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Copyr i ght 200813, Ear l Whi t ney, Reno NV.

Al l Ri ght s Reser ved




M at h Handbook
of Formulas, Processes and Tricks
Algebra







Prepared by: Earl L. Whit ney, FSA, M AAA
Version 2.5
April 2, 2013

Page Descript ion
Chapt er 1 : Basics
9 Or der of Oper at i ons (PEM DAS, Par en t het i cal Device)
10 Gr aphi ng w i t h Coor di nat es (Coor di nat es, Pl ot t i ng Poi nt s)
11 Li near Pat t er ns (Recogni t i on, Conver t i ng t o an Equat i on)
12 Ident i f yi ng Num ber Pat t er ns
13 Compl et i ng Num ber Pat t er ns
14 Basi c Num ber Set s (Set s of Num ber s, Basi c Num ber Set Tr ee)
Chapt er 2: Operat ions
15 Oper at i ng w i t h Real Num ber s (Absol ut e Val ue, Add, Subt r act , M ul t i pl y, Di vi de)
16 Pr oper t i es of Al gebr a (Addi t i on & M ul t i pl i cat i on, Zer o, Equal i t y)
Chapt er 3: Solving Equat ions
18 Sol vi ng M ul t i St ep Equat i ons
19 Ti ps and Tr i cks i n Sol vi ng M ul t i St ep Equat i ons
Chapt er 4 : Probability & St at ist ics
20 Pr obabi l i t y and Odds
21 Pr obabi l i t y wi t h Di ce
22 Combi nat i ons
23 St at i st i cal M easur es
Chapt er 5: Funct ions
24 Int r oduct i on t o Funct i ons (Def i ni t i ons, Li ne Test s)
25 Speci al Int eger Funct i ons
26 Oper at i ons w i t h Funct i ons
27 Com posi t i on of Funct i ons
28 Inver ses of Funct i ons
29 Tr ansf or m at i on Tr ansl at i on
30 Tr ansf or mat i on Ver t i cal St r et ch and Com pr essi on
31 Tr ansf or m at i on Hor i zont al St r et ch and Com pr essi on
32 Tr ansf or m at i on Ref l ect i on
33 Tr ansf or m at i o n Sum m ar y
34 Bui l di ng a Gr aph wi t h Tr ansf or m at i ons
Algebra Handbook
Table of Contents
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Page Descript ion
Chapt er 6 : Linear Funct ions
35 Sl ope of a Li ne (M at hem at i cal Def i ni t i on)
36 Sl ope of a Li ne (Ri se over Run)
37 Sl opes of Var i ous Li nes (8 Var i at i ons)
38 Var i ous For m s of a Li ne (St andar d, Sl opeInt er cept , Poi nt Sl ope)
39 Sl opes of Par al l el and Per pendi cul ar Li nes
40 Par al l el , Per pendi cul ar or Nei t her
41 Par al l el , Coi nci dent or Int er sect i ng
Chapt er 7: Inequalit ies
42 Pr oper t i es of Inequal i t y
43 Gr aphs of Inequal it i es i n One Di mensi on
44 Com pound Inequal i t i es i n One Di mensi on
45 I nequal i t i es i n Tw o Di m ensi ons
46 Gr aphs of Inequal it i es i n Tw o Di m ensi ons
47 Absol ut e Val ue Funct i ons (Equat i o ns)
48 Abso l ut e Val ue Funct i ons (Inequal i t i es)
Chapt er 8: Syst em s of Equat ions
49 Gr aphi ng a Sol ut i on
50 Subst i t ut i on M et hod
51 El i m i nat i on M et hod
52 Cl assi f i cat i on of Syst em s of Equat i ons
53 Li near Dependence
54 Syst em s of Inequal i t i es i n Tw o Di m ensi ons
55 Par am et r i c Equat i ons
Chapt er 9: Exponent s (Basic) and Scient ific Not at ion
56 Exponent For m ul as
57 Sci ent i f i c Not at i on (For m at , Conver si on)
58 Addi ng and Subt r act i ng w i t h Sci ent i f i c Not at i on
59 M ul t i pl yi ng and Di vi di ng w i t h Sci ent i f i c Not at i on
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Page Descript ion
Chapt er 1 0: Polynomials Basic
60 Int r oduct i on t o Pol ynom i al s
61 Addi ng and Subt r act i ng Pol ynom i al s
62 M ul t i pl yi ng Bi nomi al s (FOIL, Box, Num er i cal M et hods)
63 M ul t i pl yi ng Pol ynom i al s
64 Di vi di ng Pol ynom i al s
65 Fact or i ng Pol yno mi al s
66 Speci al For m s of Quadr at i c Funct i ons (Per f ect Squar es)
67 Speci al For m s of Quadr at i c Funct i ons (Di f f er ences of Sq uar es)
68 Fact or i ng Tr i nomi al s Si m pl e Case M et hod
69 Fact or i ng Tr i nomi al s AC M et hod
70 Fact or i ng Tr i no mi al s Br ut e For ce M et hod
71 Fact or i ng Tr i no mi al s Quadr at i c For m ul a M et hod
72 Sol vi ng Equat i ons by Fact o r i ng
Chapt er 1 1: Quadrat ic Funct ions
73 I nt r oduct i on t o Quadr at i c Funct i ons
74 Com pl et i ng t he Squar e
75 Tabl e of Pow er s and Root s
76 The Quadr at i c For mul a
77 Quadr at i c Inequal it i es i n One Var i abl e
79 Fi t t i ng a Quadr at i c t hr ough Thr ee Poi nt s
Chapt er 12 : Com ple x Num bers
80 Compl ex Num ber s Int r o duct i on
81 Oper at i ons w i t h Com pl ex Num ber s
82 The Squar e Root of i
83 Compl ex Num ber s Gr aphi cal Repr esent at i on
84 Com pl ex Num ber Oper at i o ns i n Pol ar Coor di nat es
85 Com pl ex Sol ut i ons t o Quadr at i c Equat i ons
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Page Descript ion
Chapt er 1 3: Radicals
86 Radi cal Rul es
87 Si m pl i f yi ng Squar e Root s (Ext r act i ng Squar es, Ext r act i ng Pr i m es)
88 Sol vi ng Radi cal Equat i ons
89 Sol vi ng Radi cal Equat i ons (Posi t i ve Root s, The M i ssi ng St ep)
Chapt er 14 : M at rices
90 Addi t i on and Scal ar M ul t i pl i cat i on
91 M ul t i pl yi ng M at r i ces
92 M at r i x Di vi si on and Ident i t y M at r i ces
93 I nver se of a 2x2 M at r i x
94 Cal cul at i ng Inver ses The Gener al Case (GaussJor dan El i m i nat i on)
95 Det er m i nant s The Gener al Case
96 Cr amer s Rul e 2 Equat i ons
97 Cr am er s Rul e 3 Equat i ons
98 Augment ed M at r i ces
99 2x2 Augm ent ed M at r i x Exam pl es
100 3x3 Augm ent ed M at r i x Exam pl e
Chapt er 1 5: Exponent s and Logarit hm s
101 Exponent For m ul as
102 Logar i t hm For m ul as
103 e
104 Tabl e of Exponent s and Logs
105 Conver t i ng Bet w een Exponent i al and Logar i t hm i c For m s
106 Expandi ng Logar i t hm i c Expr essi ons
107 Condensi ng Logar it hm i c Expr essi ons
108 Condensi ng Logar it hm i c Exp r essi ons M or e Exampl es
109 Gr aphi ng an Exponent i al Funct i o n
110 Four Exponent i al Funct i on Gr aphs
111 Gr aphi ng a Logar i t hm i c Funct i on
114 Four Logar i t hm i c Funct i on Gr aphs
115 Gr aphs of Var i ous Funct i ons
116 Appl i cat i ons of Exponent i al Funct i ons (Gr ow t h, Decay, Int er est )
117 Sol vi ng Exponent i al and Logar i t hm i c Equat i ons
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Page Descript ion
Chapt er 1 6: Polynomials Int e rm ediat e
118 Pol ynom i al Funct i on Gr aphs
119 Fi ndi ng Ext r em a wi t h Der i vat i ves
120 Fact or i ng Hi gher Degr ee Pol ynom i al s Sum and Di f f er ence of Cubes
121 Fact or i ng Hi gher Degr ee Pol ynom i al s Var i abl e Subst i t ut i on
122 Fact or i ng Hi gher Degr ee Pol ynom i al s Synt het i c Di vi si o n
123 Compar i ng Synt het i c Di vi si on and Long Di vi si on
124 Zer os of Pol ynom i al s Devel opi ng Possi bl e Root s
125 Zer os of Pol ynom i al s Test i ng Possi bl e Root s
126 Int er sect i o ns of Cur ves (Gener al Case, Two Li nes)
127 Int er sect i ons of Cur ves (a Li ne and a Par abol a)
128 Int er sect i ons of Cur ves (a Ci r cl e and an El l i pse)
Chapt er 1 7: Rat ional Funct ions
129 Dom ai ns of Rat i onal Funct i ons
130 Hol es and Asym pt ot es
131 Gr aphi ng Rat i onal Funct i ons
131 Si m pl e Rat i onal Funct i ons
132 Si m pl e Rat i onal Funct i ons Exam pl e
133 Gener al Rat i onal Funct i o ns
135 Gener al Rat i onal Funct i o ns Exam pl e
137 Oper at i ng w i t h Rat i onal Expr essi o ns
138 Sol vi ng Rat i onal Equat i ons
139 Sol vi ng Rat i onal Inequal i t i es
Chapt er 1 8: Conic Sect ions
140 Int r oduct i on t o Coni c Sect i ons
141 Par abol a w i t h Ver t ex at t he Or i gi n (St andar d Posi t i on)
142 Par abol a w i t h Ver t ex at Poi nt (h, k)
143 Par abol a i n Pol ar For m
144 Ci r cl es
145 El l i pse Cent er ed on t he Or i gi n (St andar d Posi t i on)
146 El l i pse Cent er ed at Poi nt (h, k)
147 El l i pse i n Pol ar For m
148 Hyper bol a Cent er ed on t he Or i gi n (St andar d Posi t i on)
149 Hyper bol a Cent er ed at Poi nt (h, k)
150 Hyper bol a i n Pol ar For m
151 Hyper bol a Const r uct i on Over t he Dom ai n: 0 t o 2
152 Gener al Coni c Equat i on Cl assi f i cat i on
153 Gener al Coni c For mul a M ani pul at i on (St eps, Exampl es)
154 Par amet r i c Equat i ons of Coni c Sect i ons
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Table of Contents
Page Descript ion
Chapt er 1 9: Se que nces and Se rie s
155 Int r oduct i on t o Sequences and Ser i es
156 Fi bonacci Sequence
157 Sum m at i on Not at ion and Pr oper t i es
158 Som e Int er est i ng Sum m at i on For m ul as
159 Ar i t hm et i c Sequences
160 Ar i t hm et i c Ser i es
161 Pyt hagor ean M eans (Ar i t hm et i c, Geom et r i c)
162 Pyt hagor ean M eans (Har m oni c)
163 Geom et r i c Sequences
164 Geom et r i c Ser i es
165 A Few Speci al Ser i es (, e, cubes)
166 Pascal s Tr i angl e
167 Bi nom i al Expansi on
168 Gam m a Funct i on and n!
169 Gr aphi ng t he Gamm a Funct i on
170 I ndex
Usef ul W ebsit es
ht t p:/ / w w w.m at hguy.us/
ht t p:/ / m at hw or ld.wolf r am.com/
ht t p:/ / w w w.pur pl emat h.com /
ht t p:/ / w w w.mat h.com/ homewor khel p/ Algebr a.ht ml
W olfram M at h W orld Per haps t he pr em i er si t e f or mat hem at i cs on t he W eb. Thi s si t e cont ai ns
def i ni t i ons, expl anat i ons and exam pl es f or el emen t ar y and advanced m at h t o pi cs.
Purple M at h A gr eat si t e f or t he Al gebr a st udent , i t cont ai ns lessons, r evi ew s and hom ew or k
gui del i nes. The si t e al so has an anal ysi s of your st udy habi t s. Take t he M at h St udy Ski l l s Sel f
Eval uat i on t o see w her e you need t o i m pr ove.
M at h.com Has a l ot of i nf or m at i on about Al gebr a, i ncl udi ng a good sear ch f unct i on.
M at hguy. us Devel o ped speci f i cal l y f or m at h st udent s f r om M i ddl e School t o Col l ege, based on t he
aut hor ' s ext ensi ve exper i ence i n pr of essi onal m at hem at i cs i n a busi ness set t i ng and i n m at h
t ut or i ng. Cont ai ns f r ee dow nl oadabl e handbooks, PC Apps, sampl e t est s, and m or e.
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Algebra Handbook
Table of Contents
Schaum s Out lines



Algebra 1 , by James Schultz, Paul Kennedy, Wade Ellis Jr, and Kathleen Hollowelly.
Algebra 2 , by James Schultz, Wade Ellis Jr, Kathleen Hollowelly, and Paul Kennedy.
Although a significant effort was made to make the material in this study guide original, some
material from these texts was used in the preparation of the study guide.
An i m por t ant st udent r eso ur ce f or any hi gh school m at h st udent i s a Schaum s Out l i ne. Each book
i n t hi s ser i es pr o vi des expl anat i ons of t he var i ous t opi cs i n t he cour se and a subst ant i al num ber of
pr obl em s f or t he st udent t o t r y. M any of t he pr obl em s ar e w or ked out i n t he book, so t he st udent
can see exam pl es of how t hey shoul d be sol ved.
Schaum s Out l i nes ar e avai l abl e at Am azon.com , Bar nes & Nobl e, Bor der s and ot her booksel l er s.
Note: This study guide was prepared to be a companion to most books on the subject of High
School Algebra. In particular, I used the following texts to determine which subjects to include
in this guide.
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Algebra
Order of Operations

To the nonmathematician, there mayappear to be multiple waysto evaluate an algebraic
expression. For example, how would on llowing? e evaluate the fo
3 4 7 6 5


You could work fromleft to right, or you could workfromright to left, or you could do any
number of other thingsto evaluate thisexpression. Asyou might expect, mathematiciansdo
not like thisambiguity, so theydeveloped aset of rulesto make sure that anytwo people
evaluatingan expression would get the same answer.

PEMDAS
In order to evaluate expressionslike the one above, mathematicianshave defined an order of
operationsthat must be followed to get the correct value for the expression. The acronymthat
can be used to remember thisorder isPEMDAS. Alternatively, you could use the mnemonic
phrase Please Excuse MyDear Aunt Sally or make up your own wayto memorize the order of
operations. The componentsof PEMDASare:

P Anythingin Parenthesesisevaluated first.
Usuallywhen therearemultiple
operationsin thesamecategory,
for example 3multiplications,
theycanbeperformedin any
order, but it iseasiest to work
fromleft to right.
E Itemswith Exponents are evaluated next.
M Multiplication and
D Division are performed next.
A Addition and
S Subtraction are performed last.

Parenthetical Device. A useful device isto use applyparenthesesto help you remember
the order of operationswhen you evaluate an expression. Parenthesesare placed around the
itemshighest in the order of operations; then solvingthe problembecomesmore natural.
UsingPEMDASand thisparenthe solve the expression above asfollows: tical device, we
Initial Expression: 3 4 7 6 5


Add parentheses/brackets: 5


Note: Anyexpression whichis
ambiguous, likethe oneabove, is
poorly written. Studentsshouldstrive
to ensure that anyexpressionsthey
writeare easilyunderstoodbyothers
andbythemselves. Use of parentheses
andbracketsisagood wayto make
your workmoreunderstandable.
3 4 7 6
Solve usingPEMDAS: 84 6 25
150 84
Final Answer 234
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Algebra
Graphingwith Coordinates

Graphsin two dimensionsare verycommon in algebraand are one of the most common
algebra applicationsin real life.
y

Coordinates
Quadrant 2 Quadrant 1
The plane of pointsthat can be graphed in 2dimensionsis
called the Rectangular Coordinate Plane or the Cartesian
Coordinate Plane (named after the French mathematician
and philosopher Ren Descartes).
x
Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4
Two axesare defined (usuallycalled the x and yaxes).
Each point on the plane hasan xvalue and ay value, written as: (xvalue, yvalue)
The point (0, 0) iscalled the origin, and isusuallydenoted with the letter O.
The axesbreak the plane into 4 quadrants, asshown above. Theybegin with Quadrant 1
where x and y are both positive and increase numericallyin a counterclockwise fashion.

PlottingPoints on the Plane
When plottingpoints,
the xvalue determineshow far right (positive) or left (negative) of the origin the point is
plotted.
The yvalue determineshow far up (positive) or down (negative) fromthe origin the point is
plotted.

Examples:
The followingpointsare plotted in the figure to
the right:
A =(2, 3) in Quadrant 1
B=(3, 2) in Quadrant 2
C=(2, 2) in Quadrant 3
D=(4, 1) in Quadrant 4
O =(0, 0) isnot in anyquadrant

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Algebra
Linear Patterns

RecognizingLinear Patterns
The first step to recognizingapattern isto arrange a set of numbersin atable. The table can
be either horizontal or vertical. Here, we consider the pattern in a horizontal format. More
advanced analysisgenerallyusesthe vertical format.
Consider thispattern:
xvalue 0 1 2 3 4 5
yvalue 6 9 12 15 18 21

To analyze the pattern, we calculate differencesof successive valuesin the table. These are
called first differences. If the first differencesare constant, we can proceed to convertingthe
pattern into an equation. If not, we do not have a linear pattern. In thiscase, we maychoose
to continue bycalculatingdifferencesof the first differences, which are called second
differences, and so on until we get apattern we can work with.
In the example above, we get aconstant set of first differences, which tellsusthat the pattern
isindeed linear.
xvalue 0 1 2 3 4 5
yvalue 6 9 12 15 18 21

First Differences 3 3 3 3 3

Convertinga Linear Pattern to an Equation
Creatingan equation fromthe pattern iseasyif you have
constant differencesand a yvalue fo scase, r x=0. In thi
The equation takesthe form , where
m isthe constant difference fromthe table, and
b isthe yvalue when x=0.
In the example above, thisgivesusthe equation: .
Finally, it isagood ideato test your equation. For example, if 4, the above equation gives
3 4 6 18, which isthe value in the table. So we can be prettysure our equation is
correct.
Note: If the table doesnot havea
value for x=0, youcan still obtain
the valueof b. Simplyextend the
tableleft or right until youhavean
xvalue of 0; thenusethe first
differencesto calculatewhat the
correspondingyvalue wouldbe.
Thisbecomesyour valueof b.
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ADVANCED
n
n
2
n
2
n
2
I dent ifying Number Pat t erns
In thepatternto the left, notice that thefirst andsecond
differencesappear to berepeatingthe original sequence. When
thishappens, thesequence mayberecursive. Thismeansthat
each new termisbasedon the termsbefore it. Inthiscase, the
equationis: y
n
=y
n1
+y
n2
, meaningthat to get eachnew term,
youadd thetwo termsbefore it.
3
1
1
3
5
7
17 2
9
26 2
11
When lookingat patternsinnumbers, isisoftenuseful to takedifferencesof the numbersyou
are provided. If thefirst differencesare not constant, takedifferencesagain.
2
3
5 2
5
10 2
7
2
2
2
2
2
37
5
2
7 2
4
11 4
8
19 8
16
35 16
32
3 1
2
5 1
3
In thepatternto theleft, notice that thefirst andsecond
differencesarethesame. You might also notice that these
differencesare successive powersof 2. Thisistypical for an
exponential pattern. Inthiscase, theequationis: y =2
x
+3.
When first differencesareconstant, thepatternrepresentsa
linear equation. Inthiscase, the equation is: y =2x 5. The
constant difference isthe coefficient of xin theequation.
Whenseconddifferencesareconstant, thepatternrepresentsa
quadraticequation. Inthiscase, theequationis: y=x
2
+1. The
constant difference, dividedby2, givesthecoefficient of x
2
inthe
equation.
Algebra
8 2
5
13 3
8
21
When takingsuccessivedifferencesyieldspatternsthat do not seemto level out, the pattern
maybe either exponential or recursive.
2
1
67
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n n
n
2

3
n
2

3
n
2

3
n
2

3
n
2

3
n
2

3
Com plet ing Num ber Pat t erns
Algebr a
Thefirst stepincompletinganumber patternisto identifyit. Then, workfromtheright to theleft, fillingin
thehighest order differencesfirst andworkingbackwards(left) to completethetable. Belowaretwo
examples.
1
7
6 12
19 6
25 18
123
214
6
25
1
7
6 12
19
214
37
25 18
37
6
62 24
61 6
123 30
91
6
62 24
61 6
123
Consider intheexamplesthesequencesof six
numberswhichareprovidedto thestudent. Youare
askedto findtheninthtermof eachsequence.
Exam pl e 1 Exam pl e 2
2
3
5
1
62 8
13
21
2
1
3 1
2 0
5 1
3 1
8
1
2 0
5 1
3 1
2
5 1
13 3
8
21
3
5
8 2
5 1
13 3
8 2
21
St ep 1: Createatableof differences. Take successive
differencesuntil youget acolumnof constant
differences(Example1) or acolumnthat appearsto
repeat apreviouscolumnof differences(Example2).
St ep 2: Inthelast columnof differencesyoucreated,
continuetheconstant differences(Example1) or the
repeateddifferences(Example2) downthetable.
Createasmanyentriesasyouwill needto solvethe
problem. For example, if youaregiven6termsand
askedto findthe9thterm, youwill need3(=9 6)
additional entriesinthelast column.
1 2
7
24 8
6
2
1
3
6
30
91 6
214
6
6
3
2
61
1
6 12 3 1
19 6 2
St ep 3: Workbackwards(fromright to left), fillingin
eachcolumnbyaddingthedifferencesinthecolumn
to theright.
1 69 6 21
123 30 13 3
91
0
25 18 5 1
37 6 3 1
62
36 21 5
1 27 6 13
8 2
214
6 5 1
Column n: 214+127=341; 341+169=510; 510+217=72 7
Thefinal answersto theexamplesaretheninthitemsineachsequence, theitemsinbold re d.
I n t he example t o t he l eft , t he cal cul at i ons are
perf or me d in t he f ol low ing orde r:
Colum n
2
: 30+6=36; 36+6=42; 42+6=48
Colum n : 91+36=127; 127+42=169; 169+48=217 5
5 10 48 55 13
2 17 34
7 27 89
3 41 42 34 8
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Algebra
Basic Number Set s

Numbe r Se t De f init ion Examples
N at ural Number s (or,
CountingNumbers)
Numbersthat you would normally
count with.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
W hol e Numbe rs
Add the number zero to the set of
Natural Numbers
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
I nt e ger s
Whole numbersplusthe set of
negative Natural Numbers
3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3,
Rat i onal Number s
Anynumber that can be expressed
in the form

, where a and b are


integersand . 0
2
3
All integers, plusfractionsand
mixed numbers, such as:
,
17
6
, 3
4
5

Real N umber s
Anynumber that can be written in
decimal form, even if that formis
infinite.
All rational numbersplusroots
and some others, such as:
2 , 12

, , e

Basic Number Set Tree
Real Numbers
Rat ional I rrat ional
I nt egers Fract ions and
M ixed Num bers
W hole Negat ive
Numbers I nt egers
Nat ural Zero
Numbers
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Algebra
Operat ing w it h Real Num bers


Absolut e Value

The ab sol ut e val ue of somet h in g i s t he di st ance i t i s f r om zer o. The easiest w ay t o get t he
absol ut a num o el i m i n e i gn. A l val ues osi t i ve or 0. e val ue of ber i s t at i t s s b so ut e ar e al ways p
|-5| = 5 |3| = 3 |0| = 0 -
3
4

=
3
4
|1.5| = 1.5

Adding and Subt ract ing Real Num bers

(-6 -9 ) + (-3) =
12+ 6 = 18
Adding Num ber s w it h t he Same Sign:
Add t he number s w i t hout r egar d
t o si gn.
Gi ve t he answ er t he same si gn as
t he or i gi nal number s.
Exampl es:
(-6) + 3 = -3
(-7) + 11 = 4
Adding Num ber s w it h Dif f erent Signs:
Ignor e t he si gns and subt r act t he
smal l er number f r om t he l ar ger one.
Gi ve t he answ er t he si gn of t he number
w i t h t he gr eat er absol ut e val ue.
Exampl es:
(-6 3 ) - (-3) = (-6) + 3 = -
13- 4 = 13+ (-4) = 9
Subt ract ing Num ber s:
Change t he si gn of t he number or num ber s bei ng subt r act ed.
Add t he r esul t i ng num ber s.
Exampl es:



















M ult iplying and Dividing Real Num bers










(-6 ) 18 ) (-3 = +1
12 3 = +4 = 4
8 =
t he
si gn
Gi ve t he answ er a +si gn.
N um ber s w it h t he Same Sign:
M ul t i pl y or di vi de num ber s
w i t hout r egar d t o .
Exampl es:
( -6) (3) = 18
12 (-3) = -4
-
Numbers w it h Dif f erent Signs:
M ul t i pl y or di vi de t he number s w i t hout
r egar d t o si gn.
Gi ve t he answ er a si gn.
Exampl es:
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Propert ies of Algebra

Propert ies of Addit ion and M ult iplicat ion. Fo r any r eal num ber s a, b, and c:

Proper t y Def i ni t ion f or Addit i on Def ini t ion f or M ul t i pl icat ion
Closure Propert y o + b i s a r eal num ber o b is a r eal num ber
I dent i t y Pr oper t y o + 0= 0+ o = o o 1 = 1 o = o
I nve rse Pr oper t y o + (-o) = (-o) + o = 0 For o = 0, o
1
o
=
1
o
o = 1
Com mut at i ve Pr oper t y o + b = b + o o b = b o
Associat ive Prope rt y (o + b) + c = o + (b + c) (o b) c = o (b c)
Di st ri but i ve Pr oper t y o (b + c) = (o b) + (o c)


Propert ies of Zero. For any r eal num ber a:
M ul t ipli cat i on by 0 o 0 = 0 o = 0
0 Di vided by Somet hi ng
For o = 0,
0
u
= 0
Di vision by 0
u
0
isundefined(evenif a= 0)


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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Propert ies of Algebra

Operat ional Propert ies of Equalit y. For any r eal num ber s a, b, and c:

Prope rt y Def i ni t ion
Addi t ion Proper t y I o = b,tbcn o + c = b + c
Subt r act ion Prope rt y I o = b,tbcn o - c = b - c
M ult i pl icat ion Pr oper t y I o = b,tbcn o c = b c
Di vi sion Pr ope rt y I o = b onJ c = 0,tbcn o c = b c


Ot her Propert ies of Equali t y. Fo r any r eal num ber s a, b, and c:

Pr oper t y De f init i on
Ref l exive Propert y o = o
Symmet ri c Proper t y I o = b,tbcn b = o
Transi t i ve Pr oper t y I o = b onJ b = c,tbcn o = c
Subst it ut ion Pr oper t y If o = b, then either can be substituted for the
other in any equation (or inequality).


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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SolvingMultiStep Equations

Reverse PEMDAS
One syst em at i c way t o appr o ach m ul t i st ep equat i ons is Rever se PEM DAS. PEM DAS d escr i bes
t he or der of oper at i ons used t o eval uat e an expr essi on. Sol vi ng an equ at i on i s t he op posi t e of
eval uat i ng i t , so r ever si ng t he PEM DAS o r der o f oper at i ons seem s app r opr i at e.
The guidingprinciplesin t he pr ocess ar e:
Each st ep wor ks t o war d i sol at i ng t h e var iabl e f or whi ch yo u ar e t r yi ng t o sol ve.
Each st ep undoes an op er at i on i n Reverse PEMDASo r der :
Subt r act i on Ad dit i on
Di vi si on Mul t i pl i cat i on
Exponen t s Logar i t hm s
Par ent heses Rem ove Par ent heses (and r epeat pr ocess)
Inver ses
Inver ses
Note: Logar i t hms ar e t he
i nver se oper at or t o exp onent s.
Thi s t o pic is t ypi call y cover ed i n
t he second year o f Algebr a. Inver ses
The l ist ab ove show s i nver se op er at i on r elat io nshi ps. In or der t o un do an oper at i on, you
per f or m i t s i nver se oper at io n. Fo r exam pl e, t o undo addi t io n, you subt r act ; t o undo di vi si on,
you mu lt i pl y. Her e ar e a co upl e of exam pl es:

Example 2
Sol ve: 2 2 5 5 3
St ep 1: Add 3 3 3
Resul t : 2 2 5 2
St ep 2: Di vi de by 2 2 2
Resul t : 2 5 1
St ep 3: Remove par ent heses
Resul t : 2 5 1
St ep 4: Subt r act 5 5 5
Resul t : 2 6
St ep 5: Di vi de by 2 2 2
Resul t : 3







Inver ses
Example 1
Sol ve: 3 4 14
St ep 1: Add 4 4 4
Resul t : 3 18
St ep 2: Di vi de by 3 3 3
Resul t : 6
Not i ce t hat w e add and subt r act bef or e w e
mul t i pl y and di vi de. ReversePEMDAS.
W i t h t hi s appr oach , you w i ll be abl e t o
sol ve al most any m ult i st ep equat i on . As
you get b et t er at i t , you w il l be abl e t o use
so me shor t cut s t o sol ve t h e p r obl em f ast er .
Si nce speed i s im po r t ant i n m at h emat ics, l ear nin g a f ew t i ps and t r i cks wi t h r egar d t o so l vi ng
eq uat i ons i s l i kel y t o b e w or t h you r t im e.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Exam ple 1
Solve:

8
Multiplyby


Result:

12
Explanat ion: Since

isthe reciprocal of

,
whenwe multiplythem, weget 1, and
1 . Usingthisapproach, we can avoid
dividingbyafraction, whichismore difficult.
Example 2
Solve:

2
Multiplyby 4: 4 4
Result: 2 4 8
Explanat ion: 4 isthereciprocal of

, so
whenwe multiplythem, weget 1. Notice
theuseof parenthesesaround thenegative
number to make it clear we aremultiplying
and not subtracting.
Example 3
Solve: 2 2 5 3 5
Step1: Eliminate parentheses
Result: 4 10 3 5
Step2: Combineconstants
Result: 4 7 5
Step3: Subtract 7 7 7
Result: 4 12
Step4: Divideby4 4 4
Result: 3
Algebra
Tips and Tricks in Solving M ult iSt ep Equat ions

Fract ional Coefficient s
Fractionspresent a stumblingblock to manystudentsin solvingmultistep equations. When
stumblingblocksoccur, it isagood time to develop a trickto help with the process. The trick
shown below involvesusingthe reciprocal of afractional coefficient asamultiplier in the
solution process. (Remember that acoefficient isanumber that ismultiplied bya variable.)


Anot her Approach t o Parent heses
In the Reverse PEMDASmethod, parentheses
are handled after all other operations.
Sometimes, it iseasier to operate on the
parenthesesfirst. In thisway, you maybe able
to restate the problemin an easier formbefore
solvingit.
Example 3, at right, isanother look at the
problemin Example 2 on the previouspage.
Use whichever approach you find most to your
liking. Theyare both correct.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Probabilit y and Odds

Probabil it y

Probabilityisameasureof the likelihood that an event will occur. It dependson thenumber of
outcomesthat represent thee on terms, vent andthe total number of possibleoutcomes. In equati
P(euent) =
numher u uutcumex reprexent|ng the euent
numher u tuta| puxx|h|e uutcumex


Exam ple 1: Theprobabilityof aflippedcoinlandingasahead is1/2. Thereare two equallylikelyevents
when acoin isflipped it will show ahead or it will show atail. So, there isonechanceout of two that
the coin will show aheadwhen it lands.

P(bcoJ) =
1 outcomc o o bcoJ
2 totol possiblc outcomcs
=
1
2


Example 2: Inajar, there are15bluemarbles, 10redmarblesand 7green marbles. What isthe
probabilityof selectingaredmarblefromthe jar? In thisexample, there are 32total marbles, 10of
whicharered, so there isa10/32(or, whenred bility sele tingaredmarble. uced, 5/16) proba of c
P(rcJ morblc) =
10 rcJ morblcs
32 totol morblcs

=
10
32
=
5
16


Odds

Oddsare similar to probability, except that we measure thenumber of chancesthat an event will occur
relativeto thenumber of chancesthat theevent will not occur.
Oddx(euent) =
numher u uutcumex reprexent|ng the euent
numher u uutcumex NOT reprexent|ng the euent



In theabove examples,
0JJs(bcoJ) =
1 outcomc o o bcoJ
1 outcomc o o toil

=
1
1
0JJs(rcJ morblc) =
10 rcJ morblcs
22 otbcr morblcs
=
10
22
=
5
11


Notethat the numerator andthe denominator inan oddscalculation add to the total number of
possible outcomesin thedenominator of the correspondingprobabilitycalculation.

To thebeginningstudent, the concept of oddsisnot asintuitive astheconcept of probabilities;
however, theyareusedextensivelyinsomeenvironments.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Probabilit y w it h Dice

Si ngle Di e
Probabilitywith asingle die isbased on the number of chancesof an event out of 6possible
outcomeson the die. For example:
P(2) =
1
6
P(oJJ numbcr) =
3
6
=
1
2
P(numbcr < 5) =
4
6
=
2
3


Tw o Di ce
Probabilitywith two dice isbased on the number of chancesof an event out of 36possible
outcomeson the dice. The followingtable of resultswhen rolling2 dice ishelpful in thisregard:
1
st
Die
2
nd
Die 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
The probabilityof rollinga number with two dice isthe number of timesthat number occursin
the table, divided by36. Here are the probabilitiesfor all numbers2to 12.
P(2) =
1
36
P(5) =
4
36
=
1
9
P(8) =
5
36
P(11) =
2
36
=
1
18

P(3) =
2
36
=
1
18
P(6) =
5
36
P(9) =
4
36
=
1
9
P(12) =
1
36

P(4) =
3
36
=
1
12
P(7) =
6
36
=
1
6
P(10) =
3
36
=
1
12

P(oJJ numbcr) =
18
36
=
1
2
P(numbcr Ji:isiblc by 3) =
2+5+4+1
36
=
12
36
=
1
3

P(c:cn numbcr) =
18
36
=
1
2
P(numbcr Ji:isiblc by 4) =
3+5+1
36
=
9
36
=
1
4

P(numbcr Ji:isiblc by 6) =
5+1
36
=
6
36
=
1
6

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Combinat ions

Si ngle Cat egory Com bi nat i ons

The number of combinations of itemsselected fromaset, several at atime, can be calculated
relativelyeasilyusingthe followingtechnique:

Technique: Create a ratio of two products. In the numerator, start with the number of
total itemsin the set, and count down so the total number of itemsbeingmultiplied is
equal to the number of itemsbeingselected. In the denominator, start with the
number of itemsbeingselected and count down to 1.

Example: How many
combinationsof 3 itemscan
be selected fromaset of 8
items? A nswer:
8 7 6
3 2 1

= 56

Exam pl e: How many
combinations of 4itemscan
be selected froma set of 13
item : s? Answer
13 12 11 10
4 3 2 1

= 715

Example: How many
combinationsof 2 itemscan
be selected fromaset of 30
items? : Answer
30 29
2 1

= 435



M ul t i pl e Cat e gory Combinat ions

When calculatingthe number of combinationsthat can be created byselectingitemsfrom
several categories, the technique issimpler:

Technique: Multiplythe numbersof itemsin each categoryto get the total number of
possible combinations.


Example: How manydifferent
pizzascould be created if you
have 3kindsof dough, 4kinds
of cheese and 8kindsof
toppings?
Answer:
3 4 8 = 96


Exam pl e: How manydifferent
outfitscan be created if you
have 5pairsof pants, 8 shirts
and 4 jackets?

Answer:
5 8 4 = 160

Example: How manydesigns
for a car can be created if you
can choose from12exterior
colors, 3 interior colors, 2
interior fabricsand 5typesof
wheels? Answer:
12 3 2 5 = 360


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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Statistical Measures

St at i st i cal measur es hel p descr i be a set o f dat a. A def i nit i on of a num ber of t hese i s pr ovi ded i n t he t abl e bel ow :
Concept Description Calculation Example 1 Example 2
Dat a Set Num ber s 35, 35, 37, 38, 45 15, 20, 20, 22, 25, 54
M ean Aver age
Add t h e val ues an d
di vi de t he t o t al by t h e
num ber of valu es
35
5
35 37 38 45
38
15 1
6
8 22 22 25 54
26
M edi an
(1)
M idd le
Ar r ange t he val ues f r o m
l ow t o hi gh an d t ake t he
m i ddl e val ue
(1)

37 21
(1)

M od e M ost
The valu e t hat appear s
m ost of t en i n t he dat a
set
35 20
Range Si ze
The di f f er ence bet w een
t he hi ghest an d l ow est
val ues i n t he dat a set
45 35 = 10 54 15 = 39
Out l i er s
(2)
Od dbal l s
Val ues t hat lo ok ver y
di f f er ent f r om t he ot her
val ues i n t he dat a set
none 54

Not es:
(1) If t her e ar e an even num ber o f valu es, t he m edi an i s t he aver age of t he t wo m i ddl e val ues. In Examp le 2, t he med i an is 21,
whi ch i s t he aver age of 20 and 22.
(2) Th e q uest io n o f wh at const i t ut es an out l i er i s n ot al ways cl ear . Al t h ough st at i st i ci ans seek t o m in im i ze subj ect ivi t y in t he
def i nit i on of out l i er s, di f f er ent anal yst s m ay cho ose di f f er ent cr i t er i a f or t he sam e dat a set .
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
IntroductiontoFunctions
Definitions
ARelationisarelationshipbetweenvariables,usuallyexpressedasanequation.
Inatypicalxyequation,theDomainofarelationisthesetofxvaluesforwhichy
valuescanbecalculated.Forexample,intherelation thedomainis 0
becausethesearethevaluesofxforwhichasquarerootcanbetaken.
Inatypicalxyequation,theRangeofarelationisthesetofyvaluesthatresultforall
valuesofthedomain.Forexample,intherelation therangeis 0because
thesearethevaluesofythatresultfromallthevaluesofx.
edoma AFunctionisarelationinwhicheachelementinth inhasonlyone
correspondingelementintherange.
AOnetoOneFunctionisafunctioninwhicheachelementintherangeisproducedby
onlyoneelementinthedomain.
FunctionTestsin2Dimensions
VerticalLineTestIfaverticallinepassesthroughthegraphofarelationinanytwolocations,
itisnotafunction.Ifitisnotpossibletoconstructaverticallinethatpassesthroughthegraph
ofarelationintwolocations,itisafunction.
HorizontalLineTestIfahorizontallinepassesthroughthegraphofafunctioninanytwo
locations,itisnotaonetoonefunction.Ifitisnotpossibletoconstructahorizontallinethat
passesthroughthegraphofafunctionintwolocations,itisaonetoonefunction.
Examples:

Figure1:


Notafunction.
Failsverticallinetest.

Figure2:

Isafunction,butnotaone
toonefunction.
Passesverticallinetest.
Failshorizontallinetest.
Figure3:

Isaonetoonefunction.
Passesverticallinetest.
Passeshorizontallinetest.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SpecialIntegerFunctions
GreatestIntegerFunction
AlsocalledtheFloorFunction,thisfunctiongivesthe
greatestintegerlessthanorequaltoanumber.There
aretwocommonnotationsforthis,asshowninthe
examplesbelow.
Notationandexamples:
3.5 3 2.7 3 6 6
2.4 2 7.1 8 0 0
Inthegraphtotheright,noticethesoliddotsontheleftofthesegments(indicatingthepointsare
included)andtheopenlinesontherightofthesegments(indicatingthepointsarenotincluded).
LeastIntegerFunction
AlsocalledtheCeilingFunction,thisfunctiongivesthe
leastintegergreaterthanorequaltoanumber.The
commonnotationforthisisshownintheexamples
below.
Notationandexamples:
3.5 4 2.7 2 6 6
Inthegraphtotheright,noticetheopendotsonthe
leftofthesegments(indicatingthepointsarenotincluded)andthecloseddotsontherightofthe
segments(indicatingthepointsareincluded).
NearestIntegerFunction
AlsocalledtheRoundingFunction,thisfunctiongives
thenearestintegertoanumber(roundingtotheeven
numberwhenavalueendsin.5).Thereisnoclean
notationforthis,asshownintheexamplesbelow.
Notationandexamples:
3.5 4 2.7 3 6 6
Inthegraphtotheright,noticetheopendotsonthe
leftofthesegments(indicatingthepointsarenot
included)andthecloseddotsontherightofthesegments(indicatingthepointsareincluded).
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
OperationswithFunctions
FunctionNotation


Functionnotationreplacesthevariableywithafunctionname.Thexinparenthesesindicates
thatxisthedomainvariableofthefunction.Byconvention,functionstendtousethelettersf,
g,andhasnamesofthefunction.
OperationswithFunctions

1, 1
AddingFunctions
SubtractingFunctions
MultiplyingFunctions
DividingFunctions

, 0
Thedomainofthecombination
offunctionsistheintersection
ofthedomainsofthetwo
individualfunctions.Thatis,
thecombinedfunctionhasa
valueinitsdomainifandonlyif
thevalueisinthedomainof
eachindividualfunction.
Examples:
Let: Then:

1
1

Notethatin

thereistherequirement 1.Thisisbecause1 0inthe


denominatorwouldrequiredividingby0,producinganundefinedresult.
OtherOperations
Otheroperationsofequa : lityalsoholdforfunctions,for example




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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
CompositionofFunctions
InaCompositionofFunctions,firstonefunctionisperformed,andthentheother.The
notationforcompositionis,forexample: or .Inbothofthesenotations,
thefunctiongisperformedfirst,andthenthefunctionfisperformedontheresultofg.
Alwaysperformthefunctionclosesttothevariablefirst.
DoubleMapping
Acompositioncanbethoughtofasadoublemapping.Firstgmapsfromitsdomaintoits
range.Then,fmapsfromtherangeofgtotherangeoff:

Example:Let

n a d 1
Then:


And:

TheWordsMethod
Intheexample,
Thefunction sayssquaretheargument.
Thefunctionsaysadd1totheargument.
Sometimesitiseasiertothinkofthefunctionsin
atherthanintermsofanargumentlikex. wordsr
saysadd1first,thensquaretheresult.
sayssquarefirst,thenadd1totheresult.
Usingthewordsmethod,


f g
Calculate:o2
f:squareit2

4
g:add1toit41
Calculate: o 12
g:add1toit 12 1
f:squareit

Rangeofg
Domainoff
Domainofg Rangeoff
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
InversesofFunctions
Inorderforafunctiontohaveaninverse,itmustbeaonetoonefunction.Therequirement
forafunctiontobeaninverseis:


Thenotation

isusedforthe of InverseFunction .
Anotherwayofsayingthisisthatif ,then

forallinthedomainof.
DerivinganInverseFunction
Thefollowingstepscanbeusedtoderiveaninversefunction.Thisprocessassumesthatthe
originalfunctionisexpressedintermsof.
Makesurethefunctionisonetoone.Otherwiseithasnoinverse.Youcanaccomplish
thisbygraphingthefunction applyingtheverticalandhorizontallinetests. and
Substitutethevariableyfor.
Exchangevariables.Thatis,changeallthexstoysandalltheystoxs.
Solveforthenewyintermsofthenewx.
(Optional)Switchthee tionifyoulike. xpressionsoneachsideoftheequa
Replacethevariableywith the function notation

.
Checkyourwork.
Examples:

o
1
2

211
2

Derivethe ver : in seof 2
Substitutefor:
1
21
Exchangevariables: 21
Add1: 2 1
Divideby2:


Switchsides:



ChangeNotation:


Tochecktheresult,notethat:

o 36 3
1
3
26
Derivethe ver : in seof

Substitutefor:

2


2
Exchangevariables:


2
Subtract2:

Multiplyby3:

36
Switchsides: 36
ChangeNotation:


Tochecktheresult,notethat:
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
TransformationTranslation
ATranslationisamovementofthegraphofarelationtoadifferentlocationintheplane.It
preservestheshapeandorientationofthegraphonthepage.Alternatively,atranslationcan
bethoughtofasleavingthegraphwhereitisandmovingtheaxesaroundontheplane.
InAlgebra,thetranslationsofprimaryinterestaretheverticalandhorizontaltranslationsofa
graph.
VerticalTranslation
Startingform:
VerticalTranslation:
Ateachpoint,thegraphofthetranslationisunitshigheror
lowerdependingonwhetherispositiveornegative.The
letterisusedasaconventionwhenmovingupordown.In
algebra,usuallyrepresentsayvalueofsomeimportance.
Note:
Apositive thegraphup. shifts
Anegativeshiftsthegraphdown.
HorizontalTranslation
Startingform:
HorizontalTranslation:
Ateachpoint,thegraphofthetranslationisunitsto
theleftorrightdependingonwhetherispositiveor
negative.Theletterisusedasaconventionwhen
movingleftorright.Inalgebra,usuallyrepresentsan
xvalueofsomeimportance.
Note:
Apositive thegraphtotheleft. shifts
Anegativeshiftsthegraphtotheright.
Forhorizontaltranslation,thedirectionofmovementofthegraphiscounterintuitive;be
carefulwiththese.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
TransformationVerticalStretchandCompression
AVerticalStretchorCompressionisastretchorcompressionintheverticaldirection,relative
tothexaxis.Itdoesnotslidethegrapharoundontheplanelikeatranslation.Analternative
viewofaverticalstretchorcompressionwouldbeachangeinthescaleoftheyaxis.
VerticalStretch
Startingform:
VerticalStretch: , 1
Ateachpoint,thegraphisstretchedverticallybyafactorof
.Theresultisanelongatedcurve,onethatexaggeratesall
ofthefeaturesoftheoriginal.
VerticalCompression
Startingform:
VerticalCompression: , 1
Ateachpoint,thegraphiscompressedverticallybya
factorof.Theresultisaflattenedoutcurve,onethat
mutesallofthefeaturesoftheoriginal.
Note:Theformsoftheequations
forverticalstretchandvertical
compressionarethesame.The
onlydifferenceisthevalueof"".


Valueof""in

ResultingCurve
0 reflection
xaxis
1 compression
originalcurve
1 stretch
-30-
Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
TransformationHorizontalStretchandCompression
AHorizontalStretchorCompressionisastretchorcompressioninthehorizontaldirection,
relativetotheyaxis.Itdoesnotslidethegrapharoundontheplanelikeatranslation.An
alternativeviewofahorizontalstretchorcompressionwouldbeachangeinthescaleofthex
axis.
HorizontalStretch
Note:Theformsoftheequations
forthehorizontalstretchandthe
horizontalcompressionarethe
same.Theonlydifferenceisthe
valueof"".
Startingform:
HorizontalStretch: ,
Ateachpoint,thegraphisstretchedhorizontally
byafactorof

.Theresultisawidenedcurve,one
thatexaggeratesallofthefeaturesoftheoriginal.
HorizontalCompression
Startingform:
HorizontalCompression: ,
Ateachpoint,thegraphiscompressedhorizontallybya
factorof

.Theresultisaskinniercurve,onethatmutes
allofthefeaturesoftheoriginal.
Valueof""in

ResultingCurve

0 reflection
horizontal line
1 stretch
originalcurve
1 compression

Note:Forhorizontalstretchandcompression,thechangeinthegraphcausedbythevalue
ofbiscounterintuitive;becarefulwiththese.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
TransformationReflection
AReflectionisaflipofthegraphacrossamirrorintheplane.Itpreservestheshapethe
graphbutcanmakeitlookbackwards.
InAlgebra,thereflectionsofprimaryinterestarethereflectionsacrossanaxisintheplane.


XAxisReflection
Startingform:
xaxisReflection:
Notethefollowing:
Ateachpoint,thegraphis
reflectedacrossthexaxis.
Theformofthetransformationis
thesameasaverticalstretchor
compressionwith .
Theflipofthegraphoverthex
axisis,ineffect,avertical
transformation.
YAxisReflection
Startingform:
yaxisReflection:
Notethefollowing:
Ateachpoint,thegraphis
reflectedacrosstheyaxis.
Theformofthetransformationis
thesameasahorizontalstretch
orcompressionwith .
Theflipofthegraphoverthey
axisis,ineffect,ahorizontal
transformation.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Transform
Startingform:
ationsSummary
Forpurposesofthefollowingtable,thevariableshandkarepositivetomaketheformsmore
likewhatthestudentwillencounterwhensolvingproblemsinvolvingtransformations.
TransformationSummary
FormofTransformation ResultofTransformation
Verticaltranslationupkunits.
Verticaltranslationdownkunits.
Horizontaltranslationlefthunits.
Horizontaltranslationrighth its. un
, 1 Verticalstretchbyafactorof.
, 1 Verticalcompressionbyafactorof.
, 1 Horizontalcompressionbyafactorof

.
, 1 Horizontalstretchbyafactorof

.
Reflectionacrossthexaxis(vertical).
Reflectionacrosstheyaxis(horizontal).

Transformationsbasedonthevalues
ofaandb(stretches,
compressions,reflections)canbe
representedbythesegraphics.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
BuildingaGraphwithTransformations
Thegraphofanequationcanbebuiltwithblocksmadeupoftransformations.Asanexample,
wewillbuildthegraphof 23

4.

Step2:Translate3unitsto
therighttogetequation:

Step1:Startwiththebasic
quadraticequation:

Step3:Stretchverticallyby
afactorof2togetequation:

Step4:Reflectoverthe
xaxistogetequation:

Step5:Translateup4
unitstogetequation:

FinalResult:Showthegraph
ofthefinalequation:

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SlopeofaLine

Theslopeofalinetellshowfastitrisesorfallsasitmovesfromlefttoright.Iftheslopeis
rising,theslopeispositive;ifitisfalling,theslopeisnegative.Thelettermisoftenusedas
thesymbolforslope.

Thetwomostusefulwaystocalculatetheslopeofalinearediscussedbelow.

MathematicalDefinitionofSlope
Thedefinitionisbasedontwopointswith
coordinates

, and

.Thedefinition,
then,is:


Comments:
Youcanselectany2pointsontheline.
Atablesuchastheoneatrightcanbehelpfulfordoing
yourcalculations.
Notethat

impliesthat

.
So,itdoesnotmatterwhichpointyouassignasPoint1
andwhichyouassignasPoint2.Therefore,neitherdoes
itmatterwhichpointisfirstinthetable.
ItisimportantthatonceyouassignapointasPoint1andanotherasPoint2,thatyouuse
theircoordinatesintheproperplacesintheformula.
xv lue a yvalue
Point2

Point1

Difference

Examples:
Forthetwolinesinthefigureabove,wegetthefollowing:

GreenLine:

RedLine:

GreenLine xvalue yvalue


PointA 1 4
PointC 3 4
Difference 4 8
RedLine xvalue yvalue
PointD 4 2
PointB 4 2
Difference 8 4
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SlopeofaLine(contd)

RiseoverRun
Anequivalentmethodofcalculatingslopethatismore
visualistheRiseoverRunmethod.Underthis
method,ithelpstodrawverticalandhorizontallines
thatindicatethehorizontalandverticaldistances
betweenpointsontheline.
Theslop ca ecanthenbe lculatedasfollows:

Theriseofalineishowmuchitincreases(positive)ordecreases(negative)betweentwo
points.Therunishowfarthelinemovestotheright(positive)ortheleft(negative)between
thesametwopoints.
Comments:
Youcanselectany2pointsontheline.
Itisimportanttostartatthesamepointinmeasuringboththeriseandtherun.
Agoodconventionistoalwaysstartwiththepointontheleftandworkyourwaytothe
right;thatway,therun(i.e.,thedenominatorintheformula)isalwayspositive.Theonly
exceptiontothisiswhentheruniszero,inwhichcasetheslopeisundefined.
Ifthetwopointsareclearlymarkedasintegersonagraph,theriseandrunmayactuallybe
countedonthegraph.Thismakestheprocessmuchsimplerthanusingtheformulaforthe
definitionofslope.However,whencounting,makesureyougettherightsignfortheslope
oftheline,e.g.,movingdownasthelinemovestotherightisanegativeslope.
Examples:
Forthetwolinesinth o : efigureabove,wegetthefoll wing
GreenLine:




Noticehowsimilarthe
calculationsintheexamples
areunderthetwomethods
ofcalculatingslopes. RedLine:

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SlopesofVariousLines


lineisvertical

Whenyoulookataline,you
shouldnoticethefollowing
aboutitsslope:
Whetheritis0,positive,
negativeorundefined.
Ifpositiveornegative,
whetheritislessthan1,
about1,orgreaterthan1.
Thepurposeofthegraphson
thispageistohelpyougetafeel
forthesethings.
Thiscanhelpyoucheck:
Givenaslope,whetheryou
drewthelinecorrectly,or
Givenaline,whetheryou
calculatedtheslope
correctly.

2
4
5

lineissteepandgoingdown
3
1
2

lineissteepandgoingup

1
linegoesupata45angle

1
linegoesdownata45angle


3
17

lineisshallowandgoingdown

2
11

lineisshallowandgoingup
0
lineishorizontal

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
VariousFormsofaLine

TherearethreeformsofalinearequationwhicharemostusefultotheAlgebrastudent,each
ofwhichcanbeconvertedintotheothertwothroughalgebraicmanipulation.Theabilityto
movebetweenformsisaveryusefulskillinAlgebra,andshouldbepracticedbythestudent.

StandardForm
Standa mples rdFormExa
32 6
27 14
TheStan r o alinearequationis: da dFormf

whereA,B,andCarerealnumbersandAandBarenotbothzero.
Usuallyinthisform,theconventionisforAtobepositive.
Why,youmightask,isthisStandardForm?Onereasonisthatthisformiseasilyextendedto
additionalvariables,whereasotherformsarenot.Forexample,infourvariables,theStandard
Formwouldbe: .Anotherreasonisthatthisformeasilylendsitself
toanalysiswithmatrices,whichcanbeveryusefulinsolvingsystemsofequations.

SlopeInterceptForm
Slope ples InterceptExam
36

3
4
14
TheSlopeInterceptFormofalinearequationistheonemost
familiar ents.Itis: tomanystud

wheremistheslopeandbistheyinterceptoftheline(i.e.,the
valueatwhichthelinecrossestheyaxisinagraph).mandbmustalsoberealnumbers.

PointSlopeForm
ThePointSlopeFormofalinearequationistheoneusedleastby
thestudent,butitcanbeveryusefulincertaincircumstances.In
particular,asyoumightexpect,itisusefulifthestudentisaskedfor
theequationofalineandisgiventhelinesslopeandthe
coordin e.Theformoftheequationis:
P ointSlopeExamples
3 24
7 5
2
3

atesofapointonthelin

wheremistheslopeand

isanypointontheline.Onestrengthofthisformisthat
equationsformedusingdifferentpointsonthesamelinewillbeequivalent.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SlopesofParallelandPerpendicularLines

ParallelLines
Twolines iftheirslopesareequal. areparallel
In form,ifthevaluesofare
thesame.
Example: 23 and
21
InStandardForm,ifthecoefficientsofand
areproportiona ions. lbetweentheequat
Example:32 5 and
4 6 7
Also,ifthelinesarebothvertical(i.e.,their
slopesareundefin d e ).
Example: and 3
2
PerpendicularLines
Twolinesareperpendiculariftheproductoftheir
slopesis.Thatis,iftheslopeshavedifferent
signsand tiveinverses. aremultiplica
In form,thevaluesof
multiplytoget1..
Example: and 65

3
InStandardForm,ifyouaddtheproductof
thexcoefficientstotheproductofthey
coefficientsandgetzero.
Example: and 46 4
32 5 because43 62 0
Also,ifonelineis isundefined)andonelineishorizontal(i.e., 0). vertical(i.e.,
Example: and 6
3
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Parallel,PerpendicularorNeither
Thefollowingflowchartcanbeusedtodeterminewhetherapairoflinesareparallel,
perpendicular,orneither.


yes
yes
no
no
Arethe
slopesofthe
twolinesthe
same?
First,putbothlinesin:
form.
Isthe
productof
thetwo
slopes=1?
Result:The
linesare
neither.
Result:The
linesare
parallel.
Result:Thelines
are
perpendicular.
-40-
Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
Parallel,CoincidentorIntersecting
Thefollowingflowchartcanbeusedtodeterminewhetherapairoflinesareparallel,
coincident,orintersecting.Coincidentlinesarelinesthatarethesame,eventhoughtheymay
beexpresseddifferently.Technically,coincidentlinesarenotparallelbecauseparallellines
neverintersectandcoincidentlinesintersectatallpointsontheline.

Theintersectionofthetwolinesis:
Forintersectinglines,thepointofintersection.
Forparallellines,theemptyset,.
Forcoincidentlines,allpointsontheline.

yes yes
no no
Arethe
slopesofthe
twolinesthe
same?
First,putbothlinesin:
form.
Arethey
interceptsof
thetwolines
thesame?
Result:The
linesare
coincident.
Result:The
linesare
parallel.
Result:The
linesare
intersecting.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
PropertiesofInequality

Foranyrealnumbersa,b,andc:

Property Definit on i
Addition
Property
,
,

Subtraction
Property
,
,

Multiplication
Property
For , 0
,
,
For , 0
,
,
Division
Property
For 0 ,
,
,
For 0 ,
,
,
Note:allpropertieswhichholdfor<alsoholdfor,andallpropertieswhichholdfor>
alsoholdfor.
Thereisnothingtoosurprisingintheseproperties.Themostimportantthingtobeobtained
fromthemcanbedescribedasfollows:Whenyoumultiplyordivideaninequalitybya
negativenumber,youmustflipthesign.Thatis,<becomes>,>becomes<,etc.
Inaddition,itisusefultonotethatyoucanfliparoundanentireinequalityaslongasyoukeep
thepointyp thesigndirectedatthesam .Examples: artof eitem
isthesameas 4 4
32 isthesameas 32
Onewaytorememberthis
isthatwhenyoufliparound
aninequality,youmustalso
fliparoundthesign.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
GraphsofInequalitiesinOneDimension

Inequalitiesinonedimensionaregenerallygraphedonthenumberline.Alternatively,ifitis
clearthatthegraphisonedimensional,thegraphscanbeshowninrelationtoanumberline
butnotspecificallyonit(examplesofthisareonthenextpage).
OneDimensionalGraphComponents
Theendpoint(s)Theendpointsfortherayorsegmentinthegraphareshownaseither
openorclosedcircles.
o Ifthepointisincludedinthesolutiontotheinequality(i.e.,ifthesignisor),the
circleisclosed.
o Ifthepointisnotincludedinthesolutiontotheinequality(i.e.,ifthesignis<or>),
thecircleisopen.
ThearrowIfallnumbersinonedirectionofthenumberlinearesolutionstothe
inequality,anarrowpointsinthatdirection.
o For<orsigns,thearrowpointstotheleft().
o For>orsigns,thearrowpointstotheright().
Thelineinasimpleinequality,alineisdrawnfromtheendpointtothearrow.Ifthereare
twoendpoints,alineisdrawnfromonetotheother.
Examples:


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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
CompoundInequalitiesinOneDimension

Compoundinequalitiesareasetofinequalitiesthatmustallbetrueatthesametime.Usually,
therearetwoinequalities,butmorethantwocanalsoformacompoundset.Theprinciples
describedbeloweasilyextendtocaseswheretherearemorethantwoinequalities.
CompoundInequalitieswiththeWordAND
Anexam n qualitieswiththe wouldbe: pleofcompoundi e wordAND
12 2 or 1
Thesearethesameconditions,
expressedintwodifferentforms.
(SimpleForm) (CompoundForm)
Graphically,ANDinequalitiesexistatpointswherethegraphsoftheindividualinequalities
overlap.Thisistheintersectionofthegraphsoftheindividualinequalities.Belowaretwo
examplesofgraphsofcompoundinequalitiesusingthewordAND.

AtypicalANDexample:Theresultisa
segmentthatcontainsthepointsthatoverlap
thegraphsoftheindividualinequalities.
ANDcompoundinequalitiessometimesresult
intheemptyset.Thishappenswhenno
numbersmeetbothconditionsatthesametime.
CompoundInequalitieswiththeWordOR
Graphically,ORinequalitiesexistatpointswhereanyoftheoriginalgraphshavepoints.This
istheunionofthegraphsoftheindividualinequalities.Belowaretwoexamplesofgraphsof
compoundinequalitiesusingthewordOR.

AtypicalORexample:Theresultisapairof
raysextendinginoppositedirections,witha
gapinbetween.
ORcompoundinequalitiessometimesresultin
thesetofallnumbers.Thishappenswhenevery
numbermeetsatleastoneoftheconditions.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
InequalitiesinTwoDimensions
Graphinganinequalityintwodimensionsinvolvesthefollowingsteps:
Graphtheunderlyingequation.
Makethelinesolidordottedbasedonwhethertheinequalitycontainsan=sign.
o Forinequalitieswith<or>thelineisdotted.
o Forinequalitieswithorthelineissolid.
Determinewhethertheregioncontainingthesolutionsetisabovethelineorbelowthe
line.
o Forinequalitieswith>ortheshadedregionisabovetheline.
o Forinequalitieswith<ortheshadedregionisbelowtheline.
Shadeintheappropriateregion.
Example:
Graphthesolutionsetofthefollowingsystemofinequality: 1
Step1:Graphtheunderlying
equation.
Step2:Determinewhethertheline
idordotted: shouldbesol
1the>signdoesnot
contain=,sothelineisdotted
Step3:Determinetheregiontobe
shadedbasedonthesigninthe
equation:
1the>signindicates
shadingabovetheline

Thesolutionsetistheshadedarea.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
GraphsofInequalitiesinTwoDimensions


DashedLine
BelowtheLine

DashedLine
AbovetheLine

SolidLine
BelowtheLine

SolidLine
AbovetheLine
-46-
Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
AbsoluteValueFunctions

Equations
GraphsofequationsinvolvingabsolutevaluesgenerallyhaveaVpattern.Wheneveryousee
aVinagraph,thinkabsolutevalue.Ageneralequationforanabsolutevaluefunctionisof
theform:
|| ||
where,
the sign indicates whether the graph opens up ( sign) or down ( sign).
||istheabsolutevalueoftheslopesofthelinesinthegraph.
(h,k)isthelocationofthevertex(i.e.,thesharppoint)inthegraph.

Examples:


Equation: |1| 2
Vertex =1,2
1; |slopes| 1
Graph opens up
Equation: |21| 3
Vertex =1,3
2; |slopes| 2
Graph opens up
Equation:

3
Vertex =

,3

; |slopes|


Graph opens down
-47-
Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
AbsoluteValueFunctions(contd)

Inequalities
Sinceapositivenumberandanegativenumbercanhavethesameabsolutevalue,inequalities
involvingabsolutevaluesmustbebrokenintotwoseparateequations.Forexample:
3 4
Thefirstnewequationissimplytheoriginal
equationwithouttheabsolutevaluesign.
|3| 4
Note:theEnglishispoor,butthemath
iseasiertorememberwiththistrick!
Equation1
Solve: 4 3
Step1:Add3 3 3
Result: 7
Equation2
Solve: 3 4
Step1:Add3 3 3
Result: 1
3 4

Signthatdetermines
useofANDorOR
Inthesecondnewequation,twothings
change:(1)thesignflips,and(2)thevalueon
therightsideoftheinequalitychangesitssign.
Atthispointtheabsolutevalueproblemhasconvertedintoapairofcompoundinequalities.
Next,weneedtoknowwhethertouseANDorORwiththeresults.Todecidewhichword
touse,lookatthesignintheinequality;then
UsethewordANDwithlessthandsigns.
UsethewordORwithgreatorsigns.
Thesolutiontotheaboveabsolutevalueproblem,then,isthesameasthesolutiontothe
followin t alities: gse ofcompoundinequ
7 1 Thesolutionsetisallxintherange(1,7)

Note:thesolutionsettothisexampleisgiveninrangenotation.Whenusingthisnotation,
useparentheses()wheneveranendpointisnotincludedinthesolutionset,and
usesquarebrackets[]wheneveranendpoint dinthesolutionset. isinclude
Alwaysuseparentheses()withinfinitysigns( ).
Therange: 6 2
Notation:2,6
Therange: 2
Notation:,2
Examples:

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SystemsofEquations
Asystemofequationsisasetof2ormoreequationsforwhichwewishtodetermineall
solutionswhichsatisfyeachequation.Generally,therewillbethesamenumberofequations
asvariablesandasinglesolutiontoeachvariablewillbesought.However,sometimesthereis
eithernosolutionorthereisaninfinitenumberofsolutions.

Therearemanymethodsavailabletosolveasystemofequations.Wewillshowthreeofthem
below.

GraphingaSolution
Inthesimplestcases,asetof2equationsin2unknownscanbesolvedusingagraph.Asingle
equationintwounknownsisaline,sotwoequationsgiveus2lines.Thefollowingsituations
arepossiblewith2lines:
Theywillintersect.Inthiscase,thepointofintersectionistheonlysolution.
Theywillbethesameline.Inthiscase,allpointsonthelinearesolutions(note:thisis
aninfiniteset).
Theywillbeparallelbutnotthesameline.Inthiscase,therearenosolutions.
Examples

SolutionSet:
Allpointsontheline.
Althoughtheequationslook
different,theyactually
describethesameline.

SolutionSet:
Thepointofintersection
canbereadoffthegraph;
thepoint(2,0).

SolutionSet:
Theemptyset;
theseparallellines
willnevercross.
-49-
Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SystemsofEquations(contd)
SubstitutionMethod
IntheSubstitutionMethod,weeliminateoneofthevariablesbysubstitutingintooneofthe
equationsitsequivalentintermsoftheothervariable.Thenwesolveforeachvariableinturn
andchecktheresult.Thesteps sareillustratedintheexamplebelow. inthisproces
Example:Solveforxandyif:
and:2 .

Step1:Reviewthetwoequations.Lookforavariablethatcanbesubstitutedfromone
equationintotheother.Inthisexample,weseeasingleyinthefirstequation;thisisaprime
candidateforsubstitution.
Wewillsubstitutefromthefirstequationforinthesecondequation.
Step2: substitution. Performthe
becomes:
Step3: l e uationforthesinglev e t. Sovetheresultingq ariabl thatislef



Step4:Substitutetheknownvariableintooneoftheoriginalequationstosolveforthe
remaini
Afterthisstep,thesolutionistentativelyidentifiedas:
, ,meaningthepoint(3,1).
ngvariable.



Step5:ChecktheresultbysubstitutingthesolutionintotheequationnotusedinStep4.Ifthe
solutioniscorrect,theresultshouldbeatruestatement.Ifitisnot,youhavemadeamistake
andshould o rworkcarefully. checky u




Sincethisisatruemathematical
statement,thesolution(3,1)can
beacceptedascorrect.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SystemsofEquations(contd)
EliminationMethod
IntheSubstitutionMethod,wemanipulateoneorbothoftheequationssothatwecanadd
themandeliminateoneofthevariables.Thenwesolveforeachvariableinturnandcheckthe
result.Thisisanoutstandingmethodforsystemsofequationswithuglycoefficients.The
stepsinthisprocessareillustratedintheexamplebelow.Notetheflowofthesolutiononthe
page.
Example:Solveforxandyif:
and:2 .

Step6:Checktheresultbysubstituting
thesolutionintotheequationnotusedin
Step5.Ifthesolutioniscorrect,the
resultshouldbeatruestatement.Ifitis
not,youhavemadeamistakeandshould
checkyourwork.



2

Step1:Rewritetheequationsin
standardform.
Step2: Multiplyeachequationbyavalue
selectedsothat,whentheequationsareadded,
avariablewillbeeliminated.
(Multiplyby2)
(Multiplyby1) 2
Step5:Substitutetheresultinto
oneoftheoriginalequationsand
solvefortheothervariable.





U 2


Step3: Addtheresultingequations.


Step4: Solveforthevariable.



Sincethisisatruemathematicalstatement,the
solution(3,1)canbeacceptedascorrect.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SystemsofEquations(contd)
ClassificationofSystems
Therearetwomainclassificationsofsystemsofequations:Consistentvs.Inconsistent,and
Dependentvs.Independent.
Consistentvs.Inconsistent
ConsistentSystemshaveoneormoresolutions.
InconsistentSystemshavenosolutions.Whenyoutrytosolveaninconsistentsetof
equations,youoftengettoapointwhereyouhaveanimpossiblestatement,suchas
1 2.Thisindicatesthatthereisnosolutiontothesystem.
Dependentvs.Independent
LinearlyDependentSystemshaveaninfinitenumberofsolutions.InLinearAlgebra,a
systemislinearlydependentifthereisasetofrealnumbers(notallzero)that,when
theyaremultipliedbytheequationsinthesystemandtheresultsareadded,thefinal
resultiszero.
LinearlyIndependentSystemshaveatmostonesolution.InLinearAlgebra,asystemis
linearlyindependentifitisnotlinearlydependent.Note:sometextbooksindicatethat
anindependentsystemmusthaveasolution.Thisisnotcorrect;theycanhaveno
solutions(seethemiddleexamplebelow).Formoreonthis,seethenextpage.
Examples

OneSolution
Consistent
Independent
NoSolution
Inconsistent
Independent
InfiniteSolutions
Consistent
Dependent

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
ADVANCED
Algebra
LinearDependence

0
LineardependenceisaconceptfromLinearAlgebra,andisveryusefulindeterminingif
solutionstocomplexsystemsofequationsexist.Essentially,asystemoffunctions

isdefined
to e ofrealnumbers

(notallzero) suchthat: belinearlydepend ntifthereisaset ,

0or,insummationnotation,
Ifthereisnosetofrealnumbers

,suchthattheaboveequationsaretrue,thesystemissaid
tobelinearlyin e e n . d p nde t
Theexpression

iscalledalinearcombinationofthefunctions

.The
importanceoftheconceptoflineardependenceliesintherecognitionthatadependent
systemisredundant,i.e.,thesystemcanbedefinedwithfewerequations.Itisusefultonote
thatalinearlydependentsystemofequationshasadeterminantofcoefficientsequalto0.
Example:
Considerthefo w ions: llo ingsystemofequat



Noticethat:

.
Therefore,thesystemislinearly
dependent.


Check th th coeffi nt atrix: ing edeterminantof e cie m

3 2 1
1 1 2
1 0 5
1
2 1
1 2
0
3 1
1 2
5
3 2
1 1
150751 0.
ItshouldbenotedthatthefactthatD 0issufficienttoprovelineardependenceonlyifthere
arenoconstanttermsinthefunctions(e.g.,iftheprobleminvolvesvectors).Ifthereare
constantterms,itisalsonecessarythatthesetermscombineproperly.Thereareadditional
techniquestotestthis,suchastheuseofaugmentedmatricesandGaussJordanElimination.
MuchofLinearAlgebraconcernsitselfwithsetsofequationsthatarelinearlyindependent.If
thedeterminantofthecoefficientmatrixisnonzero,thenthesetofequationsislinearly
independent.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SystemsofInequalitiesinTwoDimensions
Systemsofinequalitiesaresetsofmorethanoneinequality.Tographasystemofinequalities,
grapheachinequalityseparately(includingshadingintheappropriateregion).Thesolutionset,
then,iseithertheoverlapoftheregionsoftheseparateinequalities(ANDSystems)orthe
unionoftheregionsoftheseparateinequalities(ORSystems).

Examples:
Graphth tofthe emofinequa esolutionse followingsyst lities:
(a) 23AND 1 (b) 23OR 1

Step1:Graphtheunderlyingequations.
Step2:Determinewhethereachlineshouldbe
solidordotted:
23thesigncontains=,sothe
lineissolid
1the>signdoesnotcontain=,
sothelineisdotted
Step netheregionstobeshadedbasedonthesignsintheequations: 3:Determi
thesignindicatesshadingbelowtheline 23
1the>signindicatesshadingabovetheline
Step4:Determinethefinalsolutionset.
(a) IftheproblemhasanANDbetween
theinequalities,thesolutionsetisthe
overlapoftheshadedareas(i.e.,the
greenpartinthegraphbelow).
(b) IftheproblemhasanORbetween
theinequalities,thesolutionsetisthe
unionofalloftheshadedareas(i.e.,
thebluepartinthegraphbelow).

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra Algebra
ParametricEquations ParametricEquations
ParametricEquationsin2dimensionsarefunctionsthatexpresseachofthetwokeyvariables
intermsofaoneormoreothers.Forexa
ParametricEquationsin2dimensionsarefunctionsthatexpresseachofthetwokeyvariables
intermsofaoneormoreothers.Forexample, mple,




Parametricequationsaresometimesthemostusefulwaytosolveaproblem. Parametricequationsaresometimesthemostusefulwaytosolveaproblem.
PythagoreanTriples PythagoreanTriples
Asa xample,thefollowingparametricequationscanbeusedtofindPythagoreanTriples: Asa xample,thefollowingparametricequationscanbeusedtofindPythagoreanTriples: ne
Let,berelativelyprimeintegersandlet .Then,thefollowingequationsproduceaset
ofintegervaluesthatsatisf
ne
Let,berelativelyprimeintegersandlet .Then,thefollowingequationsproduceaset
ofintegervaluesthatsatisf ythePythagoreanTheorem:

ythePythagoreanTheorem:

Examples: Examples:
s s t t a a b b c c Pytha r nship Pytha r nship go eanRelatio go eanRelatio
3 2 5 12 13 5

12

13

4 3 7 24 25 7

24

25


5 2 21 20 29 21

20

29

5 3 16 30 34 16

30

34

CreatingaStandardEquationfromParametricEquations
Tocreateastandardequationfromasetof
parametricequationsintwodimensions,
Example:Createastandardequationforthe
parametr e ic quations:
rinthe ,weget

Solvingfo t : firstequation

Substituting tiongives: intothesecondequa
ion

Cleaningthisup, weseek: seek: wegetthesolut

Solveoneparametricequationfort.
Substitutethisvalueoftintotheother
equation.
Cleanuptheremainingexpressionas
necessary.
Note:anyothermethodofsolving
simultaneousequationscanalsobeusedfor
thispurpose.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
ExponentFormulas
Word Description
of Property
Math Description
of Property
Limitations
on variables
Examples
Product of Powers



Quotient of Powers


Power of a Power



Anything to the zero power is 1

, if,,
Negative powers generate the

reciprocal of what a positive


power generates


Power of a product


Power of a quotient


Converting a root to a power

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
ScientificNotation

Format
Anumberinscientificnotationhastwoparts:
Anumberwhichisatleast1andislessthan10(i.e.,itmusthaveonlyonedigitbefore
thedecimalpoint).Thisnumberiscalledthecoefficient.
Apowerof10whichismultipliedbythefirstnumber.
Herearea fregular scientificn i fewexampleso
3
numbersexpressedin
0.0 .

otat on.
1 32 .2 10

1,420,000 1.42 10

0034 3410
1000 110

1 10

450 4.5 10

Howmanydigits?Howmanyzeroes?
Thereareacoupleofsimplerulesforconvertingfromscientificnotationtoaregularnumberor
forconvertingfromaregularnumbertoscientificnotation:
Ifaregularnumberislessthan1,theexponentof10inscientificnotationisnegative.
Thenumberofleadingzeroesintheregularnumberisequaltotheabsolutevalueof
thisexponent.Inapplyingthisrule,youmustcountthezerobeforethedecimalpointin
theregularnumber.Examples:
OriginalNumber Action Conversion
0.00034 Count4zeroes 3.4x10
4

6.234x10
8
Add8zeroesbeforethedigits 0.00000006234
Ifthenumberisgreaterthan1,thenumberofdigitsafterthefirstoneintheregular
numberisequaltotheexponentof10inthescientificnotation.
OriginalNumber Action Conversion
4,800,000 Count6digitsafterthe4 4.8x10
6

9.6x10
3
Add3digitsafterthe9 9,600
Asageneralrule,multiplyingbypowersof10movesthedecimalpointoneplacefor
eachpowerof10.
o Multiplyingbypositivepowersof10movesthedecimaltotheright.
o Multiplyingbynegativepowersof10movesthedecimaltotheleft.
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Algebra
AddingandSubtractingwithScientificNotation
Whenaddingorsubtractingnumbersinscientificnotation:
Adjustthenumberssotheyhavethesamepowerof10.Thisworksbestifyouadjust
therepresentationofthesmallernumbersothatithasthesamepowerof10asthe
largernumber.Todothis:
o Callthedifferencebetweentheexponentsof10inthetwonumbersn.
o Raisethepowerof10ofthesmallernumberbyn,and
o Movethedecimalpointofthecoefficientofthesmallernumbernplacesto
theleft.
Addthecoefficients,keepingthepowerof10unchanged.
Iftheresultisnotinscientificnotation,adjustitsothatitis.
o Ifthecoefficientisatleast1andlessthan10,theanswerisinthecorrectform.
o Ifthecoefficientis10orgreater,increasetheexponentof10by1andmovethe
decimalpointofthecoefficientonespacetotheleft.
o Ifthecoefficientislessthan1,decreasetheexponentof10by1andmovethe
decimalpointofthecoefficientonespacetotheright.
Examples:
3.2 10

0.32 10

9.9 10

99 . 0 10

10.22 10

1.022 10

Explanation:Aconversionofthesmaller
numberisrequiredpriortoaddingbecausethe
exponentsofthetwonumbersaredifferent.
Afteradding,theresultisnolongerinscientific
notation,soanextrastepisneededtoconvertit
intotheappropriateformat.

6.1 10

6.1 10

2.3 10

2 .3 10

8.4 10

1.2 10

1.20 10

4.5 10

0.45 10



0.75 10

7.5 10


Explanation:Noconversionisnecessary
becausetheexponentsofthetwonumbersare
thesame.Afteradding,theresultisinscientific
notation,sonoadditionalstepsarerequired.
Explanation:Aconversionofthesmaller
numberisrequiredpriortosubtractingbecause
theexponentsofthetwonumbersaredifferent.
Aftersubtracting,theresultisnolongerin
scientificnotation,soanextrastepisneededto
convertitintotheappropriateformat.
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Algebra
MultiplyingandDividingwithScientificNotation

Whenmultiplyingordividingnumbersinscientificnotation:
Multiplyordividethecoefficients.
Multiplyordividethepowersof10.Rememberthatthismeansaddingorsubtracting
theexponentswhilekeepingthebaseof10unchanged.
o Ifyouaremultiplying,addtheexponentsof10.
o Ifyouaredividing,subtracttheexponentsof10.
Iftheresultisnotinscientificnotation,adjustitsothatitis.
o Ifthecoefficientisatleast1andlessthan10,theanswerisinthecorrectform.
o Ifthecoefficientis10orgreater,increasetheexponentof10by1andmovethe
decimalpointofthecoefficientonespacetotheleft.
o Ifthecoefficientislessthan1,decreasetheexponentof10by1andmovethe
decimalpointofthecoefficientonespacetotheright.
Examples:
4 10

5 10


Explanation:Thecoefficientsaremultipliedand
theexponentsareadded.Aftermultiplying,the
resultisnolongerinscientificnotation,soan
extrastepisneededtoconvertitintothe
appropriateformat.
20 10

2.0 10


1.2 10

2.0 10

2.4 10


Explanation:Thecoefficientsaremultipliedand
theexponentsareadded.Aftermultiplying,the
resultisinscientificnotation,sonoadditional
stepsarerequired.

3.3 10

Explanation:Thecoefficientsaredividedand
theexponentsaresubtracted.Afterdividing,
theresultisnolongerinscientificnotation,so
anextrastepisneededtoconvertitintothe
appropriateformat.
5.5 10

0.6 10

6.0 10

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Algebra
IntroductiontoPolynomials

WhatisaPolynomial?
Apolynomialisanexpressionthatcanbewrittenasatermorasumofterms,eachofwhichis
theproductofascalar(thecoefficient)andaseriesofvariables.Eachofthetermsisalsocalled
amonomial.
Examples(allofthesearepolynomials):
Monomial 3 4

Binomial 28 1 5

12
Trinomial

69

Other

41 26

382

Definitions:
Scalar:Arealnumber.
Monomial:Polynomialwithoneterm.
Binomial:Polynomialwithtwoterms.
Trinomial:Polynomialwiththreeterms.

DegreeofaPolynomial
Thedegreeofamonomialisthesumoftheexponentsonitsvariables.
Thedegreeofapolynomialisthehighestdegreeofanyofitsmonomialterms.
Examples:
Polynomial Degree P a olynomi l Degree
6 0 3

6
3 1 15

12 9
3 3

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Algebra
AddingandSubtractingPolynomials

Problemsaskingthestuden writteninlinearform: ttoaddorsubtractpolynomialsareoften


Add:3

242

46
Theproblemismuchmoreeasilysolvediftheproblemiswrittenincolumnform,witheach
polynomialwritteninstandardform.
Definitions
StandardForm:Apolynomialinstandardformhasitstermswrittenfromhighestdegreeto
lowestdegreefromlefttoright.
Example:Thestandardformof3

4is3

4
LikeTerms:Termswiththesamevariablesraisedtothesamepowers.Onlythenumerical
coefficientsaredifferent.
Example:2

,6

,and

areliketerms.
AdditionandSubtractionSteps
Step1:Writeeachpolynomialinstandardform.Leaveblankspacesformissingterms.For
example,ifadding3

24,leavespaceforthemissing

term.
Step2:Ifyouaresubtracting,changethesignofeachtermofthepolynomialtobesubtracted
andaddinstead.Addingismucheasierthansubtracting.
Step3:Placethepolynomialsincolumnform,beingcarefultolineupliketerms.
Step4:Addthepolynomials.
Examples:

:3

242

46
3

24
2

46
3

62
:
Solution:
3

242

46
3

24

46
3

210

Solution:
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
MultiplyingBinomials

Thethreemethodsshownbelowareequivalent.Usewhicheveroneyoulikebest.
FOILMethod
FOILstandsforFirst,Outside,Inside,Last.TomultiplyusingtheFOILmethod,youmakefour
separatemultiplicat a lts. ionsandddtheresu
Example:Mult y 34 ipl 23
First:
233 912 4 6

8
6

12
Theresultisobtainedbyaddingtheresultsof
the4separatemultiplications.
FOIL
23 6

Outside: 8 24
Inside: 9 33
Last: 34 12

BoxMethod
TheBoxMethodisprettymuchthesameastheFOILmethod,exceptforthepresentation.In
theboxmethod,a2x2arrayofmultiplicationsiscreated,the4multiplicationsareperformed,
andtheresultsarea dded.
Example:Multiply2334
Multiply
3x
2x 6

8
+3 9 12
233 912 4 6

8
6

12
Theresult isobtainedbyaddingtheresultsof
the4separatemultiplications.

StackedPolynomialMethod


23
34
12 8
6

9
6

12
Athirdmethodistomultiplythebinomials
likeyouwouldmultiply2digitnumbers.
Thenamecomesfromhowthetwo
polynomialsareplacedinastackin
preparationformultiplication.
Example:Multiply2334
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
MultiplyingPolynomials

Ifthepolynomialstobemultipliedcontainmorethantwoterms(i.e.,theyarelargerthan
binomials),theFOILMethodwillnotwork.Instead,eithertheBoxMethodortheStacked
PolynomialMethodshouldbeused.Noticethateachofthesemethodsisessentiallyawayto
applythedistributivepropertyofmultiplicationoveraddition.

Themethodsshownbelowareequivalent.Usewhicheveroneyoulikebest.

BoxMethod
TheBoxMethodisthesameforlargerpolynomialsasitisforbinomials,excepttheboxis
bigger.Anarrayofmultiplicationsiscreated;themultiplicationsareperformed;andliketerms
areadded.
Example:Multiply

232

34
Mu ply lti

8
6

9 12

4 2

232

3


2


6 4

4

98
Results:

StackedPolynomialMethod


Results:

2 3
3 2

4
12 4

8
6 9 3

4 2

4

6

1712
IntheStackedPolynomialMethod,the
polynomialsaremultipliedusingthesame
techniquetomultiplymultidigitnumbers
Onehelpfultipistoplacethesmaller
polynomialbelowthelargeroneinthe
stack.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra Algebra
DividingPolynomials DividingPolynomials

Dividingpolynomialsisperformedmuchlikedividinglargenumberslonghand. Dividingpolynomialsisperformedmuchlikedividinglargenumberslonghand.
LongDivisionMethod LongDivisionMethod
Thisproce Thisprocessisbestdescribedbyexample:
Example:2

22
ssisbestdescribedbyexample:
Example:2

22
22

2
2

22

2
2

2 2 2

2
2

1
2 2 2

2
Step1:Setupthedivisionlikeatypicallonghand
divisionproblem.
Step1:Setupthedivisionlikeatypicallonghand
divisionproblem.
Step2:Dividetheleadingtermofthedividendby
theleadingtermofthedivisor.Placetheresult
flikedegreeofthedividend.
Step2:Dividetheleadingtermofthedividendby
theleadingtermofthedivisor.Placetheresult
flikedegreeofthedividend. abovethetermo
2

abovethetermo
2

Step3:Multiplythenewtermontopbythedivisor
andsubtractfrom
Step3:Multiplythenewtermontopbythedivisor
andsubtractfromthedividend.
2

2 2

thedividend.
2

2 2

Step4:Repeatsteps2and3ontheremainderof
thedivisionuntiltheproblemiscompleted.
Step4:Repeatsteps2and3ontheremainderof
thedivisionuntiltheproblemiscompleted.

Thisprocessresultsinthefinalanswerappearing
a
Thisprocessresultsinthefinalanswerappearing
a
2

bovethedividend,sothat:
2

22 2

1
bovethedividend,sothat:
2

22 2

1
2
2
0
r
0
Remainders Remainders
Iftherewerearemainder,itwouldbeappendedto
theresultoftheproblemintheformofafraction,justlikewhendividingintegers.Fo
example,intheproblemabove,iftheremainderwere3,thefraction

Iftherewerearemainder,itwouldbeappendedto
theresultoftheproblemintheformofafraction,justlikewhendividingintegers.For
example,intheproblemabove,iftheremainderwere3,thefraction

wouldbeaddedto
theresultofthedivision.2

12 2

Alternatives
Thisprocesscanbetedious.Fortunately,therearebettermethodsfordividingpolynomials
thanlongdivision.TheseincludeFactoring,whichisdiscussednextandelsewhereinthis
Guide,andSyntheticDivision,whichisdiscussedinthechapteronPolynomialsIntermediate.
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Algebra
FactoringPolynomials

Polynomialscannotbedividedinthesamewaynumberscan.Inordertodividepolynomials,it
isoftenusefultofactorthemfirst.Factoringinvolvesextractingsimplertermsfromthemore
complexpolynomial.
GreatestCommonFactor
TheGreatestCommonFactorofthetermsofapolynomialisdeterminedasfollows:
Step1:FindtheGreatestCommonFactorofthecoefficients.
Step2:FindtheGreatestCommonFactorforeachvariable.Thisissimplyeachvariabletaken
tothelowestpowerthatexistsforthatvariableinanyoftheterms.
Step3:MultiplytheGCFofthecoefficientsbytheGCFforeachvariable.
GCF 18,42,30 6


GCF


GCF

,1 1
GCF ,


So,GCF polynomial 6

Example:
FindtheGCFof18

42

30

TheGCFofthecoefficientsandeachvariableareshown
intheboxtotheright.TheGCFofthepolynomialisthe
productofthefourindividualGCFs.
FactoringSteps
Step1:FactoroutofalltermstheGCFofthepolynomial.
Note:Typicallyonly
steps1and2are
neededinhighschool
algebraproblems.
Step2:Factoroutoftheremainingpolynomialanybinomialsthatcanbe
extracted.
Step3:Factoroutoftheremainingpolynomialanytrinomialsthatcan
beextracted.
Step4:Continuethisprocessuntilnofurthersimplificationispossible.
Examples:
Factor:

3

18

27


9 3

6
3

Thefactoringofthebluetrinomial(2
nd
line)into
thesquareofabinomialistheresultof
recognizingthespecialformitrepresents.Special
formsareshownonthenexttwopages.
Factor:

6

24


6

4
6

22
Thefactoringofthebluebinomial(2
nd
line)into
binomialsoflowerdegreeistheresultof
recognizingthespecialformitrepresents.Special
formsareshownonthenexttwopages.

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
SpecialFormsofQuadraticFunctions

Itishelpfultobeabletorecognizeacouplespecialformsofquadraticfunctions.Inparticular,
ifyoucanrecognizeperfectsquaresanddifferencesofsquares,yourworkwillbecomeeasier
andmoreaccurate.
PerfectSquares
Perfectsquaresareoftheform:

IdentificationandSolution
Thefollowingstepsallowthestudenttoidentifyandsolveatrinomialthatisaperfectsquare:
Step1:Noticethefirsttermofthetrinomialisasquare.Takeitssquareroot.
Step2:Noticethelasttermofthetrinomialisasquare.Takeitssquareroot.
Step3:Multiplytheresultsofthefirst2stepsanddoublethatproduct.Iftheresultisthe
middletermofthetrinomial,theexpressionisaperfectsquare.
Step4:Thebinomialinthesolutionisthesumordifferenceofthesquarerootscalculatedin
steps1and2.Thesignbetweenthetermsofthebinomialisthesignofthemiddle
termofthetrinomial.

Example:


Noticethatthemiddletermisdoubletheproduct
ofthetwosquareroots(and).Thisisa
telltalesignthattheexpressionisaperfectsquare.

Identifythetrinomialasaperfectsquare:
the ofthefirstandlast rms.Theyare2and3. Take squareroots te
Testthemiddleterm.Multiplytherootsfromthepreviousstep,thendoubletheresult:
232 12.Theresult(withasigninfront)isthemiddletermofthe
originaltrinomial.Therefore,theexpressionisaperfectsquare.
Toexpressthetrinomialasthesquareofabinomial:
Thesquarerootsofthefirstandlastterms2and3make thebinomialweseek. up
Wemaychoosethe gnofthefirstterm,soletsc oosethesign. si h
Havingchosenthesignforthefirstterm,thesecondtermofthebinomialtakesthe
signofthemiddleterm trinomial refore,theresultis: oftheoriginal ().The


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Algebra
SpecialFormsofQuadraticFunctions
DifferencesofSquares
Differencesofsquaresareoftheform:


Thesearemucheasiertorecognizethantheperfectsquaresbecausethereisnomiddleterm
tocons is ider.Noticewhytherenomiddleterm:

thesetwo
termscancel
Identification
Toseeifanexpressionisadifferenceofsquares,youmustansweryestofourquestions:
1. Arethereonlytwoterms?
2. Isthereasignbetweenthetwoterms?
3. Isthefirsttermasquare?Ifso,takeitssquareroot.
4. Isthesecondtermasquare?Ifso,takeitssquareroot.
Thesolutionistheproductofa)thesumofthesquarerootsinquestions3and4,andb)the
differenceofthesquarerootsinsteps3and4.
Note:Atelltalesignofwhenanexpressionmightbethedifferenceof2squaresiswhenthe
coefficientsonthevariablesaresquares:1,4,9,16,25,36,49,64,81,etc.
Examples:
(1)

(2)


(3)


(4)


ADVANCED:Overthefieldofcomplexnumbers,itisalsopossibletofactorthesumof2squares:
Thisisnotpossibleoverthefieldofrealnumbers.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
coefficient
ofx
sign1 sign2
constant
Example:Factor

Thenumbersweseekare
4and7because:
4 7 28,and




47 3


7 4

4728

328

Algebra
FactoringTrinomialsSimpleCaseMethod

AcommonprobleminElementaryAlgebraisthefactoringofatrinomialthatisneithera
perfectsquarenoradifferenceofsquares.
Considerthesimplecasewherethecoefficientof

is1.Thegeneralformforthiscaseis:

Inordertosimplifytheillustrationoffactoringapolynomialwherethecoefficientof

is1,we
willusetheorangedescriptorsaboveforthecomponentsofthetrinomialbeingfactored.
SimpleCaseMethod
Step1:Setupparenthesesforapairofbinomials.Putxinthe
lefthandpositionofeachbinomial.

Step2:Putsign1inthemiddlepositionintheleftbinomial.

Step3:Multiplysign1andsign2togetthesignfortheright
binomial.Remember:


Step4:Findtwonumbersthat:
(a)Multiplytogettheconstant and ,
(b)Addtogetthecoefficientof

Step5:Placethenumbersinthebinomialssothattheirsigns
matchthesignsfromSteps2and3.Thisisthefinal
answer.

Step6:Checkyourworkbymultiplyingthetwobinomialstosee
ifyougettheoriginaltrinomial.

Fillin:
___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Example:Factor

2
12
4 3 12
43 1
6

432
6

432
232132


21 32
6

432
6

Algebra
FactoringTrinomialsACMethod

Therearetimeswhenthesimplemethodoffactoringatrinomialisnotsufficient.Primarilythis
occurswhenthecoefficientof

isnot1.Inthiscase,youmayusetheACmethodpresented
here,oryoumayuseeitherthebruteforcemethodorthequadraticformulamethod
(describedonthenextcoupleofpages).

ACMethod
TheACMethodderivesitsnamefromthefirststepofthe
process,whichistomultiplythevaluesofandfromthe
generalformofthequadraticequation:

Step1:Multiplythevaluesofand.
Step2:Findtwonumbersthat:
(a) Multiplytogetthevalueof ,
and
(b)Addtogetthecoefficientof

Step3:Splitthemiddletermintotwoterms,withcoefficients
equaltothevaluesfoundinStep2.(Tip:ifonlyoneof
thecoefficientsisnegative,putthattermfirst.)

Step4:Groupthetermsintopairs.

Step5:Factoreachpairofterms.

Step6:Usethedistributivepropertytocombinethe
multipliersofthecommonterm.Thisisthefinal
answer.
Step7:Checkyourworkbymultiplyingthetwobinomialsto
seeifyougettheoriginaltrinomial.

Fillin:
___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
FactoringTrinomialsBruteForceMethod

Whenthecoefficientof

isnot1,thefactoringprocessbecomesmoredifficult.Therearea
numberofmethodsthatcanbeusedinthiscase.
Ifthequestionbeingaskedistofindrootsoftheequation,andnottofactorit,thestudentmay
wanttousethequadraticformulawheneverthecoefficientof

isnot1.Evenifyouare
requiredtofactor,andnotjustfindroots,thequadraticformulamaybeaviableapproach.
BruteForceMethod
Example:Factor

whichequat
Combinationsthatproduceaproduct
of4are:
1and4or2and2
Combinationsthatproduceaproduct
of3are:
1and3or1a d3 n
143
143
3 1
3 1

4
2123
1 2 23
1434 3

1434 3

341 4 113

341 4 113
21234

43
4 2123

43
4

43
Thismethodisexactlywhatitsoundslike.Multipleequationsarepossibleandyoumusttry
eachofthemuntilyoufindtheonethatworks.Herearethestepstofinding ions
arecandidatesolutions:
Step1:Findallsetsofwholenumbersthatmultiplyto
getthecoefficientofthefirstterminthe
trinomial.Ifthefirsttermispositive,youneed
onlyconsiderpositivefactors.
Step2:Findallsetsofwholenumbersthatmultiplyto
getthecoefficientofthelastterminthe
trinomial.Youmustconsiderbothpositiveand
negativefactors.
Step3:Createallpossibleproductsofbinomialsthat
containthewholenumbersfoundinthefirst
twosteps.
Step4:Multiplythebinomialpairsuntilyoufindone
thatresultsinthetrinomialyouaretryingto
factor.
Step5:Identifythecorrectsolution.
NoticethepatternsinthecandidatesolutionsinStep4.Eachpairofequationsisidenticalexceptfor
thesignofthemiddletermintheproduct.Therefore,youcancutyourworkinhalfbyconsideringonly
oneofeachpairuntilyouseeamiddletermcoefficientthathastherightabsolutevalue.Ifyouhave
everythingrightbutthesignofthemiddleterm,switchthesignsinthebinomialstoobtainthecorrect
solution.Remembertocheckyourwork!
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
FactoringTrinomialsQuadraticFormulaMethod

QuadraticFormulaMethod
TheQuadraticFormulaisdesignedspecificallytofindrootsofaseconddegreeequation.
However,itcanalsobeusedasabackdoormethodtofactorequationsofseconddegree.The
stepsare:
Step1:Applythequadraticformula therootsoftheequation. todetermine
Step2:Puteachrootinto m: 0. thefor
Step3:Showthetwobinomialsasaproduct.Notethatthesebinomialsmay
containfractions.Wewilleliminatethefractions,ifp sible,inthenextstep. os
Step4:Multiplythebinomialsin tep3bythecoefficientof

thefollowingway: S
(a) Breakthecoefficientof

intoitsprimefactors.
(b) Allocatetheprimefactorstothebinomialsinawaythateliminatesthefractions.
Step5:Checkyourwork.
Example:
Factor:

Step1:

or

Step2: t nscontainingrootsare:

Thetwoequa io 0and

0.
Step3:

Step4:Thecoefficientof

intheoriginalequationis4,and4 22.Aninspectionofthe
binomialsinStep3indicatesweneedtomultiplyeachbinomialby2inorderto
eliminatethefractions:
2

23 and 2

21
Sothat: 4

4 3 infactoredform
Step5:Check(usingFOIL)2321 4

263 4

43,
whichistheequationweweretryingtofactor.
9

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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra Algebra
SolvingEquationsbyFactoring SolvingEquationsbyFactoring

Thereareanumberofreasonstofactorapolynomialinalgebra;oneofthemostcommon
reasonsistofindthezeroesofthepolynomial.Azeroisadomainvalue(e.g.,xvalue)for
whichthepolynomialgeneratesavalueofzero.Eachzeroisasolutionofthepolynomial.
Thereareanumberofreasonstofactorapolynomialinalgebra;oneofthemostcommon
reasonsistofindthezeroesofthepolynomial.Azeroisadomainvalue(e.g.,xvalue)for
whichthepolynomialgeneratesavalueofzero.Eachzeroisasolutionofthepolynomial.
Infacto polynomialszeroes.Considerthefollowing: Infacto polynomialszeroes.Considerthefollowing: redform,itismucheasiertofinda
2483isthefactoredformofapolynomial.
redform,itismucheasiertofinda
2483isthefactoredformofapolynomial.
Ifanumberofitemsaremultipliedtogether,theresultiszerowheneveranyoftheindividual
itemsiszero.Thisistrueforconstantsandforpolynomials.Therefore,ifanyofthefactorsof
thepolynomialhasavalueofzero,thenthewholepolynomialmustbezero.Weusethisfact
tofindzeroesofpolynomialsinfactoredform.
Ifanumberofitemsaremultipliedtogether,theresultiszerowheneveranyoftheindividual
itemsiszero.Thisistrueforconstantsandforpolynomials.Therefore,ifanyofthefactorsof
thepolynomialhasavalueofzero,thenthewholepolynomialmustbezero.Weusethisfact
tofindzeroesofpolynomialsinfactoredform.
Example1: Example1:
Findthezeroesof 248 3. Findthezeroesof 248 3.
Step1:Setthe Step1:Settheequationequaltozero.
2483 0
equationequaltozero.
2483 0
Step2:Thewh iszerowheneveranyofitsfactorsiszero.Fortheexample,this
occurs
Step2:Thewh iszerowheneveranyofitsfactorsiszero.Fortheexample,this
occurs
oleequation
when:
or
oleequation
when:
or 2 0,
or
2 0,
or 4 0,
or
4 0,
or
Thesolutionset,then,is:
ventionally,thexvalu
2,4,8,,3
or,morecon esareput
innumerical largest:
8 0,
or
8 0,
or 0,
3 0
0,
3 0
orderfromsmallestto
4,3,2,,8
Thesolutionsetcontainsthetwo
domainvaluesthatmaketheoriginal
equationzero,namely:
1,6

1,6

Example2: Example2:
Findthezeroesof

Findthezeroesof

76
0
76
0

76
61 0

76
61 0

0 0

0 0 6 1
6 1
6 1
6 1
SetNotation: Wemaylisttheset
ofsolutionstoaproblemby
placingthesolutionsinbraces{},
separatedbycommas.
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Version 2.5 4/2/2013
Algebra
IntroductiontoQuadraticFunctions
StandardFormofaQuadraticFunction
TheStandard a lis: Formofseconddegreepolynomia

with 0
Anequationofthisformiscalledaquadraticfunction.
Thegraphofthisequationiscalledaparabola.
Upordown?
Thedirectioninwhichtheparabolaopensonagraphis
basedon n(or)ofintheequation. thesig
If theparabolapointsdownanditopensup. 0,
If 0,theparabolapointsupanditopensdown.
Ifyouforgetthisrule,justrememberthatupordown
dependsonthesignof,anddoaquickgraphof

,
where 1onyourpaper.

VertexandAxisofSymmetry
InStandardForm,thevertexoftheparabolahascoordinates:

,whereyiscalculated
bysubstituting

forxintheequation.Thevertexiseitherthehighestpointonthegraph
(calledamaximum)orthelowestpointonthegraph(calledaminimum).Italsoliesontheaxis
ofsymmetryo h. fthegrap
Theequation

2
iscalledtheaxisofsymmetryoftheparabola.
VertexFormofaQuadraticFunction
Asecondusef ertexForm: ulformofaquadraticfunctionisbasedonthevertex,andiscalledV

where h,kis the vertex of the parabola


ItispossibletoconvertfromStandardFormtoVertexFormandfromVertexFormtoStandard
Form.Bothareequallycorrect.

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Algebra
CompletingtheSquare

AveryusefulmethodforsolvingquadraticequationsisCompletingtheSquare.Infact,thisis
themethodusedtoderivethequadraticformulafromthegeneralquadraticequationin
StandardForm.ThestepsinvolvedinCompletingtheSquareandanexampleareprovided
below:
Considerthestartingequation:


Step1:Modifytheequationsothatthecoefficientof

is1.Todothis,simplydividethe
wholeequationbythevalueof.

Example: Considert eequation: 3 h

1821 0
Divideby3toget:

6 7 0

Step2:Getridofthepesk constant.Wewillgene e y rat ourown.


Example: Add 7tobothsides:

6 7

Step3:Calculateanewconstant.Therequiredconstantisthesquareofonehalfofthe
coefficientof Add thsidesoftheequation. . ittobo
Example:

6 7
3,3

9. uaretheresult:

Halfit,thensq
Result:

69 79

Step4:Recognizethelefthandsideoftheequationasaperfectsquare.Afterall,thatwasthe
reasonwesele onstantthewaywedid. ctedthenewc
Example: 3

16

Step5:Takethesqua .Rememberthesignontheconstantterm. reroot ofbothsides


Example: 3

16
3 4

Step6:Breaktheresu ionintotwosepar s,andsolve. ltingequat ateequation


Example: 3 4 3 4
7 1
Solution: ,


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Algebra
TableofPowersandRoots

SquareRoot Number Square Cube 4


th
Power
1 1.000
1 1

1 1

1 1

1
2 1.414
2 2

4 2

8 2

16
3 1.732
3 3

9 3

27 3

81
4 2.000
4 4

16 4

64 4

256
5 2.236
5 5

25 5

125 5

625

6 2.449
6 6

36 6

216 6

1,296
7 2.646
7 7

49 7

343 7

2,401
8 2.828
8 8

64 8

512 8

4,096
9 3.000
9 9

81 9

729 9

6,561
10 3.162
10 10

100 10

1,000 10

10,000

11 3.317
11 11

121 11

1,331 11

14,641
12 3.464
12 12

144 12

1,728 12

20,736
13 3.606
13 13

169 13

2,197 13

28,561
14 3.742
14 14

196 14

2,744 14

38,416
15 3.873
15 15

225 15

3,375 15

50,625

16 4.000
16 16

256 16

4,096 16

65,536
17 4.123
17 17

289 17

4.913 17

83,521
18 4.243
18 18

324 18

5,832 18

104,976
19 4.359
19 19

361 19

6,859 19

130,321
20 4.472
20 20

400 20

8,000 20

160,000

21 4.583
21 21

441 21

9,261 21

194,481
22 4.690
22 22

484 22

10,648 22

234,256
23 4.796
23 23

529 23

12,167 23

279841
24 4.899
24 24

576 24

13,824 24

331,776
25 5.000
25 25

625 25

15,625 25

390,625


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Algebra
TheQuadraticFormula

TheQuadraticFormulaisoneofthefirstdifficultmathformulasthatstudentsareaskedto
memorize.Masteringtheformula,thoughdifficult,isfullofrewards.Byknowingwhyitworks
andwhatthevariouspartsoftheformulaare,astudentcangeneratealotofknowledgeina
shortperiodoftime.

Foraquadraticfunctionoftheform:


Theformulafortheroots(i.e.,wherey=0)is:


Quadratic
Formula

HowManyRealRoots?
Thediscriminantisthepartundertheradical:

Ifthediscriminantisnegative,thequadraticfunctionhas0realroots.Thisisbecausea
negativenumberundertheradicalresultsinimaginaryrootsinsteadofrealroots.In
thiscasethegraphthegraphwillnotcrossthexaxis.Itwillbeeitherentirelyabovethe
xaxisorentirelybelowthexaxis,dependingonthevalueofa.
Ifthediscriminantiszero,thequadraticfunctionhas1realroot.Thesquarerootof
zeroiszero,sotheradicaldisappearsandtheonlyrootis

2
.Inthiscase,the
graphwillappeartobounceoffthexaxis;ittouchesthexaxisatonlyonespotthe
valueoftheroot.
Ifthediscriminantispositive,thequadraticfunctionhas2realroots.Thisisbecausea
realsquarerootexists,anditmustbeaddedintheformulatogetonerootand
subtractedtogettheotherroot.Inthiscase,thegraphwillcrossthexaxisintwo
places,thevaluesoftheroots.
WherearetheVertexandAxisofSymmetry?
Thexcoordinateofthevertexisalsoeasilycalculatedfromthequadraticformulabecausethe
vertexishalfwaybetweenthetworoots.Ifweaveragethetworoots,theportionofthe
formuladisappearsandtheresultingxvalueis

2
.Theyvalueofthevertexmuststill
becalculated,butthexvaluecanbereaddirectlyoutofthequadraticformula.
Also,oncethexvalueofthevertexisknown,theequationfortheaxisofsymmetryisalso
known.Itistheverticallinecontainingthevertex:

2
.

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