
a
and drag , F
d
6 values - (for motion in 3 directions and rotation about 3 axis)
Plate
Box Suction anchor
Added mass coefficient:
C
a
= m
a
/ V
= water density
V = reference volume
Drag coefficient: c
d
F
d
= c
d
Av
2
v = velocity
A = area
F
d
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Added mass - simple structures
c a
V m =
b
4
a
V
2
c

=
a
b
Cylinder
volume:
Geometry Formula b/a
Rectan-
gular
a =
shortest edge
1.0 0.579
1.2 0.630
1.25 0.642
1.33 0.660
1.5 0.691
2.0 0.757
2.5 0.801
3.0 0.830
4.0 0.871
5.0 0.897
8.0 0.934
10.0 0.947
(Cf. DnV-RP-H103)
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Added mass of ventilated structures
Example
Added mass
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
z(1-p)/(2Dp^2)
a
/
a
0
Hatch 20, p=0.15
Hatch 18, p=0.25
Roof #1, p=0.267
Roof #2, p=0.47
Roof #3, p=0.375
a =added mass
a0 =added mass for solid structure
p =perforation ratio =open area / total area
D =dimension
Recommended values are
found in DnV-RP-H103
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Damping
Coulomb damping
Friction, hysteresis loss, ....
Linear damping
Wave potential damping,
material damping, oscillation
damping in wind, ....
Quadratic damping
Hydrodynamic drag
Morison's formula
Notice:
c
d
for oscillating objects is larger
than c
d
for steady flow !
v
v
c F =
0 0
v c F =
1 1
v v c F =
2 2
r r d d
v v A c F
2
1
=
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Stiffness
General
Axial wire stiffness
E =modulus of elasticity
A =section area
L =length
Transverse stiffness
Hydrostatic stiffness
Rotation stiffness
(spring k, distance b from
rotation center)
Parallel springs
Springs in series
dx
F
k
x

=
i
i
tot
k
F
k

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
i tot i tot
k k k
F
k
F 1 1
L
EA
k =
L
F
F
k
L
F F
y
y
y
y
y
=

=
WP
A g k =
2
b k K =
[Compression: k = 0]
[A
WP
= waterplane area]
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Simple equation of motion
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t F x k x c x M = + +

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
t x k x k x c x M = + +

Force excitation
Motion excitation
F(t)
x
0
(t)
Force excitation Motion excitation
x
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Response curve (RAO)
of simple oscillating system
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Resonance periods - examples
Vertical oscillation in air:
=

= = 2
2
2 2
0
g
mg
m
EA
mL
T


= elongation of wire due to weight mg
Vertical oscillation in water
(long wire, wire mass m
w
included):
( )
L
EA
m m m
T
w a
3
1
0
2
+ +
=

L L
g mg
mL
F
mL
T 2
2
2 2
0
= = =


Pendulum oscillation in air:
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Example: Lifting in air
Amplitude dependent transverse stiffness
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Wire length: 25 m
Natural period : 10.0 s
Vessel: L=100 m
Regular waves H=2m
T = 5 s
T = 7 s
T = 10 s
T = 9 s
T = 8 s
T = 11 s
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Example: Lifting in air
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Wire length: 25 m
Natural period : 10.0 s
Vessel: L=100 m
Irregular waves Hs=2 m
Tp = 6 s
Tp = 8 s
Tp = 10 s
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Example: Installation of suction anchors
Splash zone crossing
Two suction anchors:
Anchor B4 B30
D x H (m) 4 x 4 4 x 30
Mass, steel (t) 26 156
Added mass (t) 86 400
Total mass (t) 111 556
Submerged
weight (kN)
213 1330
D
H
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Splash zone - Anchor B30
(Hs = 2.5 m, Tp = 8 s)
DAF 1.35
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Hydrodynamic mass for suction anchors
found from model tests
D
A = amplitude
p = perforation ratio
a0 = added mass,
without ventilation
Example: p = 1%
A/D = 0.5
X =
X = 4950
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1 10 100 1000 10000
(A/D)*(1-p)/p^2
a

/

a
0p =0.01
p =0.03
p =0.11
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-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Depth reducti on
Z

(
m
)

T = 3s
T = 4s
T = 5s
T = 6s
T = 7s
T = 8 s
T = 9 s
T = 10 s
T = 11 s
T = 12 s
T = 14 s
Reduction of wave kinematics with depth
Reduced dynamic pressure at lower end of anchor
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Numerical modelling of a suction anchor
Elements with distributed forces
Horizontal
added mass
and damping
Vertical added
mass and damping,
top
Enclosed
water ++
All are position
dependent
(zero when
element is
above water
Anchor
(steel)
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Vertical wave forces on fixed buckets
(Hs = 2.0 m)
35
Bucket B4 Bucket B30
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Liftwire tension (Hs = 2.0 m)
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Bucket B4 Bucket B30
DAF = 2.5 / 1.5 DAF = 1.4 / 1.3
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Example: a 30x30 m stiffened foundation plate
37
M = 400 t
M = 30 t
M = 50 t
W = 3420 kN
m
a
= 15000 t
m
a
= 3000 t
Just fully submerged
Inclination 79 deg.
Hs = 2.0 m
Tp = 6, 8, 10 s
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Calculated forces
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Max.:
5700 kN
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-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Tensi on (kN)
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Analysis of transient processes
(Splash zone crossing, other non-linear cases)
Analysis approach
A fewexamples
Estimationof extreme forces
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Lowering through the splash zone
Numerical analysis - 2 methods
Slowlowering in small, regular
waves
1 2 typical wave periods
Find most onerous object position
Stationary analysis in most
onerous position, in irregular
waves (0.5 - 3 hours)
Calculatedmax./min. force
Evaluate results
Study time series
Find peaks in time series
Statistical analysis (WEIBULL)
Estimate extreme force
Repeated lowering in irregular
waves
From air to well belowsurface
Different wave realizations
(MonteCarlo randomselection)
Find the calculated max./min. force
from each lowering case
Evaluate results
Statistical analysis (GUMBEL)
Study time series (explanation of
physical phenomena)
Estimate extreme force
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Statistical estimation from a time history
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Extreme estimation from local peaks, stationary process
WEIBULL plot
l
n

[
-
l
n

(
1
-
P
)
]
Reduced slope due to
non-linear effects, e.g.:
Quadratic damping
Snatch loads
P = cumulative probability
x = local peaks
= average value of peaks
off points may be due
to statistical spread,
or they may have a
physical explanation.
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Extreme estimation from repeated tests, random process
Extremes from 20 lowerings through splash zone, GUMBEL plot
Cumulative probability
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Tension (kN)
-
l
n
(
-
l
n
(
P
)
)
off points may be
due to statistical spread,
OR:
may represent a different
physical mechanism
(example: impact, snatch).
.95
.90
MARINTEK
Snatch loads -
Example: Lift-off from transport vessel
45
Blind lift-off at max.
relative velocity:
Fmax = approx. 5600 kN
Start in constant-tension mode
Lift when winch stops to pay in
Mass: 365 tonnes
Hs : 2.5 m
P = 0.95
P = 0.80
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
M
k
g
V
Mg
M k V Mg F
rel
rel
1
max
General expression:
MARINTEK
Example: Personnel transfer to offshore wind turbines
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Intention:
The boat should hang on
fender friction during
personnel transfer.
All slippages were considered
as events. Statistics by use of
GUMBEL plots
.90
.95
.80
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Assume:
Centre of buoyancy, CB, off centre of gravity, CG.
The force centre,
will be vertically below the hook
heel angle
If center of vertical added mass is not inline with F:
vertical excitation tilting oscillations
Lifting at points below CG should be analysed with care
Stability -
Tilt angle and angular oscillations
B
CF CG CB
F = mg-B
mg
B mg
CG mg CB B
CF


=
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Underwater lifting operation
(Not intended)
(Stability of
the lifting body)
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Safe Job Analysis
Can anything go
wrong ?
Shhh, Zog! ....Here come one now!