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4.4 Mho Relll~Adminance Rela~ "
4 4 i t r i t n
4.12 300!!c!'I!t0!g00
4-12 . , .., 43.3 0pe!!!I !!Q a-1s:I cs.....
- - .. - " 4.32 T O !!!!!! E !IU ID C W I
4-5 41.4 Oisadvan'", 0 1 PI l onI mpedance Relay
4.2.3Opel a;!ng ~ 00 RX 0l ag!3m .
4.2.2Openi:m C haraaensllcs ,.. .. . ....... .. .. ...
4.1 Otstance Rata ,..~ 4-1
Review Questions 3-9
37 DifftQJltles to Bushar protecllon 3-9
3.6 High Impedance D ifferential Protection of Busbar ' 3-8
35 CUWl aUngC U rT entProlpction 01Busbar ,,'..... ,,3-7
34 Framel aa aProtection of Busbar " _ _._ 3-6
}S ! , , , , 331 BystwEm
3. 5 33 Bllsha, pmlec:tiQn
3-5 3.2.3 Vaftag! Bal ance I l I fI n<1til i Relay
, 1t
32 Typel !OfOl !'t!!!!ua!!l ay ",,''''' U ,,'" """""u,,u
31.!~~~, c..' , ,
3-1 3,1 Introduction "
(3-1to 3-10)
",," ""Iq" I I T t"
ReyiewOuestigos. ""tll!1!!",,' tll"l "T t
29 Universal Relay Torque Equation 4 2 28
EJ tampies wrth Solutions II.'"II'''' "'!!.Ir"" IIIt, t. "" It"",." t."p'p'.5:31
t Unbalanced Loadin 5-30
5 11Rotor enab elld1pmtoclion
"0,,0_tt!II' t.ll.
.- """',,"'" 5:19
5 10Stator Protac:bonAgainst Intenum Faults .,....
5-18 5,9100% Earth Fault protection ,.,
516 58Balanced Earth Fau"protection
5-15 5.7 Unreslric!ed Earth Fault proteclioo,,,,.,.. ,,',. .
5.3 BaSICpjfferentlal prolecUon Scheme (orGenerators """"",,""""""" "..5-6
5.4 Basic Percentage Differential ProtocUonScheme for Generators .,..".".5-7
5.5 MerzPrice Proledion of Alternator StatorWindings }
5233l)< 2 _ L oocI!!q.
52 3AIInanNII!um!lq C ond i !lonl..
5.2.31 0.-9
S 2 2 Rcax ea,e.
, , .. , , , -
5 2 1SIa!!>! fait>
5 2 Generator EauliS
5 1InUoductm ... '",,'1111"It.II'to "",,,It, ItIt ,eeti"'It"I", 11""'"" IttI'..,,1.,Ie IIli e'""ItlII.5:1
Revi ew OI'esti onS +22
.61 0IstIncer.".~Rei ly, 0.' , ,',.... 4..19
4~3Aec*?'- ond ~. of 00sIMa RAIla'!!.. '-21
(1 .1)
The relays are compx1 and self eonrained devices ,,,,tuch an sense the nboort\\31
conditions. When<l'\."er Anabnormal condition C'<isIS, the !"day contacts get closed. This
intum closes tbe trip orcuit o( circuli breaker, The circuit b""'M-~ are capablc 01
dlsconn~ctin8 (.ulr), ~Iem.nt, when they M. called upon to dn so by Ihl! relo)..
Thueentir~prOC\'!llindue!.... III,' o""r"nons likf (>'-':urre_ oi (.ul~ op<lr~tl"no( ",lay,
(~pM1ln8()r ., cil'CU't And rt'l'lov141()f r"ulty ~k!n\t"nt. Thas entire pnx'(."S. .. Is
.-,utOlllatic31\(:1(ast. wtuch is pos8iblt' due to e((t.'Ctiveproll'ctl\t! relOlying scheme
TI\e protective relaying scheme i_I\(J ud,,~pretective CUl'Tt"I'II transformers. voltage
transformers, protective reiaY", time delay relays, auxiliary relays, secondary orelli!:!,
tnp circuits etc Each. coa\p<.mC!nt pL1yS ihS owrt rote.. which is vt'1)' i1nporl"nt in th~
overall operation ofthe ~J\e. The protective reLlying is !hi: ;eam work of .uthe>;:
ronlpont:nts, The pl"OteC:lfV~~I.yil'gIIJ ~oprovides the indlC'""uon of 14th_ln and t).~
0( thi' r."It.
Protective re,.;'in& IS one of the S<',,~.. I fc.tu res of th~power system dl'$lll'"
E,''"'Y p.lfl ()I the power 'Y"lcm Is proreeted. The facton. otfll'<ting th,) choke 01
prolt'(tlonareIyp<' ond fObng01~ulpn"'"I, 1()C,tlon ofI"" ~Ulpmcnt, Iy!"'""I lo"hs,
.b",,,mal "",diU""" Mid Ctl8t.
The protectiverday!ngis used to 8"'. an alarmor 10 COI>b<' prompl "''mo, ..101
any dement o( power S)'Btem fm'" ""r"iC<'wMn that elem<nt behaves abno,"","y.
Tbe abnormal beholvJ OUf0( an element might cause damagr or interference \\lithin
t'(t"('ti\'eoperation of ~ 01 the system, TIM' protective rebving mlmmlses thedamage
to thE:\!(I\upn1cot (and ink"fT\lptiot'ls II.)th( service WN..'1'\tlectric4\1 FotUUt'l'occues. Almg
with .som,~other equ:l~ts the rel:.)'s 1'w.!lpto minlm.i.w d~g~ And ilnpt\)v~ the
Protective Relaying
In p,C)k'('t, ve relaying scheme, Ihl' drcult breakers 3t\' plaeed .1t the IlvpraptUtc
pa<nto ,um lhAt any .1~me"l of the ''IIt1~poWe' 6y>tem (d" be dlscnnn('Cu\J foe
r..-potlnng work, 'ISwl operllllnl\ and. maintenAnce t\.~l'lll'\.""men~ and also uMfr
.abnt_1.rmlll conditiON> IIi.e she.)rt circuits, Th'ls 8; protectiv.: co...~ring i:t provided anMJ n.cj
e.xh <Ie........1of 1M5)'StmI.
A prot.cth'~ tont 15rbeseparate zone which Is eslabli5hed around eoKh.)'St>:m
,-Ieml'lll The Sign,fj("",,, o( such n proIKti %on"Is Ihol .ny fault "",,mOtt ",til",
~''' ... 'O!W "ill <.Ll.... Ihc tripping of rel.y. whkh c.u" .. open,nl.l of .11tho nrcuU
brr.t.kt~ IOCAt,td ""Itrun .hat ZOI'~, Thl: v,rlou,s (C)mIJ OllClll$ which .11(" pro\ wed ""Ilh
~ prOCllv..I>nt.~~n.' gll'nCtl'lors, tra.n~'ormc"". tl~"sn,is5i'()nlines, btlj bat). cabb.
".p.l01O'" etc. No PO" of the system 1$ I<lt unproreered. n.., Fig 1.1 >1>0"" tlw
V.J nc)U$ protective zones, used Ina system
1.3Protective Zones
TIl\! (.lutts can not be completely uvoided b\~t C;St) be mlnlflliied. ThI.l5the
pro!ti\.," ~) Lngplays an import-Ant role in seJ \Slngthe bulb. mi"un17.,ng
the effects of f.ul15 and minimiting the damage due to the faults,
1.2 Functions of Protectlvo Relaying
"The various (unctIOn>of proreeuve relaying are:
t. The prompt remO\ral of the componcont which tS behaving abnormal I) by
Ck:>$lJ lSthe Inp CJ rclkitof circuit breaker or to sound an ...... arm
2 ru d'f<ON1<'(l the abnormolly 01"'r,'li1\8 pUrl 8(1 IU .,old lhe d.""'jt_ '"
Int~rfcrroc..("\\ "h.,l c(lt"(tlvc Clp""tn of the r~t'itof \)"'Sttm
J Tnp,"''''''''1 1M ,ub'.qu<I,1 Ilult. by dbc"""ecting ,he aboonn.,lIy """,.hng
4. To d_ tlw fDulty po" as quickly us possJ .bl e $0 as 10 min,ml$e ,he
damage to Iht- f.ulty pari il,.,U. For example, if there Is winding f.ult lit
machine and ,f ,t for a long ume Ihen tlu!.... " p"",bility 01 the
d.mase 01the enuec winding A 11.'011'his. If " I>d''''OfII\''<lro qukl.h then
0,>1),f(ow (\.l~""'I gf' dalll.ged in.~'c,dof the,'ntil .. "lndmS
;; To "",'riet the spreading of lhe effect of fault causing least Interference to the
rest of the "".Ithy system. Th'" b)' disconnecting the f.tully part. the fault
eiiects gel localised.
6 To impro\"'e ~ s}'stcm performance, system rclidbaJ lty. syseen shlbult} .nd
~rvlCecontJ nUltv
Protlctlvo Relaying Ptolec1l<>n .nd Switcl>gear
1." Primary end Backup Protection
T h <> prot,'Ction provided bythe protective "'~yln8equipment can be co~
u,tu two typ'-" .. :
1. Prim..ry p1'Ot<'Ction
2. Bockup prote:tkln
The primary prote:tkln Is \h. first line 01 defence .nd is reponolble to protK1 oJ l
th.;. pow,., .r.t.m elementsfrom.u th e typos 01 f.uJ l3. ",. "'aupprok-ctl"" romn
",to play only when tlw primary ptOlKlion (aIls.
Fig. 1.2o"trllpplng .ones Inpnmlry rellylng
It can be seal from the Fig. 1.2 that th e dn:uit brttbn .re located in the
c<ll1J leCUO<\Sto each power system element, This provision II\AMs it possible to
disronnec:t only the ""ulty element from 1M system. OcassioNlly for economy in the
number of circuit breaUn. br~ak"r ~.." th~ two adjooent ...ctlon. moy be
"""tted but In that C olS C ! both the power system >eetions .'" required to be
d.... """~ (orthe!~ilureinelth~rof lhetwo.
E .>dt protl!(li..., zone 4. certain prottive scheme 0.114 ead>scheme has number
01protective ',-stems..
, J
8 8

~ ~ - - - - ~ _ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ J - ~ - ~ - ~ : - ~ ; - - { - ~ - : - [ J - ~ - l ~ - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ : - t : - - - -
ptote<;bCltl .,.. ... ... ... r ........ .... -, :
[:!;c~J II'.
tf~ -r- __ ....._"__I_ .............. !. __ ~_ ...... __ J _"
"'_ --_ : ,!----l:---T tiOf\ ....
ptoClICi1iorI _'- -- - -- J _ -- -- r-.
'. 8' ' ~_ " ,. l
'~hONt--~' .......... ... ...... ' ~......... ... ... _'
J lIf()tt(IOn
,..-_ ... _ _ ......
G}-...... -- __
1. Prottctlo" Ind Swlt~"'
The various faults which can occur assodated with a generaeor can be clasSfied ~
1. Stator faull$ : "".... fntJlts ~t('d WIth the ,.talor o r tbe 8eT'K'~tQr.
2. Rotor foulill : Tbe (., , 1 1 . olSSOC'dtN"Iththe rotor of thl' 8O"""'lor.
) Abnormn! nlonlll(l; ('()nditiol16 ThfS, "",'Iud,-._. .ltlulb4, r ( . 1 Olbn(.rml.\1 condlbOn.\
which ", ay ", -"CurIII practlce, (rom...hkh the ~eneror mu,! b. prolled
Lt1us discuss Ihesefaults indClnil
5.2 Generator Faults
1 M ge..erators used in the power ">"""" are the alternators which prodcce \'..,
!ugh;I.e voltages. The protection of gmeo-.tOI'S is very much complex due 1 0 the
folJ o\ reasons.
1. The generators a~ very large r n;ldlU"k.':t pf'\Jd\lcing \'l'r y 'llgh YOltpg, ~.Jnd ;l~
ecenccred to
~ V.rious other t'<J uipmcnts are .1 "")'$ .ssoci.tro wilh the generators. Such
equipmenrs a", prime movers. ""attnon $)'$Iem., voltage regulators, cooling
systems etc. Thu. protection of gmt'r.tors must consider the presence 01 0-
"'her equlpm..., , , .1 1 0.
l. The gcncr ftto n; .. re \fCry W ! S,ly* (Olopt'M4"'C dnd V(''')f Import~I't ("ttllt In I P O"{ (! I'
sy.lem. The protection 6Ch""'" must be such th.1 It should not shul 01 1 the
gl.."eriStC)ra; tb lilt a~~ibl(".The ehut off t;('n('r~ltt'r'rl--"IJll ill a P O'vet
AU these {actors make the design 01 protection scheme for the generator. , .., '
much complex.
6eihr'(' $t'ld)'tng tt,c ",.1ri,'ll.\ proltiQn )('ilcmt'$ tor theSet'~rl'torsl let ~ d~
\'~nou~ftlults whicll (-._,,\OC'Cur aM<JCi.lte<i .... -ith t~gt"I\{'ri1'or~.
5.1 IntroductIon
Gener ato r Pr o tectio n
ll1.3 Stltor Inler-TumFaults
'The coils used in the alternators llI"l' generally multitum coils. So short citcuil
berwe..... the turns of 0". coil may occur which I. caUedan inter-tum laull. lbis floul.
<'<OJ" due to <urre"' .IIrS''S with high v.lue of (L dl/cJt) v<,hllSC.(" ... the tumo. BUt
,f "'" rod. u-cd Me 'Ingle tum then this fault an not o<'('ur. Hence(or the large
machl_ of the order of 50 MVA and m<ft. It is normal practice to lise single IUm
coUt 8ul inIOOme countries, multllum coUt litevery commonly used where pl'Olrdlon
~inst mter-turn {BullS is must.
U 1.2Phas. to Phtu F .
The phase to ph fa,,11$means short =11 between two p.....e winding>. Such
faults are uncommon because the Insulation used between the coils of different phases
in .. slot is large. But once phase to arth nult occurs, due to the over heating phase
to ~ fault also rna)' occur. This ,.ult is likely to occur at the end connections of
the armature windings which are ov~ting parts outside the slots. Such a null
causes severe arcing wilh ""1' "ISh tempentu ..... Thi. may leAd to melting of <opper
and fire iI the insulation is not fire resiSW\~
Sl.1.1 Phaseto Eitth Failla
Tht-<e (aul ts molnly occur In tho .1tNItu~slots. The f.u]'" are dd"llCfOUS and con
(AU'k W\o'enodamitg<- to the CXpt:nslve machine. Th~fault cureens I~ (hal\ 20 A cau...'ie
negltgib'" burning o( core II machine i.tripped quickly. aut if the fault curren.. a~
higtI. severe burning of $tor cor. can taU plact. This may lead to the requirement 01
..."Ioong rhe laminations which is very cootIy and tim. consuming. So to avoid the
dam.>IlCdue to phase to earth faul.... sq>OTill:, sensitive earth lault prol<dlon is
~ry lor .he senOrA")"; ,.tollgwlth lhe Nrthing ,.,1...........
5.2.1 Stator Fault$
The stator (Dults means (o"lts nssodoted wilh the three ph.lSe armoture windings
01 .he ~.,...tor. These (.ults ore mainly due to the insulation (ailure o( the annat""'
"~nding$. The type8 o( stator f.ults "".
I l'h.liICto I'olrthf.ul"
2. l'ho5(' to phAse (.ults
3. Inter-turn (aul", involving turns of phase winding.
The most important and common fault IS phase to earth fault. The other twO are
not ,,~et). common \\'hileinter-tum fault is ""'elY difficlLlt to detect.
Gen."tor PrOlOClio<t p,~" Ind SwflA:hgelr
Ou.. to the rontinuous overloading. lhe O\-emeoling of Ihe stato< results. This mal'
lr..,.,,_ lhe winding "'m~rolure. If this tt>m~r"ur. rtse ",cuocJ s certain limit the
insu"'t"", 01 1M wlndins may get cUrNgfd The dCIj"('<' 01 ovm""dlng dodd es tM
"fh.'C" .nd tem~r.tu ....ri,." The ovemtfTnltproleelloll I~gcn.r.lIy ",I tov~"
5,2,3Abnormal Running Conditions
In practice there are number of simanoes inwhich g(,'f1erator is subjected to some
.boormal runningrondi~ons,The protecnon must be provided .S"inst th<.' abrom,.1
",1f1dltions ~ obnonnol ("nditlo,,-, .nclude.
I Ovt,loodl"8
2. Overspe... ',bns
3. Unbalanced loading
4. Overvoltage
5. Failure of prime mover
6. ~ of ""cilation (Field failure)
,. Cooling 'Y'IMn failure
5.2.2Rotor Fautlll
l'twrotor of an alwmator is generally> ';'!dwlndl"K as ~t of the .Itonloltu,.
are of rotating field type Tbe field ",..,dmS is made lip of number of tu~ So the
conductor to earth faults and short circu.1 between the turns of the field windmg. are
Ih. <""'"'<MIll' <lUmng f.ullS with R.'>f'I 10,. ,<.>t'Ir, 'I II""" f,.ull>re eause'<1 due 10
the ~"\'ere mccNtnica1and tkcrmnl stresses. .lC11ng on Il)Cfield,", tnd,ng insul ...tion..
Therfeld \yinding is generalty not grounded 311d hence~inglcline to ground bult
does "'" give any fault current. A second fault to earth ",III short arruit the part of
the field Winding and may there by produce an unsymmetrical field system, Such an
unsymmetrical system gives rise to lhe unbalanced forces Onthe rotor and results in
e""" pressure on the bearings .Ind the '<halt dI5l0rli,)II, if such " f,ult is not eteared
"(If) ft.lrl)!. So it il very liluch t,cce~ry to MluW Ihe (').Ip,tl.'n(c' (1/ tl"C n~, \lC('\lrr\"I\4,,
"I II,. ~.rth fault '" that corrective me.. um can be '3kc'l\ bcfore {<'ClIndI,IUlt"''CU"'
~ unb.,lanced I... dlng on the getWRtOf is responsible to produce the n.g.h,(
st<IIk!J 1 currmts. Tbese currentsproduce. rotAting magn.lic field which rota!es in
opposite din.-Won 10th.1 of rolor magnetic field, Due to this field. tbere is ind.-l
emf Intherotor winding. This causes cverbeatmg of the rotor,
ROtor earth bult ~"n.,tl"('th,ln.. lnd rotor b."rt\P'!l'ahJ rcjJ ,,-iic3t0I'5 are the ("$.._~tial .and
are provid~'d to large 'aliOj; generalors,
G.".rator ProtltCllon
5 '
Protection and Swltc:hU"", OvtNOttage
T I , , , overvoltages .'" basic.U), due to the overspeedlng 01 generators. Another
re.", n tor the 0\Of'ol"'g"" i.the roultyopmttion of vol~agcregulat<m. Not onl)' t.t..
11\tlnl.;, 1 ovcrvouages an' d~lt\g"rou.sbut .atmospheric SUfS" v-oI ta.gescan also reach to
lhe gcncr, tlurs. Such atmospheric surge "oI tagcs are gt.~~ by dirt'C't lighting
strokes to the a_I lines of high VOltageS)'litem. I nductively and capacirively, these
surges can get lransferred to the genentor. T o protect the ga.....tors from surge
vohages, I hI ' surge arresters and surge capocitors aeeoften used
At the time 01~tnk, "g "C, '(I SS thl' cont>CUof cirt'Uit breakn.. ttw tr~nslcnl 0\'"
".h., S''S get s.., cr.t<.'d Such u'Kc" ..... wled twlll'hlng .u, ~ ... nd"d., be I I mil, '(!by Unbal.nced L otdinsl
rhe unb"i.r>ttd lo.J ding uf the goner.tor ... ult. I n lhe amllatootl of "''8-'llv.
)t~llh, 'n('('currents. lh..'!'!I t.- - (\.I r~t\ts produce thr rotatl"g rn;\gnebC'fit"J d. 11, ls: rot...ring
m, 'gnetic field robles al the synchronous speed with respect to rotor. T he dirE'Ctionof
rotation 01this m.>gneticAcid is oppo$ile to thai of rotor. H~ effecI ively tile ", I alive
speed between the two is double the synchronous speed.
T hus the e.m f. j;.... , I nduced, tI oving double the ncrn....1frequ"ncy. I n the rotor
, ., ., nding T he ", , 'UI >l1D1lcurrents due 10!he indu~ e.m.I . ~ resplln, iblc to overheat
lh(' wttll' winding ~~w.~1os rotor lI ampln&lo.COI 1tJ nuousunbalAnced I Ulld moe. tNn
10'~, of th, ' rnted lo>cI causes I rrlDo!'ndoushI '''ing which b dominonl 'ncaS<' of
cvluidrlcal rotor of truboaltt'mators..
T he reasons for the unbalanced load condilions are,
Occurrence of unsymmetrical f.ults near the generating slation.
2 I he r.llur(' 01 l'muil breaker n(!Ar!hegcncroting SI "tion in'*aring .lll the tim...
pll., "tt"!fI .
Neg."vc "'quence proeectlcn i.imporunt to prevent dangt'f'OUSsltuMlun. due 10
rI <'!latll'esequence a.rr('fl13 which ore ~_ of unbalanced load conditions. OvtfSpeed"mg
I n case of h\'dr~uJ ic generators 4 suddm lOll. of I "ad results inovcrspeeding of
rI w generator. T his I > because I h., waler flow 'I )I he lurbine cannol be stl'Pped or
redueed I nst.mlly. c;."ootraUy a I U~ I Sprovided 10pr~~1 I lle OVCSlxoedillJ ;.
8111if th.", is any 14ull inI he I I "bin~SO\'M>O( th"n the dangerous overspC<.'dingmay
I o, k. place. H~ it I Soecessary 10su~ the working 01 nut"". governor and
., k. some corrective measures ;r there is >OI nt' fault in the governor
\dille hence COI '\tln\.KlU~ove.... I , ~dR 0( lesa. value thur\I h~tM.'1t;ng cannot bf .... nh('" by
Generltor ProtectkH1 PYotlellon I ncl Sw1tcha-I r
TIw 1.11".. 01 roollng Sy5tfm .Iso c&u>cs severe o"erheoling to nS<' the
k'mper.lure above .. r. limit. This may 1".><1 10in8ul.Hon r.ilu..." ...."sinS some other
faults 10 occur. Tbe thermocouples .,.. r<S1SWlce thermometers are used in ia'll"
IIt.lChint:s to sense the temperature. The coctf(tlVe measures 31'\" b\l_tn whenever ~
t""'('r'N" exceed. the limll
A~rt trem the ."'lYC domin~nl .b-.nol condit,on. >OtnC (001<11110""may at>!
whK'h Are rJ I~ h, J -,racticc. Stich conditions are, Wn)11J ; ~)'''l\Chronl.eatlon. \(,c..J
5.U.6 Loss of Excita1lon
The ~ or citalil>nOr reduced ..obtion is possible due 10the field failure I~
"I,""ng 0( lield winding or due 10 shorl circuil in Odd or due I" some (.ull ,n
t.,"'\t,ltl'f ~Y"\'m.
Such loot Ilr ,')(d"'lloII '.8,,11:. in 1_ 01.)nchrolll.n, wlthin ., .<CURd and IIu>
eousn 1M Inere""" in speed of Ih~g....... tor, SilK.. power tnput to the m",:h"",
remains same. the generalor starts working as an induction generator, drawing 1M
reactive power fromthe bus. The machinr startsdrawing an exC'il{ngcurrent fromthe
5}__ which is equal to lhe (uD load r..ted value. This leads to Ill<!overheating (}(
the .tal<>< winding and the rotor bod>' due 10induced currents, The I""" of c>(.labOO
1TI4)' .l""tead to the pole sUpping condItion whtch resuits in Ih. voltage rNII(tlnn for
the ""!pul ebovc half 'N;>".Ied load
Loss of excttation should not pet5ist (or long and corrective measures li:ke
dlscnnnection 01alternator should be taken immediately. For this tripping scheme
can be used which can trip the generator circult breaker immediately when t~ is ~
5.U.$ flilure of Prime MOYer
The failure 01 prime mover results in motoring operation of synchronous
gcncmuor. The generator draws active power from the network and continues to run
at .ynduonous speed as " synchronous motor This moy lead to dangerous rnedw\J c,31
condibOnS if 3UO,_.,'ed to persist (or more! th.ln twe."t)' SL-C()ll cis. Thcscrlous ()\"l-rhColh_ng
0( .t... "Nm turbine bl.d"" may result. To prevent this Ih, reverse power protl'Ct1on
0ch''''N bydlrectio.... ll power relays is used,
I"" uses 01modem <irtuit breakers R-C surge suppressors abo help in ~uang
swildting surges. Anol"", situation. whm 1M I1lInsienl overvohages are g.""rated. is
whm the .res a", groundl-d. During amng grounds. Ihe tr.n$ienl voltages ha,'ing
.R\plitudesIIvo ~",<!'l m".... Ihnn lhe _I line 1(' neu"J I P'.k ompliluM .,"'
gt'Tltr~h.'CI Such tr~nsl('nt voltages .1\' d""llerou.. ""d C.lI' .... reduc... ..;1 b)' u<i11j\
re5dW>CC rthlng.
5 5
Fig. 5.2
____ I-...__-__...__,
.... y
F ! :
- - - - .

. ., ....,
fig. 5.1
Sup!"'" the ('\I1Tt'I1t ) nUW8 thtough the primor)' 01C.T, I\) IIwexternol f."lt If
tlt4" I, v" C.1'.4 av"ot' ~, rrwr..uo, them no CUrt", , t will now chrouSh the 1'('1:'t)', , \d II
", mains mOP<''''tiv<, .
Bul now if an internal fault 0Ct'UJ '$ at point X as shown inthe Fig. 5.2. the current
flows through me fault from both the sides. The primary CUJ n'[l1s are I, and I, whiJ f
, h, secondary currents are i, and it.50 the current flowing ~h the "'lay will be
11.. It- E\Cf' some CUtTentnowing out 01 one side while a urge current entering the
<>Ihe'"de w'" rA""" til<' di(IN.nU.1 current Such A current Is _poru!iblc 10t'l"'t~le
tt\~,... lav
Gerw .....
C T.
,& t! n.,
......... t
A b", ic d, rferen~1 protection schI..", ., used lor the S""""'tors is shown in the
Fi~5.1 It Is known Itt.t Ihc dlff.rmtbl I't'ay operates when tt... phosor diff.rerta of
, \, ~ or more similar eie<"t'tcal quatltities ftCe(Ids a pl'cdctermi.ned value,
5.3Basic Differentlal Protection Scheme for Generators
", .rhe"''''8, I luge in hydrogen circuli, mouture in the &"""r.1O<winding, oxys~n III
pure water cucun, \ibraHons, bearing eurrents, exeesstvebearing leml"', atute ere,
<O<In... IO' Prottc:tJ on 5 e Prot.c:tlon Ind SwilchllM'
R.ttf.lnlng 001
Fig.5.3 ,.. dltf_tlal protecllonsclMme
The f.ult occurs at point X and the primary currents in the Olt'Uit are I, and I,.
The C.T. secondary rum.'I'Its are I, and I,. TN> current flOWing tluough the operating
roil of the ""I.),I, I, - I" WhU" rlwcurrent Rowing through the rOSlIi1iningcoli of tlw
...J .y i5 C ' ; i,).Th.. i.beeUI!C the ~ting coil I. oonnected to the midpoint 01
th~restraining coil.
Thus if the num~ of turns of the restraining coil Is N then i. flows through ~
d n
N " N I)N
." I, Ow~through remalninll ZThe IOUI .mp.rc IUITl$..... T +"2- I.e. N
".... "....
F : ' :
, .... - ... -... - _ ... _ . . . .

I coil

I-I -I
1 '_/ ________ '_'" ........... rotoy
5.4Baalc Percentage Differential Protection Schemefor Genorators
Thj~protect!oo schtome is atso (.11<'<1b,ased dllferrnUl1 p_ion scheme. TN>
FiS"5.3shows tlw connections 01the percentage dlfle1'C11ti.1 relo)', in such. prolL',:tion
Thus tht ~l.y CUrrC'l1II. prop"rbOnili to the ph.J !Or d,J I_ bet",,,,,, Ito..
currollls ""tering and "'.vinS the prol\'(1('d orcutt and 'f 1M dilferential CUrrC'I1t
.,.",<.'<.'<15 the pickup value, the rcl.y operate.
Thisbic differential $Chemehas loIl~'ing drsadvantages.
t This ~itcuitoper.tes In<lccuratelywith helvy external I.utb-
2 The C T.. may saturate "lid "US<' w""1"nl $('C"ond.ry (,\UTents and th<-
d;!fcrcll' 01_ondary currents _yapproach the podcupvalue 10op;:ratc the
relay un~rily.
Th""" dis"dvant~ ore overcome in the percentage dilrercnWI reLly.,.'tor ProtoCi1on Protecllon and SwitehilMf
t.CI U.) dl~u)'i lhe "t,'I,11I9()f M"onPnn: prol4."('th.,l' Khe~ Illr ti't' 1),r4,,,,,ph~
.ltern>lor .1.tOr Wlnd",ss,
5.5MenPrice Protection of Alternator Stator Windings
ThIS ISmost commonly used protedlon scheme lor the al12mafor stator windings.
Thc scheme is al<o called biased dilf""",tt.ll protecuon and pe<ttntagc dlffcl'\'lltial
I" Ihl.,,"'11\0<1,th,< curr"ntil "' t.... two ....d. of Ihe p...,tII seelIon .f\!~.....'<I
"slOgcurrem traroslorrnel'l>.11,. wires CON11lngrelay coils to Ihe current "",*former
""",,,,d.uil'S .1'" calltd pilOt wires.
Under norm.aJ condItiOns. when there is no ({lull ill the- W\ndings. the currents in
lhe pilot wires led (rom C.T. secondarl ... ore equal. The diCt\ormhal current I. - I,
through the opcnbng colls of the ..... Y IS ZA.'rO. H.'no: Ihe ",byi.lncperativc and
~)-stcmissaidtobe- balanced.
\\'hen fault 0CX\1J '$ inside the pf'Oll!Cted section of the .totor windings, the
dilferential current il - i1flows through the operating coils 0( 1M eclay. Due 10 this
CUTn'nl,the "'lay Clpft'ates, This trips t.... &mentor circuit brnker to isolate the nulty
section. The field IS ,~, dlscoenected and is dlleharged Ihrough suitable impC!dancw.
The Fig. S5 .00",< sclwmaUc.rrongcmt'lll of MCr7Pri prOCtiOIlscheme lor a
.)tllr connected altern.lIOr
FIg. 5.4
~c:u ...nt
The Opl'r.llting characteristic:s
of .u<h a b,.S<"d differential
~l;,).lS shown inthe> Fig, 5.4,
The (h~'r;,cte">lieot ~\.\18 t),,,t
t,c.:pr III 10\0,1 currents, rano of
dll(e-rentiJ 11oper.:lng current to
." t'mgc rcstrainmg C'Um"nt is .1
h"'" pernt.lj\e H,,",,c the
",I ) i, elled II.... I"",,olltog.
dlfr""'nt",l rei.)'
This bask percentage
di({e,:,~ntial prctection scheme
forms the NsIS of the
pr.lctic.lly very commonty used
per(,'II"'gc difft'l'""tt.l1 prolectioll lICh<me lor alternator St.l.Ot wlooing_. This popuLlr
"""nw i.knownd> BLI...-d di(lercnll.ll pl'OU.'<tlonor M... "Pri,,, prot,'Ction
l"" ~I, ) This is ... It',.,.j os the flow 01CUl'Ttflt ("' ; I, ) through the entire res,r.Inlng
o.n.,.,o, P,_'on $. , Protoelion and Swilel>geor
FIg. 5.7 Rtrlcted _ faultpro~tIon
Consider IMI earth fault occurs on p~ 8 duo to breakdown of its insulation 10
rU t. shown In the Fig 5.7. Th. fAult CWTtml I,will now Ihroul!h the core. I...".,
m rK'\
_ ....

V.. I
.0 - I
.~../" I
I, ' ~ Ear1 h f aM . ; 1 t
- I - - - _ . . . . . _ _ . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . nce ~.""':I
*_ ......_ ....__ ...... ,

C. T.
C.'tll... lIv MM'1l'rice prutl'Cllon b.,!Ied on ClrrulAllIlS eur ..... nt prln<lplc provid .....thr
prutll('tu,)f1 dgltln.s.. int "n'dl e. lrt l, rdult~. But 1 large scnl'rntor'S, liS Ih<.'8c J...... ('0).11\, an
~cLb0r\.i11pml'("("liol' !i(.:hclne c..Uud restricted .....rth (:a'IJI rrot'''('CIOI'l I~provided
"'hen theneutral IS .olldly grounded thenthegenerator gets completelyprotected
agamst earth faults, But when neutral is grounded through earth resistance, t~the
."'tor windings gel p.rtl~' protected against earth faullS. Thep.1t,:."'tagc of wmding
rl'Ok<b.'<i depends on Ih. vdlue of rthing resistance and the relay setting.
Inthis scheme. tho "31". of eurth reslstal1(\'. relay setling. curr~nt rating o( ""rth
~nce must be co",tullyselccted. The earth (Aul", are ra",' near thene"tr.1 poot! .,
t.I'w ~\Jibge of neut ra1 pt lint with respect IQ ean" is vef )' less. But when eanh f aut t
occu.... ", ... Ih<nculTal poinl lhen the insuffocienl voltage 0<1'0&$th. fault drives very
I"" fault current than the pick up current 01~Llyroil.Hen' lhe relay coil """"ins
",,,p.... nve Thus lS to 20'11. winding fromthe """lr.1 siderem.ins unprotected inthis
~ H.~ if Is <011<'<11\.",lrlcl<'<Irth I.ull prot('rlll'"' It I. usual pr.ffi(C' to
prok'Cl as"" of the winding
The reslriclcd.,rth f~ull protection!iC~ ...hownIntl....Fill. 5.7.
5.6 Restricted Earth Fault Protectionof Generator
4 Itdoes not l'O."lu;rc(U rr<1I1luR>iorm..... wuh air I:"P' or speclal b.llonang
GeM rat or Prot ect Jon 5 II ~ and Swlt<;hg, ..
for 1 0 '\ ' ($blanc{' 1 (, the Y(ill~of R is o;;l:l(:clO O su(l\ lh,)t fuJI 1 0 0 "tdC1 lnmt pt\ SSCS
Ih""'gh tlw ".UI"'. for a 1,,11line to .......'...1voltage V.
In medium resistance R, the earth I.ult current Is limited 10aboul lOOA lor lull
hne II>neutral voltage v. lor" 60 MW machine.
In hlSh roslSlan(\! R, the rth fault cu"",nl Is IImilt'd to about 10A. Tim I. u8<!d
(or ddtribution tran(((lrmcrs l\nd 8'-'1"K"I"'".tor"'lr.,ns{ofrncr unlb.
Cc.lf'ISidcr IN- (',\ rth
!'<'SlSt4""" R used to limn earth
(,ault C'Urn!Ot as shown in the
Fig. 5.8-
The the resblance
R lim!.. 1M earth I,ult cumml.
I( 1M""I.UI~KI~vory
.n'.U I.e. lhe neutr.1 I. almost
solidly grounded.tht-n the (ault
current is very high. BUI high
Fault currents are not desirable
I"""", small R is not preferred
lor the large machines.
Fig. 5.8
/ ~R~ ~B
5.6.1EtftK:t of Earth Resistance on %of Winding Unpt'otected
lei us sc:> e tll~cifl..'(tof earth ~nce on the w~o( ~ winding \ -\ 'hkh I"emai~
u rtprol\."(t{'CI ..
0( m...:h,n,to ~.nh ~nd C<l'np"'1~tM .,.lIh through 'h<- ~.'thinK """".nce. TheC.T.
_dMY curret" I. flows through ~ operaling coli AndI~re-tncted.~rth Inulo
",I.) (oil of the diff~t<"ti"1 prol't1on. 'The selting 01restricto!dearth laulo relay and
'!dIJ ng of overcurrent rol.1Yare indqlmdenl of each other. Under UlISsondary
("Ur~nt I., ~ rel.1 Y upcr;l~ to trip the arcuit breaker. Tth: vcncgc Vt-, H~\Ir(lcl('ntto
dnve Ih.." en'lugl1 (,\ ult current II when the fAllit pornl ), ~ '\ \ \ ''')' (R)tl' tI,~n_~'ltral
If the f.1UItpoinl , is nearer ro tht- neutral point then the voltage Vb. is small and
001sufficienl to drive enough fault current I,. And for this I~relay cannot operate.
Thus pan 0( the \\'inding from the IWUtraJ point remains unprotected, To overcome
this. if rel,,)' St!tbng i.s chosen "ery 1 0 '\ \ ' to make it sensinve to low rault currents, then
\ \ ."-"'~ ()Ix r.,tloo of rely 1 'r\ ny I"f'iUII 1 1 \ (' relay ('1 \ " opt'r0 1 tco undt'r the conditions ()(
he.\ Y through I~ult~. '""c(ur.'t~C T s.... lur4hon (I(C.T>tIC Hl'1lt:\lpra<1kaUy IS%01 (rolll Ih<"<,,tr.I' po.nt i> ~I unp"I1C<""'linll tilt!....""unong8S'Y. of
t"" wlndong ~&'I""I pho$~tl) eonh 1.111t~.
G.n.rator ProteCtion 512 P,olKtion and Swltchgea,
'The un.... trictod rth (.ult prot..'CtlOnUSO ,,,,ldu.lIy connected eatth ('ult y.
It """"ists of th......C.T .s, one In e.,,,, phaSt'. 'The .""'0"')' windings of these CT re
co>Mted In parao.l. n", earth (.ult rtloyi.ronnected .,"", .. the second .ri6which
com.. " residu.1 current. The scheme .. ohown In the Fig. 5.9.
Wht-n th.... I. no 1.1I1t,under norm.1 conditions, vector sum o( the th_ li.w
rurmt~ is zero, HMlCYthe vectorsumo( the th"'" t!{'(.,)ndnl')'(urrmtlO b ."0 ,eto
5.7Unrestricted Earth Fault Protection

4.7631 a Jr'''' (0. 1512)'
22.1>875 ,2 _0.02281>
r = 4.76070
This is the earthing resistance required,
.. (2)
Z r +i(rea,tln<r 0( unprotected winding)
Z r+J (0.1512) n
IZI = Jr'+(O 15121!
Equ.Jting (I) and (2),
.. (I) = 4.76310
200 A
Z tmpcdanee O(ltred to Ilw(~uh
v 952.6279
i 200
ilit Fault C\lrl"(.'f'Il
V e voltoS" indU>d 11'1 unprotected winding
~ I':,' V sO.IS6350.8S29
=952.6279 V
= O.ISI2l)
( < Y . of lIl1pl'O(eeoed WInding) , (Xl
Generator PrOlectlol'l 515 ~tIol'1 and
tn practlee for ..... 1 1 r.tins allemotcB. the neutral rnd. 01 the three p""- are
(QIUl<.'Ctedto a single pornt. lienee it i._pClI5SI'bleto intmducr C.T. in each phaseon
neutral side os tequim! in Mer.Price pt'O!Ction. In such cases, the balanced earth
fault protectionan be used.
5.8 Balanced Eal1h Fault Protection
i, i~, I.... 0
The s um 01 tht- thr< 'C C\lrr('T\'S it M i du. al c urrt"nt IK . w hkh i s lero und, , , nC) C'1'11a1
TIle earth fault relay IS connected In sud'o way that the reldual current Ilows
through the relay operating coil. UnO.!<._."..I condition, residual current is zero so
(('lay doe s not carry O 1 Il y current and i s m ope nti ve . How e ve r i n pre s e nc e of e arth fault
cu"di.lon, the bal.tnce gets disturbed and the residual current I.. is no more ?era. II
thiS eurrent is ~ ,han the pickup val"" 01 the tth f.ult relay, the r('lay ~all..'S
and opms theelrnnt b,,.kcr through trlpping of Ih,' trip drcuit.
In the scheme .shoW" In the flig.5.9, the ~rthfault at ony location near or away
fromthe loc.llon of C.T." con cause the reidual current, H........ he protected :rone b
not definite. Such. scheme is hence callod unrestricted earth f.u1 t proIeclion.
Rg.$.9Unrestrlc:l8d.-Ihfault p_
So if I", I,., and I.., are C.T. secondary currents then under normal conditions we
. , . . . . . . ~
..L-,_ IRa-'" 'o"',,.c""')
L :To .,,,,,"",.








R v

... _- - - - - - -
-= -
- - - - - - - '...
- ,
GGn. , "Qf
, tatOt winding
Gen. rotor Protoctl .... Protection and SwltchoN<
0 \ cocphng tr;,)J 'I~()rmcr15connected betwt"en tM earll, .lnd the (.l_rthi~~
RIC' In neutral 10 g:rollttfO.lcircuit. The primary or the coupling trtlJ\ S(omler is e- - 'Citcod
t>~ceded ~igll"l currenr source. Th.b < X J d ed signa} current has a fn.~lu(,:,\C'y 0( J 2..~HL
Ttus current is connnuously injected into the generator stator winding through ~
sec,.,dary 01the coupling transformer.
During the no"".1 eondinon the sigW current in;c.:ted inlO the stator flows
Ihrough stray upaotAn"" 01 the S,onenlor and dlr<'<'Ilycoonedlod system, Bul whon
... rth I"utt 0"". Ilw ",,'y copadt.1'ICt' Is b~. 'l'hl. 1~4s<)' Ih. ltl(lt'UtOI'lng
cumont Thl, Inor.... I. ml'osured by tnt'"ufinll device. Ot!p<'T1dlngupon thl$
me_rement nn Imm,oditc rortt'(tlve ocbon ISuken.
nus scheme gtves the p,Oll'CNon 01 IS to 20% or st~tor winding from lhe neutr~1
.-...J ~. lhe portion which Is unprote<'led by Mer.-l'rlce pn,ttion. The remalfling
!",,1I01l 15proteeted by Men-Price p~ Overall 100':1> o( .Mlnr wind'"l! gets
~cd dgnitlst earth 1,lulls.
Fig. 5.11 10C1'1. ntth fault prolKllon
, - - - - - - - t - - - - -
A. seen uptil! now, no prolecticln 5C heme is In n position 10 give <empkote
rrothon to Ih~,IA'M of generator '&ainsl earth (auIIS. The maximum p_l ....
.>d>~ed,$ uPI(! !IS 10 'lO')" lrom lh~~ dltcus.ocd "rtill now.
801 tn modrm dllY8 II Is ","",'bl e 1(1 provld~ 100% "Mlh (,1\,11prolIW.. to the
stalOf of IIw &fnCr~lor. II USI'S ~coupling IT.\nslormrr and 1m' coded sign.1 current,
the.chem. i.shown," the Fig.S.lI
5.9100%Earth Fault Protection
Gener.tor P_1ion 51. ProtlKUonand Switchgeor
Fig. 5.12 Intortum fault prolfCllon
C.T St
s ,
~ v
The : Me n Pntt pn)tC<'tIOJ'l syste m gi\e 5 prorectlona~aj'''$tph.. to pha~ fa\llt
and ea"" faults. Itdoes not giveprote<tion .pinst Intertum foults. TIle inferrum (aull
is a ""on circuli betw_ the tums 01 the same phase windUlg. Thus the current
ptodua.-d dU4! c o &ud\ fAult Is u locat o C " t" Ui t eurren and " dOt..~no t .,ffe e t th~C Ur r l' 1 " lts
cnt<rinf( .nd leaving the winding al the two ends, wh('r'(' eToS are loesred. H<oncc
M.'r~Prkeprotection C3nnotgive protedlOn a&""'51Interturn f.ults.
Insingle tum generalor, there is no question of interrurn faults but in multitum
generators, the intertum (ault protection is necessary. So such interrum protection is
provided for multitum generators such as hydroelectric generators These gener.tors
M' e double Winding armatures. Thi>means, each phose wi"ding is dlvidl'd into two
h..I,,,,. due 10the 'ery he,IV Y currents which Ihey hDY l' to catry Thl, .plilhl1g of
'InSIe PMOCwinding lilto two Is ortY ant.lgoou, In p"ovldlng intftnlm (aull protectim
h.I .urn hydrwlec1tk ttClwrJ Iol'$.
TIle fig. 5.12 shows the intenuen f.u1t proloction scheme uS! (or the 80"".. tor
Withdouble winding armatures.
5.10 Stator Protection Agaln.t Interlum Fault.
G4tn.,.to( Prote ction s.,. p,OIecll ..... nd Switcll9ttar
Tha_. rotor circuit ,'If the alternator knot eilrttwd and d.c, volta8~i, Imposed on it.
And bence single ground Cault in rotor does not cause circul.ting current to flow
through the rotor (i""uiL Hence single ground mult in rotor does nol caUS<!any
darNjte to it. ilul .ingle ground r.ult QI15<$ an tncrease in tht> stress to ground ill
\lther poilU!. in the fidtf Winding whm induced in the rotor due 10
tnns.l1b. Th"s the prob.b,lity of 5'Ond ground foult increases
lf the second ground f.ult oceues then pitn of the rotor winding is bypassed and
the currents in tht remaining portion increase abruptly. This causes the unbatanee 01
""'* circuit and hen", the mechanical and tht-rrnal stresses on the rotor. Due to t:his,
rotor ma), gel damaged. Sometimes dama~ of bearings and bending o( rotor shaft
bkcs place due to the vibr.lions. Hen the rotor must be protected ugainsl earth
Method 1: In Ihis m"thoel hlJ lh ~ioI~I. ",n",'('t,'<I ac""," th" rotor nl'CU1lIt
Is pfO\'lded with cenrre top and the ct11tre tap point 15connected to th~ sn>und
t!\rough a sensltlve eann (oult relny lISohown inthe Fig. 5.13.
5.11 Rotor Earth Fault Protoctlon
The scheme u..." <r,,,.' differenlinl ptmC'lple. Eoch ph... (If the gene.oh" Is doubly
"ounJ and split into two parts S, and St as shown in the Fig. 5.12. The current
tnnsfcrmors arc CMnl,(tcd in the two parallelpaths of th~ ,h phase windins- The
~"t'Ond...til'S (Ii lhc.~(1.lrree" 'tDns(ormrrs are ("I"Q!IS conntC'ttd. The current tr"n,-f('lln:nft'5,
'vor~ on drc\ll~llnR cur",n! principle The relay Is connecl~ """"'" the ~
4 ."O nJl tc ."ti $e('(lod.trll s or ",c c urn. .. ,' trd&Wrmt..,..
Under Ilor,"al 0lx ,.ltUlS ~'On\.1J tiQOS, ~'henthe t\'\'() patlls 3n_-'!tO lll\d tht-.. , Nrmlts
mtht> two parallel paths S, and S, ore equal Hence cur","'" in the ~'COnd.n..s qf tht>
current transformers are also equal. T I- .e serondary current Rows round th. loop and
IS <' at oil the points. Hence no current Dows through the relay and the """y is
II tht' short circUli b developed ben.-""" the adjacent tum. 01 the part 5, 01 the
",,,,,lang say 'hon (\",,'nt, Ihrough 5, and S, no longer ,,'main >-,me Thus Itnl.~J
(\Jrrt"Ob \ v111be i"du~N:f til 'he S4.'conda.rirrsof the current tr3nsfomltl'~. TN> diftM--rw:e
01theie currents flows through the relay R. Relay then dOS<'Sits contacts to trip the
drewl breaker which isolates the gonerator from the system.
~ an intertum (."It protection 5)~ten\ ill extremely sensitive bUI it can be
arplo.-.l I" th" g.:ncr.lm" h,'''ing doubly W(lund arm.h,res
o.n ... tor ProQction 5- 20 Pnrtectlon and Swltchg."
Fill. 5.15 los. of udlatlon ch.roc~
Ihe"'1ui\.~t &_,.Ior impedance locustrace... path from first quadrant or RX
d,agro.m10thelourth quadrant. The dlSlancz relay Is used which coversthe portion 01
the fourth quadrant wbere impedance locus path exists. Thus when the impedance
takesvalue in the region covered by the relay characteristics, the relay operates. Tht.-
rel.y operates whtn generator (irsl ."''''' tosUp poles, Then "Lay trlp$Ihe (itld ciKUil
breaker And II ctl"l(O N 'U'<1' th~gen... tor from tl\(' 8)'l'lem, too """on the c,cJ tJ hon IS
n.'S.'I""'od dud bome normnl, II,c S~.torcan thOI\ be rettlmed to ICrvlc.'(' 11\l\tAntJy.
' YO
- -
5,12Protection Against Loss of Excltlltlon
The los~or ''':'~'''on or the lI""""'ato< ~y tesult in the """ or synchronl>m ,.00
:-1,~t"lyillcrca...e In .he 8, ner"t'or speed, " Jlw machinto starts bMaVlng as an illductlon
gt'llt?r.lfQr. It ~J r.J wnfe.)ctivf" pow er from the system which is undesirAble. The 106$ of
.,cilation may lead '0 the pole slipping condJ tion, Hence ptoh!Ction .goins' 1_ 0{
e.<itation must be provided,
Ihe prot,,<tion L< pro\~ded ullingdim:tlonaI distnnce ty~m.)' with thegentrotor
\\-thell the-re ts. ~s of excitation, thr equivalent gent-rator impedan~ varits And
I,.,,,,, a curve asshown in the Fig. 5.1S. This Fig. 5.15 shows the lossof excibotion
characteristicsalortg',;th the relay operating characteristics, on RX diagram.
Ihe eJ rlh flull ,d~y$"re inslanta_ in opt'<>lIon and are ",n"..-t,-d 10on
.I.rm cireutt (or iO O kdtion and totake the proper acuon, ThIsis because, single
ground (a"lt does001require lin inunedia~action of isolating the generator.
o.n .. olo, Prot.c:tlon 522 Ptot.,llon andSwllchgt....
Fig. 5,16Nog.dve pI\u. sequ.".,. .. ley
5.13Negative Sequence Relay.
T ho! negnlh'" ~1.)'1o "''' stso called phase unb.II,,,,,,' ,.c1ay>beeusc these <cl.ys
provide protection .gainst negative sequon<e component 01 unb3Ianc:ed cum!flts
.~istin!l due to unbolanred loads or pn.....pN<e l.lIln., Th, unboL>l\ced cUlTCllts.....
d~n&et\)\_LS lroln Genertors ."In'limotors pool"t 01 view ns th,,~ olrrC!nb C".... ln C.'US('
o\'erhc'lms. Neg.thc sequence relays .. " &<....,r.lly u",'<.110 gIve protO<'tion CO
gl"l\("rators ... nd morers 3g<1in)tunba'Jf\C'~currents,
A negative sequence relay has. filter circuit which is operative only for negative
5 <l<J uenc:<! cemponents, Low order of Over current also call cause dangerous situations
hence e negative sequence reilly hos low current scrrlngs. 11'1"earth relay provides
prott.on lor ph.5t>In .orth f,ul! but not lor phose to ph.lst> fault. A ""!t,live
"'<Iu"1IO!",I.y pmvid 81;.;""1 """"" to ph"." inult. whod! .'" rl'Spons.ble
to produw 11(1Iollv('S<"<luNWCc'O.npO~'I\b
llw FIS- 5.16 .bt.",') tl~ &chematlc ~rr.lng~"fnl.'f'I' 01,t,"gl\ll\'l' phaK ~"C(\I~flC't' r~14y
Genttllor Prot.etion 523 P_ion IndSwltthv-ar
Flg. 5.22 Induction type n~lv. s.quence relay
11", eentral limb 01ul'l'''' ""goet camtS 1M primary whkh h, ""'" lOp Dee
10 Ihis, Ihe primary winding has Ihree Inmlnal I. 2, and J. 1'IIesection )2 IS
,"'erglztd from .he s<.'('ondnryof an ou>lJ.i.uytr.nslormer 10Rphase. llle section 23
IS diroctly energtud from the Y-phasecurrenl
The .uxillory Ir.nsfonncr is spiol device havln)\ an air gap In ilJl INgnetic
cln:uJl Wllh the twlp 01Ihls, the phse Ingle between tis prirn.,ry ~nd se<und.ry esn
..- ,
- ...
~ ... .- t....
_ ...
lJ _
i- =
- "- ~

5.13.1Induction Ty.,. NegativeSequenceRolAY

AnQlhcr mmnu",') u.....t "~8.,tlv~ ""'I"""'"",I.y '0Inducli"n .ype I.. C'OI\Mruct"'"
b, sumlar 10Ihal of Induction type 0'''- currml ,..13Y.The sch."",b< diagram 01 Ihb
I)~of n.'lay ts shown in1M "ig. 5.22.
FIg. 5.210.'1. conn..:lJ on01C.T.
To nl4kc the n.- lAy M-oru.llive to onl)
neg.tive sequence currents b)' making II
lJ'lOf'f! mtive under the in_ nuencc 0# zero
sequence currcms i5 possilile bv
conntins lhe cum.ont tmM(ONnC'J' tn
d"'~ as shown In Itw Fig 5.21. Und~r
delta connection of cut'r"ent trnns-f()m\(,N~
no zero SCiillencecurrent can (10\" in th~
a.rwr.'or Prot..:,"", $21 Protection.ndSwll~
% S pe'''''''lage asymmetry
I,.. ~ N~<J tive sequ~ CUf'm\t
I iIif R._'tl.~currt!f1t
~I 5
Fiy. 5.2S Induction typo ~ and ro Hqwnc... lay
5.14 Protection Against Unba.lanced Loading
\\'twl\ II,,) load on the geocraror bt;:a).l1e5 unbalaneect, neg3tivc. phase sequence
currents flow. Tile ncg.,li". sequence COInpcl<lellls produce a rotating magnetic freld
which rotates at syncl\tonous speed in d.itection opposite to the direction of rotor
field. Hence effectively the relative speed betwoen the two is double the synchronous
'f'l,,'<l Til". double (""Iu<ncy currents are induced fn the rotor. These currents co_
S<'\'ere h'tlng ,,( the ",lor and canClI_ d&mllgcto lilt rotor. Ttw unbalanced ~Ialor
rurnY1t~nbo C'rtUM.')l'vttrc vibr.ttiOfl.!fAnd hc':o1tins of Amlor. tlenc~ It Iii nccl'Ssary to
pro. Ide Ihe IIcl(ah't !l<'<jU""","prolection to the ll<>neratoNi ag~ln't the unbal.1l1Cl'd
to;,d conditinl'ls.
The neg. live ph.", sequence fill.... a""'gw1th the OVtrcurmtt reloy pmvides the
""""""ry P'lltl'(tion .'g~il'\Stthe unbaI.J 11Cl'dIo;r.da.
Tht ",flltlvl' .symmetry 01 three pNSf: gcrx....lor '" Sivj!Rby tor ",tin ,,( negative
><'1lU'1Wr current 10th,' r.nedcurrent, M.thttnatlc.llly It C.1" be ~p,,_d M.
J ~
IT c--
The schematic arrangement of indudkln type neg.ti\~and zero sequence reI.y 1$
shown in the I'ig. 5.25
Gentrator ProlKtlo<l Protection and Swllchvear