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CORNELL NOTES CHAPTER 21: AIR POLLUTION

What does it mean that the atmosphere is a sink?



What does the word Smog mean?
What are the two main types of air pollution? Explain each.
Athens, Greece
Hungary
U.S.
China
What are the general effects of air pollution?
What does it mean if pollution has synergestic effects?
Define Primary and Secondary Pollutants:
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Is a sink for waste disposal.
Mixture of smoke and fog.
Stationary sources - those that have a relatively xed location.
Mobile source - move from place to place while emitting pollutants.
It affects the environment, Visual qualities, Vegetation
Animals, Soil Water quality Natural and articial structures,
and Human health.

It has a greater impact on the lung.
Primary pollutants, Emitted directly into the air. Secondary pollutants: Produced through reactions
between primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds.
Where do some of the natural air pollutants come from? Explain.
What are the 6 criteria pollutants? LIST
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrogen Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
Ozone (Photochemical)
Particulate Matter (PM)
Lead
Effects of Air Toxins
Hydrogen Sulfide
Hydrogen Fluoride
Methyl Isocyanate
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Release of ozone in the lower atmosphere as a result of unstable
meteorological conditions. Emission of particles from wildres and windstorms
Natural hydrocarbon seeps.
SO2
Colorless odorless gas. From coal plants.
A yellow-brown to reddish-brown gas
May be converted to NO32-
CO is a colorless, odorless gas
Even at low concentrations is extremely toxic to humans.
Photochemical oxidants result from atmospheric interactions
of nitrogen dioxide and sunlight.
PM10 is made up of particles less than 10!m in diameter.
Teconstituent of auto batteries and was once added to gasoline.
cancer or other serious health problems.
Highly toxic corrosive gas easily identied by its rotten egg odor.
Extremely toxic gaseous pollutant
Released by some industrial activities, such like burning coal in power plants.
An ingredient of a common pesticide, Sevin. Colorless gas
VOCs
Benzene
Arcolein
What causes some variability of air pollution?
Las Vegas
Haze From Afar
Urban Air Pollution
Atmospheric Inversion
Topography
What are the 4 factors (potential) for Urban Air Pollution?
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Variety of organic compounds used as solvents in industrial processes
Dry cleaning, degreasing, and graphic arts.
Additive in gasoline and an important industrial solvent.
A volatile hydrocarbon, very irritating to nose, eyes, and respiratory system.
It variates seasonally, it depends on the sun. Dry months.
Arid regions. By transport ne dust.
Brown haze over vegas for transport ne dust.
It has air pollution that travels from Eurasia.
Photochemical smog, and sulfurous smog: from cars, coal and oil.
Warm air if found above cooler air.
More susceptible to smog problems. Surrounding mountains and inversions.
Rate of emission of pollutants per unit area.
Downwind distance, air moves.
Average speed of the wind.
Elevation.
What are the future trends for future air pollution?
United States
Mexico City
How can we controlling common pollutants?
Particulates
Automobiles
Sulfur Dioxide
Precipitators
Scrubber
The Clean Air Act
Ambient Air Quality Standards
Air Quality Index (AQI)
What is the cost of outdoor air pollution control?
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Air quality. A way to reduce pollutant.
Population will impact the world. Poor quality.
Reducing the number of car.
Dont have nancial base to ght air pollution.
Reduce collect, capture, retain.
Reducing the car, oxides from gasses.
Regulations enacted by the U.S. Congress that address
Acid rain
Toxic emissions
Ozone depletion
Automobile exhaust.
Control air pollution.
Use to describe air pollution of a given day.
It can increase pollution, environmental problems.
What is Ozone?
How does Ozone block UV light?
What happens to UVC in the Ozone layer?
What are the effects of UVA? UVB?
How is Ozone measured?
Ozone and CFCs
The Antarctic Ozone Hole
What are the environmental effects of the Ozone hole? /UV Exposure?
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Triatomic form of O2 win which three atoms of O2 are bonded.
It absorbs most of the potentially hazardous radiation from the sun.
Absorbed in t he stratosphere, and negligible amount reach the Earths surface.
Longest wavelength, least energy of the Uv. cAN CAUSE damage
to the living cell.
Dobson unit (DU) - 1DU = 1 ppb O3.
CFC wander upward and enter the stratosphere, once there they may
be destroyed by UV radiation realizing chlorine.
Thickness decreasing, and geographic area increasing.
Isolated air mass cools condenses, and descends.
What is the Montreal Protocol?
What is the future for Ozone Depletion?
Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
Secondhand Smoke
Legionnaires Disease
Radon Gas
Pesticides
Asbestos
Formadehyde
Dust Mites
Why is indoor air pollution more concentrated than outdoors?
What happens on windward/leeward sides of buildings?
What is the chimney effect?
ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)
What is sick-building syndrome?
How can indoor air pollution be
controlled?
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Outline plan to reduce global emissions. Eliminate production of
CFCs.
Substitutes for CFCs.
Hydrouorocarbons (HFCs) Do not contain chlorine.
Indoor pollutant.
Disease when inhaled.
Cause cancer.
Toxic to people. lung cancer.
VOC, used in many materials found in homes and ofces.
Irritates respiration system.
Pollutants trapped.
Windwards draw air in. Leeward protects sides.
Temperature differential b/t indoors and outdoors.
Can cause disease, illness.
Symptoms people report cannot be traced to any one known cause.
Increase ow of air. Indoor air quality.