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Muscle research

1.Muscle needs energy to move and as stated previously the universal energy
currency of living systems is ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This is largely produced
within mitochondria organelles which are often referred to as the powerhouse of the
cell. The ATP that results is used to provide the power for the muscle fi!res to
contract. "ontraction itself (i.e. actual shortening movement) occurs when a !ond is
!ro#en !etween ATP and one of its three phosphate !onds. $t is the energy that is
li!erated !y the !rea#ing of this !ond that causes the movement. %ence ATP is
!ro#en down to A&P (adenosine diphosphate). A&P is reconverted to ATP !y
donation of a phosphate from another high energy phosphate store in the muscle
creatine phosphate . Mitochondria can !urn glucose fats and #etones to ma#e car!on
dio'ide and water. &oing so ensures that a greater percentage of aero!ic meta!olism
can !e sustained i.e. a su!se(uent slightly greater availa!ility of o'ygen and
production of ATP. A diet rich in creatine has the potential to increase the availa!ility
of creatine phosphate which can increase high energy phosphate supply during
intense e'ercise. Mitochondria can !urn glucose fats and #etones to ma#e car!on
dio'ide and water. They will do so give an ade(uate supply of o'ygen.
http)**www.runsweet.com*Muscles.html
+.Muscle fatigue or physical fatigue is the decline in a!ility of a muscle to
generate force. $t can !e a result of vigorous e'ercise !ut a!normal fatigue may !e
caused !y !arriers to or interference with the different stages of muscle contraction.
There are two main causes of muscle fatigue. The limitations of a nerves a!ility to
generate a sustained signal neural fatigue and the reduced a!ility of the muscle
fi!er to contract meta!olic fatigue. Muscle fatigue or physical fatigue is the decline
in a!ility of a muscle to generate force. $t can !e a result of vigorous e'ercise !ut
a!normal fatigue may !e caused !y !arriers to or interference with the different stages
of muscle contraction. There are two main causes of muscle fatigue. The limitations
of a nerves a!ility to generate a sustained signal (neural fatigue) and the reduced
a!ility of the muscle fi!er to contract (meta!olic fatigue).
http)**en.wi#ipedia.org*wi#i*Muscle,fatigue
-.The meta!olic and muscle !lood flow response in recovery from e'ercise is
dependent on the type and the duration of the e'ercise. $mmediately after !oth intense
static and dynamical e'ercise !lood flow to the e'ercised muscles increases
suggesting that !lood flow is mechanically hindered !y muscle contraction. After the
initial rise (seconds) muscle !lood flow decreases at a moderate rate and the time to
reach resting flow levels varies from seconds to more than -. min. $t is unclear as to
what causes the elevated !lood flow during recovery. A mismatch !etween the time
course of changes in !lood flow and o'ygen upta#e suggests that the !lood flow is not
directly regulated !y the need of o'ygen in the e'ercised muscles. The hyperaemic
response may !e lin#ed to locally released factors such as ions and meta!olites.
%owever the signal !y which the !lood flow is elevated remains un#nown. After
e'ercise !oth pulmonary and muscle o'ygen upta#e decrease rapidly !ut can remain
a!ove resting levels for several hours. /esynthesis of su!strates such as "P ATP and
glycogen cannot account for the entire e'cessive post0e'ercise o'ygen upta#e (1P2")
in the e'ercised muscles and the cause of the elevated muscle o'ygen upta#e in
recovery from e'ercise remains to !e assessed.
http)**www.nc!i.nlm.nih.gov*pu!med*3456-57
8.Athletes from many sports have used altitude training to prepare for a !ig match or
event and not 9ust when the event will !e at a high altitude. They do this !ecause the
air is :thinner: at high altitudes meaning there are fewer o'ygen molecules per
volume of air. 1very !reath ta#en at a high altitude delivers less of what wor#ing
muscles re(uire.
;hile the effect is most dramatic at altitudes greater than 6... feet (+8-6 meters)
a!ove sea level it is noticea!le even at 4... feet (14+8 meters) a!ove sea level.
To compensate for the decrease in o'ygen one of the !ody<s hormones erythropoietin
(1P2) triggers the production of more red !lood cells to aid in o'ygen delivery to the
muscles.
=ou might have heard of 1P2 in news stories a!out performance0enhancing drugs.
A synthetic version of 1P2 has !een used !y endurance athletes to mimic the !ody<s
natural process of red !lood cell creation. >o far most sports organi?ations are more
concerned with this artificial version rather than triggering it naturally up in the
mountains. athletes train at higher altitudes ree# the !enefits then ta#e it to
competition in lower altitudes
http)**www.livescience.com*-+54.0why0do0athletes0train0at0high0altitudes.html