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Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems

PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition



3

PREFACE

The present report is an update of the 2006 edition of the Reliability Data for Control and Safety
Systems, PDS Data Handbook [12]. The handbook presents data in line with the latest available
data sources as well as data for some new equipment.

The work has been carried out as part of the research project Managing the integrity of safety
instrumented systems.
1


Trondheim, December 2009

Stein Hauge


PDS Forum Participants in the Project Period 2007 - 2009

Oil Companies/Operators
A/S Norske Shell
BP Norge AS
ConocoPhillips Norge
Eni Norge AS
Norsk Hydro ASA
StatoilHydro ASA (Statoil ASA from Nov. 1
st
2009)
Talisman Energy Norge
Teekay Petrojarl ASA
TOTAL E&P NORGE AS

Control and Safety System Vendors
ABB AS
FMC Kongsberg Subsea AS
Honeywell AS
Kongsberg Maritime AS
Bjrge Safety Systems AS
Siemens AS
Simtronics ASA

Engineering Companies and Consultants
Aker Kvrner Engineering & Technology
Det Norske Veritas AS
Lilleaker Consulting AS
NEMKO AS
Safetec Nordic AS
Scandpower AS

Governmental Bodies
The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (Observer)
The Norwegian Maritime Directorate (Observer)
The Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (Observer)



1
This user initiated research project has been sponsored by the Norwegian Research Council and the PDS
forum participants. The project work has been carried out by SINTEF.


4

ABSTRACT

This report provides reliability data estimates for components of control and safety systems. Data
dossiers for input devices (sensors, detectors, etc.), control logic (electronics) and final elements
(valves, etc.) are presented, including some data for subsea equipment. Efforts have been made to
document the presented data thoroughly, both in terms of applied data sources and underlying
assumptions. The data are given on a format suitable for performing reliability analyses in line
with the requirements in the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 standards.

As compared to the former 2006 edition, the following main changes are included:

A general review and update of the failure rates, coverage values, -values and other
relevant parameters;
Some new equipment groups have been added;
Data for control logic units have been updated and refined.


Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

5
Table of Contents

PREFACE ...........................................................................................................................3
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................4
1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................9
1.1 Objective and Scope.........................................................................................................9
1.2 Benefits of Reliability Analysis the PDS Method.........................................................9
1.3 The IEC 61508 and 61511 Standards.............................................................................10
1.4 Organisation of Data Handbook.....................................................................................10
1.5 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................10
2 RELIABILITY CONCEPTS .................................................................................................13
2.1 The Concept of Failure...................................................................................................13
2.2 Failure Rate and Failure Probability...............................................................................13
2.2.1 Failure Rate Notation ......................................................................................13
2.2.2 Decomposition of Failure Rate........................................................................14
2.3 Reliability Measures and Notation.................................................................................15
2.4 Reliability Parameters ....................................................................................................16
2.4.1 Rate of Dangerous Undetected Failures..........................................................16
2.4.2 The Coverage Factor, c ...................................................................................17
2.4.3 Beta-factors and C
MooN
....................................................................................17
2.4.4 Safe Failure Fraction, SFF...............................................................................18
2.5 Main Data Sources .........................................................................................................18
2.6 Using the Data in This Handbook ..................................................................................19
3 RELIABILITY DATA SUMMARY.....................................................................................21
3.1 Topside Equipment.........................................................................................................21
3.2 Subsea Equipment ..........................................................................................................27
3.3 Comments to the PDS Data............................................................................................28
3.3.1 Probability of Test Independent Failures (P
TIF
) ..............................................28
3.3.2 Coverage..........................................................................................................29
3.3.3 Fraction of Random Hardware Failures (r).....................................................30
3.4 Reliability Data Uncertainties Upper 70% Values......................................................32
3.4.1 Data Uncertainties ...........................................................................................32
3.4.2 Upper 70% Values...........................................................................................33
3.5 What is Sufficient Operational Experience? Proven in Use ....................................34
4 MAIN FEATURES OF THE PDS METHOD ......................................................................37
4.1 Main Characteristics of PDS ..........................................................................................37
4.2 Failure Causes and Failure Modes .................................................................................37
4.3 Reliability Performance Measures .................................................................................39
4.3.1 Contributions to Loss of Safety.......................................................................40
4.3.2 Loss of Safety due to DU Failures - Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD)40
4.3.3 Loss of Safety due to Test Independent Failures (P
TIF
)...................................40
4.3.4 Loss of Safety due to Downtime Unavailability DTU.................................41
4.3.5 Overall Measure for Loss of Safety Critical Safety Unavailability ..............41
5 DATA DOSSIERS.................................................................................................................43
5.1 Input Devices..................................................................................................................44
5.1.1 Pressure Switch ...............................................................................................44
5.1.2 Proximity Switch (Inductive) ..........................................................................46


6
5.1.3 Pressure Transmitter........................................................................................47
5.1.4 Level (Displacement) Transmitter...................................................................49
5.1.5 Temperature Transmitter.................................................................................51
5.1.6 Flow Transmitter .............................................................................................53
5.1.7 Catalytic Gas Detector.....................................................................................55
5.1.8 IR Point Gas Detector......................................................................................57
5.1.9 IR Line Gas Detector.......................................................................................60
5.1.10 Smoke Detector ...............................................................................................62
5.1.11 Heat Detector...................................................................................................64
5.1.12 Flame Detector ................................................................................................66
5.1.13 H
2
S Detector....................................................................................................69
5.1.14 ESD Push Button.............................................................................................71
5.2 Control Logic Units........................................................................................................73
5.2.1 Standard Industrial PLC..................................................................................74
5.2.2 Programmable Safety System.........................................................................80
5.2.3 Hardwired Safety System................................................................................86
5.3 Final Elements................................................................................................................89
5.3.1 ESV/XV...........................................................................................................89
5.3.2 ESV, X-mas Tree ............................................................................................93
5.3.3 Blowdown Valve.............................................................................................96
5.3.4 Pilot/Solenoid Valve........................................................................................98
5.3.5 Process Control Valve...................................................................................101
5.3.6 Pressure Relief Valve ....................................................................................104
5.3.7 Deluge Valve.................................................................................................106
5.3.8 Fire Damper...................................................................................................107
5.3.9 Circuit Breaker ..............................................................................................109
5.3.10 Relay..............................................................................................................110
5.3.11 Downhole Safety Valve DHSV..................................................................111
5.4 Subsea Equipment ........................................................................................................112
6 REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................117

Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

7



List of Tables

Table 1 Decomposition of critical failure rate,
crit
........................................................................15
Table 2 Performance measures and reliability parameters.............................................................15
Table 3 Failure rates, coverages and SFF for input devices...........................................................21
Table 4 Failure rates, coverages and SFF for control logic units...................................................22
Table 5 Failure rates, coverages and SFF for final elements..........................................................23
Table 6 P
TIF
for various components ..............................................................................................24
Table 7 -factors for various components......................................................................................25
Table 8 Numerical values for configuration factors, C
MooN
...........................................................26
Table 9 Failure rates for subsea equipment - input devices, control system units and
output devices........................................................................................................................27
Table 10 Estimated upper 70% confidence values for topside equipment.....................................33
Table 11 Discussion of proposed subsea data ..............................................................................112




List of Figures

Figure 1 Decomposition of critical failure rate,
crit
.......................................................................15
Figure 2 Illustration of failure rate with confidence level of 70%.................................................32
Figure 3 Failure classification by cause of failure..........................................................................38
Figure 4 Contributions to critical safety unavailability (CSU).......................................................42




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Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

9
1 INTRODUCTION

Safety standards like IEC 61508, [1] and IEC 61511, [2], require quantification of failure
probability for operation of safety systems. Such quantification may be part of design
optimization or verification that the design is according to stated performance requirements.

The use of relevant failure data is an essential part of any quantitative reliability analysis. It is also
one of the most challenging parts and raises a number of questions concerning the availability and
relevance of the data, the assumptions underlying the data and what uncertainties are related to the
data.

In this handbook recommended data for reliability quantification of Safety Instrumented Systems
(SIS) are presented. Efforts have been made to document the presented data thoroughly, both in
terms of applied data sources and underlying assumptions.

Various data sources have been applied when preparing this handbook, the most important source
being the OREDA database and handbooks (ref. section 2.5).
1.1 Objective and Scope
When performing reliability quantification, the analyst will need information on a number of
parameters related to the equipment under consideration. This includes basic failure rates,
distribution of critical failure modes, diagnostic coverage factors and common cause factors. In
this handbook best estimates for these reliability parameters are presented for selected equipment.
The data are given on a format suitable for performing analyses in line with the requirements in
the IEC 61508/61511 standards and the PDS method, [10].

As compared to the former 2006 edition, [12], the following main changes are included:

A general update / review of the failure rates, coverage values, -values and other relevant
parameters;
Some new equipment groups have been added;
Data for control logic units have been updated and refined.

1.2 Benefits of Reliability Analysis the PDS Method
Instrumented safety systems such as emergency shutdown systems, fire and gas systems and
process shutdown systems, are installed to prevent abnormal operating conditions from
developing into an accident. High reliability of such systems is therefore paramount with respect
to safe - as well as commercial - operation.

Reliability analysis represents a systematic tool for evaluating the performance of safety
instrumented systems (SIS) from a safety and production availability point of view. Some main
applications of reliability analysis are:

Reliability assessment and follow-up; verifying that the system fulfils its safety and
reliability requirements;
Design optimisation; balancing the design to get an optimal solution with respect to safety,
production availability and lifecycle cost;
Operation planning; establishing the optimal testing and maintenance strategy;


10
Modification support; verifying that planned modifications are in line with the safety and
reliability requirements.

The PDS method has been developed in order to enable the reliability engineer and non-experts to
perform such reliability considerations in various phases of a project. The main features of the
PDS method are discussed in chapter 4.

1.3 The IEC 61508 and 61511 Standards
The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 standards, [1] and [2], present requirements to safety instrumented
systems (SIS) for all the relevant lifecycle phases, and have become leading standards for SIS
specification, design, implementation and operation. IEC 61508 is a generic standard common to
several industries, whereas IEC 61511 has been developed especially for the process industry.
These standards present a unified approach to achieve a rational and consistent technical policy
for all SIS systems. The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) has developed a guideline to
support the use of IEC 61508/61511, [19].

The PDS method is in line with the main principles advocated in the IEC standards, and is a
useful tool when implementing and verifying quantitative (SIL) requirements as described in the
IEC standards.

1.4 Organisation of Data Handbook
In chapter 2 important reliability aspects are discussed and definitions of the applied notations are
given.

The recommended reliability data estimates are summarised in chapter 3 of this report. A split has
been made between input devices, logic solvers and final elements.

Chapter 4 gives a brief summary of the main characteristics of the PDS method. The failure
classification for safety instrumented systems is presented together with the main reliability
performance measures used in PDS.

In chapter 5 the detailed data dossiers providing the basis for the recommended reliability data are
given. As for previous editions of the handbook, some data are scarcely available in the data
sources, and it is necessary to, partly or fully, rely on expert judgements.

1.5 Abbreviations
CCF - Common cause failure
CSU - Critical safety unavailability
DTU - Downtime unavailability
FMECA - Failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis
FMEDA - Failure modes, effects, and diagnostic analysis
IEC - International Electro technical Commission
JIP - Joint industry project
MTTR - Mean time to restoration
NDE - Normally de-energised
NE - Normally energised
OLF - The Norwegian oil industry association
Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

11
OREDA - Offshore reliability data
PDS - Norwegian acronym for reliability of computer based safety systems
PFD - Probability of failure on demand
RNNP - Project: Risk level in Norwegian petroleum production
www.ptil.no
SIL - Safety integrity level
SIS - Safety instrumented system
SFF - Safe failure fraction
STR - Spurious trip rate
TIF - Test independent failure


Additional abbreviations (equipment related)

AI - Analogue input
BDV - Blowdown valve
CPU - Central Processing Unit
DO - Digital output
ESV - Emergency shutdown valve
DHSV - Downhole safety valve
XV - Production shutdown valve




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Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

13
2 RELIABILITY CONCEPTS

In this chapter some selected concepts related to reliability analysis and reliability data are
discussed. For a more detailed discussion reference is made to the updated PDS method
handbook, ref. [10].
2.1 The Concept of Failure
A failure is in IEC 61508-4 defined as the termination of the ability of a functional unit to perform
a required function. The two main functions of a safety system are [10]; the ability to shut down
or go to a predefined safe state when production is not safe and the ability to maintain production
when it is safe. Hence, a failure may have two facets; (1) loss of the ability to shut down or go to a
safe state when required or (2) loss of the ability to maintain production.

From a safety point of view, the first category will be the more critical and such failures are
defined as dangerous failures (D), i.e. they have the potential to result in loss of the ability to shut
down or go to a safe state when required.

Loss of the ability to maintain production is normally not so critical to safety and such failures
have therefore in PDS traditionally been denoted spurious trip (ST) failures whereas IEC 61508
categorise such failures as safe (S). In the forthcoming update of the IEC 61508 standard the
definition of safe failures is more in line with the PDS interpretation. Therefore PDS have in this
updated version also applied the notation S (instead of ST failures).

It should be noted that a given failure may be classified as either dangerous or safe depending on
the intended application. E.g. loss of hydraulic supply to a valve actuator operating on-demand
will be dangerous in an energise-to-trip application and safe in a de-energise-to-trip application.
Hence, when applying the failure data, the assumptions underlying the data as well as the context
in which the data shall be used must be carefully considered.

2.2 Failure Rate and Failure Probability
The failure rate (numbers of failures per time unit) for a component is essential for the reliability
calculations. In section 2.2.1, definitions and notation related to the failure rate are given, whereas
in section 2.2.2 the decomposition of this failure rate into its various elements is further discussed.

2.2.1 Failure Rate Notation

crit
=

Rate of critical failures; i.e., failures that may cause loss of one of the two main
functions of the component/system (see above).

Critical failures include dangerous (D) failures which may cause loss of the ability to
shut down production when required and safe (S) failures which may cause loss of
the ability to maintain production when safe (i.e. spurious trip failures). Hence:

crit
=
D
+
S
(see below)

D
= Rate of dangerous (D) failures, including both undetected as well as detected
failures.
D
=
DU
+
DD
(see below)


14

DU
= Rate of dangerous undetected failures, i.e. failures undetected both by automatic
self-test or personnel

DD
= Rate of dangerous detected failures, i.e. failures detected by automatic self-test or
personnel

S
= Rate of safe (spurious trip) failures, including both undetected as well as detected
failures.
S
=
SU
+
SD
(see below)

SU
= Rate of safe (spurious trip) undetected failures, i.e. undetected both by automatic
self-test and personnel

SD
= Rate of safe (spurious trip) detected failures, i.e. detected by automatic self-test or
personnel

undet
= Rate of (critical) failures that are undetected both by automatic self-test and by
personnel (i.e., detected in functional testing only).
undet
=
DU
+
SU

det
= Rate of (critical) failures that are detected by automatic self-test or personnel
(independent of functional testing).
det
=
DD
+
SD


c = Coverage: percentage of critical failures detected either by the automatic self-test or
(incidentally) by personnel observation

c
D

= Coverage of dangerous failures. c
D
= (
DD
/
D
) 100%
Note that
DU
then can be calculated as:
DU
=
D
(1- c
D

/ 100%)

c
S

= Coverage of safe (spurious trip) failures. c
S
= (
SD
/
S
) 100%

Note that
SU
then can be calculated as:
SU
=
S
(1- c
S

/ 100%)

r

= Fraction of dangerous undetected (DU) failures originating from random hardware
failures (1-r will then be the fraction originating from systematic failures)

SFF = Safe failure fraction = (1 -
DU
/
crit
) 100 %

= The fraction of failures of a single component that causes both components of a
redundant pair to fail simultaneously

C
MooN
= Modification factor for voting configurations other than 1oo2 in the beta-factor
model (e.g. 1oo3, 2oo3 and 2oo4 voting logics)


2.2.2 Decomposition of Failure Rate
Some important relationships between different fractions of the critical failure rate are illustrated
in Table 1 and Figure 1.

Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

15
Table 1 Decomposition of critical failure rate,
crit

Spurious trip failures Dangerous failures Sum
Undetected
SU

DU

undet

Detected
SD

DD

det

Sum
S

D

crit





Figure 1 Decomposition of critical failure rate,
crit


2.3 Reliability Measures and Notation
Table 2 lists some performance measures for safety and reliability, and some other main
parameters in the PDS method. A more complete description is found in the updated PDS Method
Handbook, 2010 Edition, [10].

Table 2 Performance measures and reliability parameters
Term Description

PFD Probability of failure on demand. This is the measure for loss of safety caused by
dangerous undetected failures, see section 4.3.
P
TIF
Probability of a test independent failure. This is the measure for loss of safety
caused by a failure not detectable by functional testing, but occurring upon a true
demand (see section 4.3).
CSU Critical safety unavailability, CSU = PFD + P
TIF



16
Term Description

MTTR Mean time to restoration. Time from failure is detected/revealed until function is
restored, ("restoration period"). Note that this restoration period may depend on a
number of factors. It can be different for detected and undetected failures: The
undetected failures are revealed and handled by functional testing and could have
shorter MTTR than the detected failures. The MTTR could also depend on
configuration, operational philosophy and failure multiplicity.
STR Spurious trip rate. Rate of spurious trips of the safety system (or set of redundant
components), taking into consideration the voting configuration.
Interval of functional test (time between functional tests of a component)

2.4 Reliability Parameters
In this section some of the reliability parameters defined above is further discussed.

2.4.1 Rate of Dangerous Undetected Failures
As discussed in section 2.2.2, the critical failure rate,
crit
are split into dangerous and safe
failures, (i.e.
crit
=
D
+
S
) which are further split into detected and undetected failures. When
performing safety unavailability calculations, the rate of dangerous undetected failures,
DU
, is of
special importance, since this parameter - together with the test interval - to a large degree
governs the prediction of how often a safety function is likely to fail on demand.

Equipment specific failure data reports prepared by manufacturers (or others) often provide
DU

estimates being an order of magnitude (or even more) lower than those reported in generic data
handbooks. There may be several causes for such exaggerated claims of performance, including
imprecise definition of equipment- and analysis boundaries, incorrect failure classification or too
optimistic predictions of the diagnostic coverage factor (see e.g. [20]).

When studying the background data for generic failure rates (
DU
) presented in data sources such
as OREDA and RNNP, it is found that these data will include both random hardware failures as
well as systematic failures. Examples of the latter include incorrect parameter settings for a
pressure transmitter, an erroneous output from the control logic due to a failure during software
modification, or a PSV which fails due to excessive internal erosion or corrosion. These are all
failures that are detectable during functional testing and therefore illustrate the fact that systematic
failures may well be part of the
DU
for generic data.

Since failure rates provided by manufacturers frequently tend to exclude all types of failures
related to installation, commissioning or operation of the equipment (i.e. systematic type of
failures), a mismatch between manufacturer data and generic data appears. Our question then
becomes - since systematic failures inevitably will occur - why not include these failures in
predictive reliability analyses?

In order to elucidate the fact that the failure rate will comprise random hardware failures as well
as systematic failures, the parameter r has therefore been defined as the fraction of dangerous
undetected failures originating from random hardware failures. Rough estimates of the r factor are
given in the detailed data sheets in chapter 5. For a more thorough discussion and arguments
concerning the r factor, reference is made to [10].
Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

17


2.4.2 The Coverage Factor, c
Modules often have built-in automatic self-test, i.e. on-line diagnostic testing to detect failures
prior to an actual demand
2
. The fraction of failures being detected by the automatic self-test is
called the fault coverage and quantifies the effect of the self-test. Note that the actual effect on
system performance from a failure that is detected by the automatic self-test will depend on
system configuration and operating philosophy. In particular it should be considered whether the
detected failure is configured to only raise an alarm or alternatively bring the system to a safe
state. It is often seen that failures classified as dangerous detected only raise an alarm and in such
case it must be ensured that the failure initiates an immediate response in the form of a repair
and/or introduction of risk reducing measures.

In addition to the diagnostic self-test, an operator or maintenance crew may detect dangerous
failures incidentally in between tests. For instance, the panel operator may detect a transmitter that
is stuck or a sensor that has been left in by-pass. Similarly, when a process segment is isolated
for maintenance, the operator may detect that one of the valves will not close. The PDS method
also aims at incorporating this effect, and defines the total coverage factor; c reflecting detection
both by automatic self-test and by operator. Further, the coverage factor for dangerous failures is
denoted c
D
whereas the coverage factor for safe failures is denoted c
S
.

Critical failures that are not detected by automatic self-testing or by observation are assumed
either to be detectable by functional (proof) testing
3
or they are so called test independent failures
(TIF) that are not detected during a functional test but appear upon a true demand (see section 2.3
and chapter 4 for further description).

It should be noted that the term detected safe failure (of rate
S
), is interpreted as a failure
which is detected such that a spurious trip is actually avoided. Hence, a spurious closure of a
valve which is detected by, e.g., flow metering downstream the valve, can not be categorised as a
detected safe failure. On the other hand, drifting of a pressure transmitter which is detected by the
operator, such that a shutdown is avoided, will typically be a detected safe failure.

2.4.3 Beta-factors and C
MooN

When quantifying the reliability of systems employing redundancy, e.g., duplicated or triplicated
systems, it is essential to distinguish between independent and dependent failures. Random
hardware failures due to natural stressors are assumed to be independent failures. However, all
systematic failures, e.g. failures due to excessive stresses, design related failures and maintenance
errors are by nature dependent (common cause) failures. Dependent failures can lead to
simultaneous failure of more than one (redundant) component in the safety system, and thus
reduce the advantage of redundancy.

Traditionally, the dependent or common cause failures have been accounted for by the -factor
approach. The problem with this approach has been that for any M-out-of-N (MooN) voting
(M<N) the rate of dependent failures is the same, and thus the approach does not distinguish
between e.g. a 1oo2 and a 2oo3 voting. The PDS method extends the -factor model, and
distinguishes between the voting logics by introducing -factors which depend on the voting
configuration; i.e. (MooN) =

C
MooN
. Here, C
MooN
is a modification factor depending on the
voting configuration, MooN.


2
Also refer to IEC 61508-4, section 3.8.6 and 3.8.7
3
See also IEC 61508-4, section 3.8.5.


18
Standard (average) values for the -factor are given in Table 7. Note that when performing
reliability calculations, application specific -factors should preferably be obtained, e.g. by using
the checklists provided in IEC 61508-6, or by using the simplified method as described in
Appendix D of the PDS method handbook, [10].

Values for C
MooN
are given in Table 8. For a more complete description of the extended -factor
approach of PDS, see [10].

2.4.4 Safe Failure Fraction, SFF
The Safe Failure Fraction as described in IEC 61508 is given by the ratio between dangerous
detected failures plus safe failures and the total rate of failure; i.e. SFF = (
DD
+
S
) /(
D
+
S
).
The objective of including this measure (and the associated hardware fault tolerance; HFT) was to
prevent manufacturers from claiming excessive SILs based solely on PFD calculations. However,
experience has shown that failure modes that actually do not influence the main functions of the
SIS (ref. section 2.1) are frequently included in the safe failure rate so as to artificially increase
the SFF, [20].

It is therefore important to point out that when estimating the SFF, only failures with a potential to
actually cause a spurious trip of the component should be included among the safe failures. Non-
critical failures, such as a minor external leakage of hydraulic oil from a valve actuator, should not
be included.

The SFF figures presented in this handbook are based on reported failure mode distributions in
OREDA as well as some additional expert judgements. Higher (or lower) SFFs than given in the
tables may apply for specific equipment types and this should in such case be well documented,
e.g. by FMEDA type of analyses.

2.5 Main Data Sources
The most important data source when preparing this handbook has been the OREDA database and
handbooks. OREDA is a project organisation whose main purpose is to collect and exchange
reliability data among the participating companies (i.e. BP, ENI, ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips,
Shell, Statoil, TOTAL and Gassco). A special thanks to the OREDA Joint Industry Project (JIP)
for providing access to an agreed set of the OREDA JIP data. For more information about the
OREDA project, any feedback to OREDA JIP concerning the data or name of contact persons,
reference is made to http://www.oreda.com. Equipment for which reliability data are missing or
additional data desirable should be reported to the OREDA project manager or one of the
participating OREDA companies, as this will provide valuable input to future OREDA data
collection plans.

Other important data sources have been;

Recent data from the RNNP (Norwegian: Risikonivet i Norsk Petroleumsindustri)
project on safety critical equipment;
Failure data and failure mode distributions from safety system manufacturers;
Experience data from operational reviews on Norwegian offshore and onshore
installations;
Other commercially published data handbooks such as Exida, [15] and the T-book, [16];
Discussions and interviews with experts.

A complete list of data sources and references is given in chapter 6.
Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

19

2.6 Using the Data in This Handbook
The data in this handbook provide best (average) estimates of equipment failure rates based on
experience gathered mainly throughout the petroleum industry.

The recommended data is based on a number of assumptions concerning safe state, fail safe
design, self-test ability, loop monitoring, NE/NDE design, etc. These assumptions are, for each
piece of equipment, described in the detailed data sheets in chapter 5, Hence, when using the data
for reliability calculations, it is important to consider the relevance of these assumptions for each
specific application.















NOTE! APART FROM SOME EXAMPLE PAGES FROM CHAPTER 3 (RELIABILITY
DATA SUMMARY), CHAPTER 5 (DATA DOSSIERS) AND CHAPTER 6
(REFERENCES), THE REMAINING PART OF THE HANDBOOK IS NOT
INCLUDED IN THIS FREE ELECTRONIC VERSION.

THE FOLLOWING PAGES FROM CHAPTER 5 ARE INCLUDED BELOW:
- Page 43: 5 DATA DOSSIERS, introduction
- Page 62: 5.1.10 Smoke Detector
Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

19
3 RELIABILITY DATA SUMMARY
3.1 Topside Equipment
The tables 3 to 8 summarise the input data to be used in reliability analyses. The definitions of the
column headings relate to the parameter definitions given in section 2.2 and 2.3. Some additional
comments on the values for P
TIF
, coverage and r, are given in section 3.3.

Observe that
D
(third column of tables 3 to 5), together with
crit
=
D
+
S
, will provide the
S
.
The rates of undetected failures
DU
and
SU
follow from the given coverage values, c
D
and c
S
. I.e.

DU
=
D
(1- c
D
/ 100%) and
SU
=
S
(1- c
S
/ 100%). The safe failure fraction, SFF, can be
calculated by SFF =((
crit
-
DU
)/
crit
) 100%.

Data dossiers with comprehensive information for each component are given in chapter 5 as
referred to in tables 3 to 5.

Table 3 Failure rates, coverages and SFF for input devices
Input Devices
Component
crit
1)

D
1)
c
D
c
S

DU
1)

SU
1)
SFF Ref.
Pressure switch 3.4 2.3 15 % 10 % 2.0 1.0 41 % Sect. 5.1.1
Proximity switch,
inductive
5.7 3.5 15 % 10 % 3.0 2.0 47 % Sect. 5.1.2
Pressure transmitter 1.3 0.8 60 % 30 % 0.3 0.4 77 % Sect. 5.1.3
Level (displacement)
transmitter
3.0 1.4 60 % 30 % 0.6 1.1 80 % Sect. 5.1.4
Temperature transmitter
2.0 0.7 60 % 30 % 0.3 0.9 85 % Sect. 5.1.5
Flow transmitter 3.7 1.5 60 % 30 % 0.6 1.5 84 % Sect. 5.1.6
Gas detector, catalytic 5.0 3.5 50 % 30 % 1.8 1.1 64 % Sect. 5.1.7
Gas detector, IR point 4.7 2.5 75 % 50 % 0.6 1.1 88 % Sect. 5.1.8
Gas detector, IR line 5.0 2.8 75 % 50 % 0.7 1.1 86 % Sect. 5.1.9
Smoke detector 3.2 1.2 40 % 30 % 0.7 1.4 78 % Sect. 5.1.10
Heat detector 2.5 1.0 40 % 40 % 0.6 0.9 76 % Sect. 5.1.11
Flame detector 6.5 2.7 70 % 50 % 0.8 1.9 88 % Sect. 5.1.12
H
2
S detector 1.3 1.0 50% 30% 0.5 0.2 62% Sect. 5.1.13
ESD push button 0.8 0.5 20 % 10 % 0.4 0.3 50 % Sect. 5.1.14
1)
All failure rates given per 10
6
hours






Rest of table not shown in this free copy.
Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

43
5 DATA DOSSIERS

The following pages present the data dossiers of the control and safety system components. The
dossiers are input to the tables in chapter 3 that summarise the generic input data to PDS analyses.
Note that the generic data, by nature represent a wide variation of equipment populations and as
such should be considered on individual grounds when using the data for a specific application.

The data dossiers are based on the data dossiers in previous editions of the handbook, [12], [13],
[14], and have been updated according to the work done in the PDS-BIP and the new data
available.

Adapting the definitions used in OREDA, several severity class types are referred to in the data
dossiers. The definitions of the various types are, [3]:

Critical failure: A failure which causes immediate and complete loss of a system's capability
of providing its output.
Degraded failure: A failure which is not critical, but it prevents the system from providing its
output within specifications. Such a failure would usually, but not necessarily, be gradual or
partial, and may develop into a critical failure in time.
Incipient failure: A failure which does not immediately cause loss of the system's capability of
providing its output, but if not attended to, could result in a critical or degraded failure in the
near future.
Unknown: Failure severity was not recorded or could not be deduced.

Note that only the critical failures are included as a basis for the failure rate estimates (i.e. the

crit
). From the description of the failure mode, the critical failures are further split into dangerous
and safe failures (i.e.
crit
=
D
+
S
). E.g. for shutdown valves a fail to close on demand failure
will be classified as dangerous whereas a spurious operation failure will be classified as a safe
(spurious trip) failure.

The following failure modes are referred in the data dossier tables:

DOP - Delayed operation
EXL - External leakage
FTC - Fail to close on demand
FTO - Fail to open on demand
FTR - Fail to regulate
INL - Internal leakage
LCP - Leakage in closed position
LOO - Low output
NOO - No output
PLU - Plugged/choked
SHH - Spurious high level alarm
SLL - Spurious low level alarm
SPO - Spurious operation
STD - Structural deficiency
VLO - Very low output




62
5.1.10 Smoke Detector
Module: Input Devices
Component: Smoke Detector
PDS Reliability Data Dossier
Date of Revision
2009-12-18
Description / equipment boundaries
The detector includes the sensor and
local electronics such as the address-/
interface unit.
Remarks
Fire central not included
Recommended Values for Calculation
Total rate Coverage Undetected rate

D
= 1.2 per 10
6
hrs c
D
= 0.40
DU
= 0.7 per 10
6
hrs

S
= 2.0 per 10
6
hrs c
S
= 0.30
SU
= 1.4 per 10
6
hrs

crit
= 3.2 per 10
6
hrs

P
TIF
= 1 10
-3


r = 0.4
Assessment
The failure rate estimate is an update of the 2006 figure which was primarily based on OREDA
phase III as well as some phase V data. The rate of DU failures is estimated still assuming
coverage of 40 % (observed in OREDA incomplete and complete phase III were 29% and 50%,
respectively). The rate of dangerous and safe failures has been slightly decreased based on
observations from failure reviews and later OREDA phases. For safe failures 30 % coverage -
mainly based on OREDA phase III observations as well as expert judgement - has been assumed.
It should be noted that for some type of smoke detectors with more extensive self test, the
coverage may be significantly higher. This must be assessed for each specific detector type.

The P
TIF
is based on expert judgements and is based on the assumption that the detectors are
exposed. The estimated r value is based on observed failure causes for critical detector failures
(40% expected wear and tear and 60% maintenance errors). A summary of some of the main
arguments is provided in section 3.3.
Failure Rate Reference
Overall
failure rate
(per 10
6
hrs)
Failure mode
distribution
Data source/comment

crit
= 3.7

D
= 1.3 per 10
6
hrs

DU
= 0.8 per 10
6
hrs

STU
= 1.4 per 10
6
hrs

P
TIF
= 10
-3

Recommended values for calculation in 2006-edition,
[12]

Assumed c
D
= 40%

crit
= 3.7

D
= 1.3 per 10
6
hrs

DU
= 0.8 per 10
6
hrs

STU
= 1.2 per 10
6
hrs

P
TIF
= 10
-3
0.05
1)

Recommended values for calculation in 2004- and
2003-edition, [13], [14]

Assumed c
D
= 40%
1)
The range represents different types of fires (smoke/flame)
Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

63
Module: Input Devices
Component: Smoke Detector
PDS Reliability Data Dossier
0.0


D: 0.0
ST: 0.0

Observed:
c
D
= N/A
c
ST
= N/A


OREDA phase V database [6]
Data relevant for smoke/combustion detectors.
Filter:
Inv. Equipment class = Fire & Gas Detectors AND
Inv. Design Class = Smoke/Combustion AND
Inv. Phase = 5 AND
Fail. Severity Class = Critical

No. of inventories = 103
No. of critical D failures = 0
No. of critical ST failures = 0
Surveillance Time (hours) = 3 238 320
3.7 D: 1.0
SPO: 2.7

Observed:
c
D
= 29 %
(Calculated including
detectors having some
kind of self-test
arrangement only)
OREDA phase III database, [8].
Data relevant for smoke/combustion detectors. Both
conventional (65 %) and addressable (35 %) detectors
are included. 56 % have automatic loop test, 35 %
have a combination of loop and built-in self-test, the
residual (9 %) have no self-test feature.

No. of inventories = 1 897
Total no. of failures = 218
Cal. time = 50 374 800 hrs
Note! Only failures classified as "critical" are included in
the failure rate estimates.

DU
= 0.3 per 10
6
hrs

Data from review of safety critical failures on
Norwegian onshore plant. Data applicable for optical
smoke detectors

No. of inventories = 807 detectors (460 early warning)
No. of critical DU failures = 2
1)

Cal. time = 7 069 320 hrs
2)


1)
The failure review focused on DU failures, but classification of other
failure modes was also performed. No DD or safe failures registered.
2)
One year of operation

DU
= 0.6 per 10
6
hrs

Data from review of safety critical failures on
Norwegian semi-submersible platform. Data applicable
for optical smoke detectors

No. of inventories = 788 detectors
No. of critical DU failures = 8
1)

Cal. time = 13 805 760 hrs
2)


1)
The failure review focused on DU failures. In addition 10 DD and 14
safe failures were also registered
2)
Two years of operation

DU
= 1.65 per 10
6
hrs

SU
= 3.85 per 10
6
hrs

SFF = 70 %
Exida [15]: Generic smoke (ionization) detector

Reliability Data for Safety Instrumented Systems
PDS Data Handbook, 2010 Edition

117
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th
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118
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