Hydraulics BLT1110
Module Notes
John Pickering & Rob Eggleton
Hydraulics Module Notes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Hydraulics..................................................................................................................7
SI Units...................................................................................................................8
Mass and Weight...................................................................................................9
Dimensions.............................................................................................................9
Linear, constant acceleration.................................................................................9
Dimensional Homogeneity...................................................................................10
Pressure...............................................................................................................10
Frictional Shear Stress.........................................................................................10
Properties of Fluids..............................................................................................11
Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity [GK mu]........................................................11
Kinematic Viscosity [GK nu]..............................................................................11
Fluid Flow.............................................................................................................11
Introduction to Fluid Mechanics...............................................................................12
The Laws of Hydrostatics.....................................................................................12
Pressure Measurement........................................................................................13
Absolute and Gauge Pressure.........................................................................13
Pressure Head..................................................................................................13
The Mercury Barometer...................................................................................13
The Aneroid Barometer....................................................................................14
The Deadweight Piston Gauge........................................................................14
The Bourdon Gauge.........................................................................................14
Pressure Transducers......................................................................................14
The Piezometer Tube.......................................................................................14
The Utube Manometer....................................................................................15
The Differential Manometer..............................................................................15
Worked Examples Pressure Measurement......................................................16
Tutorial Questions Pressure Measurement......................................................19
Stability and Buoyancy of Floating Bodies...........................................................20
Archimedes Principle........................................................................................20
Determination of Metacentric Height, MG........................................................21
Worked Examples  Buoyancy.............................................................................22
Tutorial Questions  Buoyancy.............................................................................23
Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Surfaces.......................................................24
Moment of a Force, Rotation and Equilibrium.....................................................25
Worked Examples Hydrostatic Forces..............................................................26
Tutorial Questions Hydrostatic Forces..............................................................29
Hydrodynamics Fluids in Motion...........................................................................30
Types of Flow.......................................................................................................30
Determination of Laminar/Turbulent Flow Reynolds Number, Re....................30
Analysis of Fluid Flow..........................................................................................31
Worked Examples  Continuity.............................................................................32
Tutorial Questions Continuity ...........................................................................32
Work, Energy and Efficiency...................................................................................33
Water Energy.......................................................................................................33
Gravitational or Potential Energy.........................................................................33
Energy Head........................................................................................................34
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Kinetic Energy......................................................................................................34
Pressure Energy..................................................................................................34
Energy Losses.....................................................................................................34
Frictional Energy Loss......................................................................................34
Minor Energy Losses........................................................................................35
The Energy (Bernoulli) Equation..........................................................................35
Worked Examples Energy................................................................................36
Tutorial Questions Energy................................................................................37
Flow Measurement in pipelines...........................................................................38
Momentum Equation............................................................................................39
Jet Impact on a Stationary Flat Plate...............................................................39
Jet Impact on a Stationary Curved Vane.........................................................39
Forces on a Pipe Bend.....................................................................................40
Forces on a Pipe Contraction or Nozzle..........................................................40
Thrust Blocks....................................................................................................40
Worked Examples Momentum..........................................................................41
Tutorial Questions Momentum..........................................................................42
Friction Loss in Pipelines ........................................................................................43
The DarcyWeisbach Equation............................................................................43
Turbulent Flows....................................................................................................43
ColebrookWhite Formula for ............................................................................43
Worked Examples DarcyWeisbach Equation..................................................44
Tutorial Questions DarcyWeisbach Equation..................................................45
Tables for the Hydraulic Design of Pipes and Sewers............................................46
Explanation of Table Layout................................................................................46
Worked Example Design Table........................................................................46
Tutorial Questions Design Tables.....................................................................47
Minor Losses........................................................................................................47
Worked Examples Minor Losses......................................................................54
Tutorial Questions Minor Losses......................................................................58
Open Channel Flow.................................................................................................59
Types of Channel Flow........................................................................................59
Uniform Flow....................................................................................................59
Nonuniform Flow or Varied Flow.....................................................................59
Steady Flow......................................................................................................60
Unsteady Flow..................................................................................................60
Terminology Used in Channel Flow.....................................................................60
Equations.............................................................................................................61
Specific Energy.................................................................................................61
Critical Depth....................................................................................................62
Equations for Steady Uniform Flow in Open Channels....................................62
Worked Examples Uniform Channel Flow........................................................63
Tutorial Questions Uniform Channel Flow........................................................66
Nonuniform Open Channel Flow........................................................................67
Standing wave or Hydraulic Jump.......................................................................67
Flow Measuring Devices in Channels..................................................................68
1. Flow Measuring Structures..........................................................................68
2. Flow Rate from Velocity..............................................................................70
3. Chemical Means..........................................................................................71
Hydraulic Machines.................................................................................................72
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Functions and Types............................................................................................72
Positive Displacement Pumps.............................................................................72
Rotodynamic Pumps............................................................................................73
Types of Rotodynamic Pumps.............................................................................73
Centrifugal Pumps (low Q, high H)...................................................................73
Axial Flow Pumps (high Q, low H)....................................................................74
Mixed Flow Pumps...........................................................................................74
Multistage Pumps.............................................................................................74
Pump Performance Characteristics (Curves)......................................................75
Centrifugal Pump Curves.................................................................................75
Axial Flow Pump Curves..................................................................................75
Mixed Flow Pump Curve..................................................................................75
Other Characteristic Curves.............................................................................76
Hydro Power Turbines.........................................................................................76
Francis Turbine.................................................................................................76
Axial Flow Turbine............................................................................................77
Pelton Wheel Turbine.......................................................................................78
Sewage Pumping Station Layouts.......................................................................79
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Hydraulics Module Notes
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 : Fluid Flow................................................................................................11
Figure 2 : Pressure Variation
with Depth................................................................................................................12
Figure 3 : Pressure in Connected Fluids.................................................................12
Figure 4 : Gauge Pressure Scale............................................................................13
Figure 5 : Mercury Barometer..................................................................................13
Figure 6 : Aneroid Barometer..................................................................................14
Figure 7 : Deadweight Piston Gauge.......................................................................14
Figure 8 : Bourdon Gauge.......................................................................................14
Figure 9 : Pressure Transducer...............................................................................14
Figure 10 : (a) Piezometer (b) Manometer with Secondary Gauge Fluid..............15
Figure 11 : Differential Manometer..........................................................................15
Figure 12 : Worked P.M. Example 1........................................................................16
Figure 13 : Solution for P.M. Example 1..................................................................16
Figure 14 : Worked P.M. Example 2........................................................................17
Figure 15 : Worked P.M. Example 3........................................................................18
Figure 16 : P.M. Tutorial Questions Figures............................................................19
Figure 17 : Buoyancy Force....................................................................................20
Figure 18 : Equilibrium Conditions...........................................................................21
Figure 19 : Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surface............................................24
Figure 20 : Moment of Force...................................................................................25
Figure 21 : Worked Example H.F. 1........................................................................26
Figure 22 : Worked Example H.F. 2........................................................................27
Figure 23 : Worked Example H.F. 3........................................................................27
Figure 24 : Worked Example H.F. 3 Solution..........................................................28
Figure 25 : Worked Example H.F. 3 Solution (Moments)........................................28
Figure 26 : H.F. Tutorial Questions ........................................................................29
Figure 27 : Flow Continuity......................................................................................31
Figure 28 : Worked Examples Continuity................................................................32
Figure 29 : Work  Directed Force...........................................................................33
Figure 30 : Pressure Energy....................................................................................34
Figure 31 : Bernoulli Energy Diagram.....................................................................35
Figure 32 : Worked Examples E. 1..........................................................................36
Figure 33 : Worked Examples E. 2..........................................................................37
Figure 34 : Jet Impact on Stationary Flat Plate.......................................................39
Figure 35 : Jet Impact on a Stationary Curved Vane..............................................39
Figure 36 : Forces on a Pipe Bend..........................................................................40
Figure 37 : Forces on a Pipe Contraction................................................................40
Figure 38 : Worked Examples M. 1.........................................................................41
Figure 39 : Worked Examples M. 2.........................................................................42
Figure 40 : Worked Examples D.E..........................................................................44
Figure 41 : Pipeline Design Table...........................................................................46
Figure 42 : Table of Minor Losses...........................................................................48
Figure 43 : Entry to a Pipe.......................................................................................49
Figure 44 : Sudden Increase in Pipe Diameter.......................................................49
Figure 45 : Sudden Decrease in Pipe Diameter......................................................50
Figure 46 : Bends, Elbows, and Tee Junctions.......................................................50
Figure 47 : Divergent Taper or Diffuser...................................................................51
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Figure 48 : Partially Closed Valves..........................................................................52
Figure 49 : Exit from a Pipe : into a reservoir..........................................................52
Figure 50 : Exit from a Pipe : to atmosphere...........................................................53
Figure 51 : Worked Examples M.L. 1......................................................................54
Figure 52 : Worked Examples M.L. 2......................................................................55
Figure 53 : Worked Examples M.L. 3......................................................................56
Figure 54 : Uniform Flow.........................................................................................59
Figure 55 : Nonuniform (or Varied Flow)................................................................59
Figure 56 : Channel Flow Diagram..........................................................................60
Figure 57 : Flow Diagram for Equations..................................................................61
Figure 58 : Critical Depth Graph..............................................................................62
Figure 59 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 1...................................................................63
Figure 60 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 2...................................................................63
Figure 61 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 3...................................................................64
Figure 62 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 4...................................................................65
Figure 63 : Hydraulic Jump......................................................................................67
Figure 64 : Jump Equation Diagram........................................................................68
Figure 65 : Broad Crested Weir Figure 66 : Round Crested Weir..........................68
Figure 65 : Broad Crested Weir Figure 66 : Round Crested Weir..........................68
Figure 67 : Vnotch Weir Plate................................................................................69
Figure 68 : Rectangular Weir Plate.........................................................................69
Figure 69 : Flume Plan Figure 70 : Flume Elevation...............................................70
Figure 69 : Flume Plan Figure 70 : Flume Elevation...............................................70
Figure 71 : Depth Measurement..............................................................................70
Figure 72 : Variation of Velocity...............................................................................70
Figure 73 : Irregular Sections  Rivers/Streams......................................................71
Figure 74 : Total Energy Diagram for Pump and Turbine.......................................72
Figure 75 : Positive Displacement Pump................................................................72
Figure 76 : Centrifugal Pumps.................................................................................73
Figure 77 : Axial Flow Pump....................................................................................74
Figure 78 : Mixed Flow Pump..................................................................................74
Figure 79 : Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curves...............................................75
Figure 80 : Axial Flow Pump Characteristic Curves................................................75
Figure 81 : Mixed Flow Pump Characteristic Curve................................................75
Figure 82 : Design Point Curve...............................................................................76
Figure 83 : Families of Characteristic Curves.........................................................76
Figure 84 : Francis Turbine.....................................................................................76
Figure 85 : Axial Flow Turbine.................................................................................77
Figure 86 : Pelton Wheel Turbine............................................................................78
Figure 87 : Sewage Pumps  Axial and Mixed Flow................................................79
Figure 88 : Sewage Pumps  Centrifugal and Submersible....................................80
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Hydraulics
Hydraulics [from the Greek word for water] is the study of the problems of the flow
and storage of water, but is often applied to other liquids.
Fluid mechanics is the section of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and
dynamics of liquids and gases.
A fluid can offer no resistance to any force causing change of shape.
Change of shape is caused by shearing forces.
If a fluid is at rest there are no shear forces acting.
Fluids may be either liquids or gases.
A liquid is difficult to compress and occupies a fixed volume.
A gas is easily compressed and expands to fill any vessel.
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Hydraulics Module Notes
SI Units
The Systeme International has six basic units:
length
metre (m)
mass
kilogramme (kg)
time
second (s or sec)
electric current
ampere (A)
absolute temperature
kelvin (k)
luminous intensity
candela (cd)
All other units are derived from these fundamental units.
The unit of velocity is obtained by dividing the unit of distance, the metre, by the
unit of time, the second, and is thus metres per second.
The relationship between mass and force is derived from Newtons second law
(making the constant of proportionality equal to one).
FORCE = MASS ACCELERATION
The unit of force is a product of mass and acceleration.
kg[m/sec2] = Newton
Other systems exist:
footpoundsecond (fps)
centimetregrammesecond (cgs)
metrekilogrammesecond (mks)
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Mass and Weight
The weight of a body is the force with which it is attracted towards the earth. If a
body falls freely then, neglecting air resistance, its acceleration is constant. This
acceleration is denoted by g and is called the acceleration due to gravity.
i.e. Weight W = mg where m is mass
N.B. If mass (m) is measured in kg and g in m/s2, then W is measured in N
(Newton).
Dimensions
In mechanics all quantities can be expressed in terms of fundamental dimensions
mass
length
time
thus
acceleration = distance / time2
therefore
dimensions of acceleration = L / T2
and
force = ML / T2
Linear, constant acceleration
e.g., acceleration due to gravity
If a body with initial velocity (speed) u undergoes constant acceleration a for time
t to bring it to a final velocity v over a distance s then
a=
change in speed v u
=
change in time
t
Further, the average speed =
thus
1
2
( u + v)
or
v =u +at
(1)
and distance travelled = average speed t
s = 21 (u + v )t
Substituting for v from (1) into (2) gives
s = 21 (u +u +at )t
or
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(2)
s = ut + 21 at 2
(3)
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Substituting for t from (1) into (2) gives
i.e.,
s = 21 (u + v ) ( v u) a
2as =v 2 u2
or
v 2 =u 2 +2as
(4)
Dimensional Homogeneity
If an equation is to represent something real then terms on both sides must have
the same dimensions so that like is compared with like.
e.g.
v = u + at
dimensions of v are
LT1
dimensions of u are
LT1
dimensions of at are
LT2 x T = LT1
Note that some practical formulae do not appear to be dimensionally correct. The
reason is that a coefficient may not be a pure number. E.g., g may be written as
9.81 but has the units LT2.
Pressure
The weight of the block acting on an area A of the surface produces a pressure p
on that surface, where
Pressure
p=
Force W
=
Area
A
W
m2
Area A
p
i.e., pressure is force / unit area
Frictional Shear Stress
Shear forces, such as friction, produce a shear stress
they act, where
shear stress
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shear force F N
=
m2
area
A
on the area over which
Area A
F
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Properties of Fluids
MASS DENSITY
[GK rho] is mass per unit volume, units kg/m3
SPECIFIC WEIGHT
w is the weight per unit volume, units N/m3
weight = mass x gravitational acceleration
w= g
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
or relative density is the ratio of the density of a
substance to the density of water.
N.B. density of water, w = 1000 kg/m3
density of mercury, m = 13600 kg/m3
density of dry air, a = 1.3 kg/m3 at NTP
Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity [GK mu]
The coefficient of dynamic viscosity is defined as the shear force / unit area
required to drag one layer of fluid with unit velocity past another layer unit distance
away from it in the fluid.
SI units N s m 2
or
kg/m s
Kinematic Viscosity [GK nu]
The kinematic viscosity is the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density.
=
units m 2 /sec
Viscosity of liquids decreases with increase in temperature.
Viscosity of gases increases with increase in temperature.
Fluid Flow
As fluids flow along pipes or channels, the fluid particles
next to the boundary (pipe wall or channel bed) are held at
rest by friction. This generates internal shearing (friction)
forces between the layers of fluid as they slide over one
another. The viscosity of a fluid determines the rate at
which its particles can slide over one another under a given
shear stress.
Figure 1 : Fluid Flow
i.e.,
dv
=
dy
Thus a velocity gradient exists, perpendicular to the direction of flow.
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
The Laws of Hydrostatics
1. Direction of Force at a Boundary
When a fluid is at rest, no friction (shear) force exists at its boundaries.
Hence, any force exerted by the fluid on a boundary or immersed object
must act in a direction normal (perpendicular) to that boundary and be
independent of viscosity.
2. Variation of Pressure Intensity with Direction
The pressure intensity at a point in a fluid has the same magnitude in all
directions.
3. Variation of Pressure Intensity with Depth
It is common knowledge that the pressure in a liquid
increases with depth. Consider the vertical
equilibrium of the cylinder of fluid shown, if the area
of the end is A then
R y = pA W pat A =0
Figure 2 : Pressure Variation
with Depth
where at = atmospheric pressure pushing down on the surface of the water:
Now
W =m g =volume g =Ahg
hence
pA =ghA +p at A
i.e., p = gh + pat
thus pressure increases linearly with depth.
4. Pressure in Connected Fluids
The pressure along any horizontal line X
X will be the same magnitude in each
arm of the vessel providing the fluid is
the same.
Figure 3 : Pressure in Connected Fluids
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Pressure Measurement
Absolute and Gauge Pressure
Figure 4 : Gauge Pressure Scale
(N.B. Absolute zero pressure = perfect vacuum)
Absolute Pressure pabs = pat + gh
In practice, pressure is measured relative to atmospheric pressure, as gauge
pressure.
Gauge Pressure p = pabs pat = gh
(N.B, Negative gauge pressure = subatmospheric pressure = partial vacuum)
Pressure Head
The standard unit of pressure is N/m 2. However, it follows directly from the
equation p = gh that p h for a given fluid. Thus, pressure p may be expressed
in terms of the height h of a column of fluid (density, ) required to produce that
pressure (regardless of how the pressure is, in fact, produced).
The unit of measurement is then metres (m) and the pressure is expressed in
terms of metres head of fluid. E.g., metres head of water or metres head of
mercury.
The Mercury Barometer
A glass tube about 1m long is filled with mercury
and then inverted in a bowl of mercury. Above the
meniscus mercury vapour forms at vapour pressure
for mercury, which is almost absolute zero pressure.
The atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of
the mercury in the bowl supports a column of
mercury in the tube of height h. Pressure at A (level
with liquid surface) = pressure on liquid surface =
atmospheric pressure, pat. Vertical equilibrium of
the mercury column requires that:
Pressure force acting upwards at A = weight of
mercury above A
Figure 5 : Mercury Barometer
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Hydraulics Module Notes
i.e., pat x a = mgah pat = mgh
where a = bore of tube m = density of mercury
Atmospheric pressure varies about a mean value of pat = 101kN/m2. Expressing
this as a pressure head it is 0.76m of mercury or 10.35m of water.
The Aneroid Barometer
The flexible chamber is evacuated, but
prevented from collapsing by the spring.
Variations in atmospheric pressure cause the
box to move in or out so that the pull of the
spring = force due to atmospheric pressure.
These movements are amplified mechanically
and move a pointer over a calibrated scale.
Figure 6 : Aneroid Barometer
The Deadweight Piston Gauge
The pressure at A in the fluid is measured by balancing it
with weights acting on the piston. This apparatus is mainly
used to calibrate other types of gauges.
Figure 7 : Deadweight Piston Gauge
The Bourdon Gauge
The curved tube of flattened cross section is held rigidly at
one end with the free end connected to a pointer. When
pressure is admitted to the tube it tends to straighten. The
movement of the free end causes the pointer to rotate over
a graduated scale.
Figure 8 : Bourdon Gauge
Pressure Transducers
Fluid is admitted to the small chamber on one side of the
diaphragm. Changes in pressure result in changes in the
stress and consequently the electrical resistance of the
diaphragm. The resistance change is measured on a digital
voltmeter and calibrated with the pressure change.
Figure 9 : Pressure Transducer
N.B. The deadweight piston gauge, Bourdon gauge and pressure transducers
measure gauge pressure.
The Piezometer Tube
The pressure p in the pipeline supports a column of liquid height h in the vertical
transparent tube. The pressure is thus measured directly in metres head:
p = h metres of liquid = gh N/m2, where = density of liquid (kg/m3)
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Hydraulics Module Notes
Figure 10 :
(a) Piezometer
(b) Manometer with Secondary Gauge Fluid
N.B. The piezometer is open to the atmosphere and measures gauge pressure.
This is true for all manometers.
The Utube Manometer
This uses a secondary gauge liquid, denser than the fluid in the pipeline. This is
necessary
i)
when the pipeline fluid is a gas (which would escape from a piezometer and
would not form a meniscus)
ii)
when h would be too large without the introduction of a much denser gauge
fluid, e.g. water or alcohol for air, and mercury for water in the pipeline.
The pressure at level x is the same in both tubes. i.e., p x = p + Agy = Bgy
Hence p = Bgh  Agy N/m2
The Differential Manometer
This allows the pressure difference between two
points in a pipeline to be measured.
N.B. B > A. If B < A then the manometer
must be inverted. It is then known as an inverted
Utube manometer.
The pressure at level X is the same in both tubes.
i.e. pX = p1 + Agy1 = p2 + Agy2 + Bgh
hence p1 p2 = Ag(y2  y1) + Bgh N/m2
Figure 11 : Differential Manometer
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Worked Examples Pressure Measurement
1. For the situations shown in Figure 12.
(a) If the pipeline and manometer fluid densities are =
860kg/m3 and m = 13600kg/m3 respectively, x = 0.9m
and the pressure at Y is 90 kN/m2, find the difference in
meniscus levels, h.
(b) For the same fluid densities as in (a), but with x =
1.3m and h = 1.4m, find the pressure at Y.
Figure 12 : Worked P.M. Example 1
Solution:
(a) Draw a datum level X X through the lower
meniscus. The pressure at level X X will be the same in
both limbs of the U tube manometer. See Figure 13.
For the righthand limb:
p X = m gh = 13600 9.81 h
For the lefthand limb:
p X = p Y + gx = 90 103 + 860 9.81 0.9
Equating the two expressions for pX:
Figure 13 : Solution for P.M. Example 1
13600 9.81 h = 90 103 + 860 9.81 0.9
h=
90 10 3 + 860 9.81 0.9
= 0.731 m
13600 9.81
(b) For the righthand limb: p X = m gh =13600 9.811.4
For the lefthand limb:
p X = p Y + gx = p Y + 860 9.811.3
Equating the two expressions for pX:
13600 9.811.4 = p Y + 860 9.811.3
p Y + 860 9.811.3 = 13600 9.811.4
p Y =13600 9.811.4 860 9.811.3 = 175815 N/m2 175kN/m2.
2. For the situation shown in Figure 14, if the pipeline
and manometer fluid densities are = 1100kg/m3 (brine)
and m = 13600kg/m3 respectively, x = 0.7m and the
pressure at Y is 30 kN/m2, find the difference in
meniscus levels, h.
Figure 14 : Worked P.M. Example 2
Solution:
Note that the righthand meniscus is now lower than the lefthand meniscus. The
pressure at Y is subatmospheric, i.e. a negative gauge pressure
For the righthand limb pX = 0 (atmospheric pressure)
For the lefthand limb
p X = p Y + gx + m gh = 30 10 3 +1100 9.81 0.7 +13600 9.81 h
Equating the two expressions for pX:
30 10 3 + 1100 9.81 0.7 + 13600 9.81 h = 0
h =
30 10 3 1100 9.81 0.7
= 0.168m
13600 9.81
3. For the situations shown in Figure 15, if
the pipeline and manometer fluid densities
are = 1000kg/m3 and m = 13600kg/m3
respectively, the pressure difference
between M and N is 35kN/m2, a = 1.0m and
b = 0.3m, what is the difference in meniscus
levels, h?
Figure 15 : Worked P.M. Example 3
Solution:
For the lefthand limb pX = pM + ga
For the righthand limb pX = pN + g(a b h) + mgh
Equating the two expressions for pX
p M p N = m gh gh gb = g[ h ( m ) b]
35 10 3 = 9.81[ h (13600 1000) 1000 0.3]
h =0.307m
Tutorial Questions Pressure Measurement
1. The density of sea water as 1025 kg/m 3. Determine the pressure at a depth
of 6 km in sea water. [60.3MN/m2]
2. The pressure at a point in a pipeline is measured by means of a piezometer
tube. Determine the height, h, of the column of liquid if:
a. the liquid is water and the pressure is 12.5 kN/m 2 [1.274m]
b. the liquid is oil (specific gravity = 0.88) and the pressure is 9.75
kN/m2. [1.129m]
c. the liquid is mercury (relative density = 13.6) and the pressure is 22.6
kN/m2. [0.169m]
3. For the situations shown in Figure 16 (A):
a. If the pipeline and manometer fluid densities are = 1000kg/m 3 and
m = 13600kg/m3 respectively, x = 1.1m and the pressure at Y is 100
kN/m2, find the difference in meniscus levels, h. [0.83m]
b. For the same fluid densities as in (a), but with x = 1.3m and h = 0.7m,
find the pressure at Y. [80.6 kN/m2]
c. If the fluid densities are = 1.23kg/m 3 and m = 1000kg/m3
respectively, x = 0.7m and h = 0.5m, find the pressure at Y. [4.9
kN/m2]
4. For the situation shown in Figure 16 (B), if the pipeline and manometer fluid
densities are = 1100kg/m3 (brine) and m = 13600kg/m3 respectively, x =
0.8m and h = 0.3m, find the pressure at Y. [ 48.7 kN/m 2]
5. For the situations shown in Figure 16 (C):
a. if the pipeline and manometer fluid densities are = 1000kg/m 3 and
m = 13600kg/m3 respectively, the pressure difference between M
and N is 25kN/m2, a = 1.1m and b = 0.2m, what is the difference in
meniscus levels, h? [0.218m]
b. if the pipeline and manometer fluid densities are = 880kg/m 3 (oil)
and m = 13600kg/m3 respectively, a = 1.2m, b = 0.45m and h =
0.5m, what is the pressure difference between M and N? [58.5
kN/m2]
(A)
(B)
(C)
Figure 16 : P.M. Tutorial Questions Figures
Stability and Buoyancy of Floating Bodies
Archimedes Principle
The upthrust (or buoyancy force) on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the
weight of fluid displaced.
i.e., buoyancy force, FB = weight of fluid displaced
= g (volume displaced)
Buoyancy force, FB, acts through the centroid (centre of area) of the displaced
volume. This is called the centre of buoyancy, B.
Figure 17 : Buoyancy Force
= centre of gravity of body
= centre of buoyancy of displaced volume of fluid
B1
= new centre of buoyancy
= metacentre
The distance MG is called the metacentric height and this greatly affects the
stability of the body.
There are three stability conditions:
Figure 18 : Equilibrium Conditions
Stable Equilibrium
Neutral Equilibrium
Unstable Equilibrium
M above G (MG therefore positive), righting
moment restores body to its original position.
M and G coincide, no moment produced, body
stays in this position.
M below G (MG therefore negative), moment
produced will create further displacement, body
overturns.
Determination of Metacentric Height, MG
MB
= metacentric radius
and MB
= MG + BG
MG
= MB BG
I
V
where = 2nd moment of area of water
plane surface, and
V = volume displaced
sign of MG will determine whether the
body is in stable, neutral or unstable
equilibrium
Worked Examples  Buoyancy
A rectangular, fully enclosed tank 2.4m long, 1.4m wide and 0.8m high is
constructed of sheet metal weighing 340N/m 2. The tank floats in sea water of
density 1025kg/m3 with its 0.8m sides vertical. If the centre of gravity is at the
geometric centre of the vessel, calculate the metacentric height and comment on
the stability of the tank.
Solution:
Weight of tank = 2 340[ ( 2.4 1.4) + (1.4 0.8) + ( 2.4 0.8) ] = 4352 N
Mass
Volume of sea water displaced = Density =
Weight
4352
=
= 0.433 m 3
g
1025 9.81
0.433
= 0.129m
2.4 1.4
y 0.129
= 0.065m above the base of the tank.
Centre of Buoyancy, B is =
2
2
0.8
= 0.4m above the base of the tank.
Centre of gravity, G is
2
Hence BG = 0.4 0.065 = 0.335m
Depth of immersion, y =
MB =
I
bd 3 1
d2
1.4 2
=
.
=
=
=1.267 m
V
12 bdy 12 y 12 0.129
MG = MB BG = 1.267 0.335 = 0.932m
M lies above G (MG > 0) and hence the tank is stable.
Tutorial Questions  Buoyancy
1. A cylindrical buoy 1.35m in diameter and 1.8m high has a mass of 770 kg.
Show that it will not float in sea water with its longitudinal axis vertical. (Density of
sea water = 1025kg/m3 ).
[MG =  0.420m; unstable]
2. A rectangular pontoon 12m long by 7.5m wide by 3m deep has a mass of 90
metric tons and floats in sea water ( = 1025kg/m 3 ). The centre of gravity of the
pontoon is at the geometrical centre. Find the metacentric height. [3.793m]
3. A rectangular pontoon 13.5m x 5.4m x 3.0m high floats in water with the 3.0m
side vertical. The pontoon weighs 420kN and its centre of gravity is 1.2m above
the base of the pontoon. Calculate the metacentric height of the pontoon when
floating in:
a. fresh water
b. sea water ( = 1025kg/m3 )
In which of these fluids does the pontoon have greater stability?
[a. MG = 3.232m; b. MG = 3.328m; sea water]
Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Surfaces
So far we have seen that the pressure in a fluid increases linearly with depth;
p = gh
More usually, when designing hydraulic structures such as dams, lock gates, flap
valves etc. it is the resultant hydrostatic force F that is required.
This force F is the summation of the pressure forces acting on the submerged
area. It acts at right angles to the submerged surface.
Figure 19 : Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surface
Structures may be partially or wholly submerged in the fluid, however there is a
general formula which can be used to determine the force F;
F =gA h
Where A is the submerged area, h is the vertical distance from the water surface
to the centroid of the submerged area.
It is also useful to know where the resultant force acts in relation to the water
surface. The point at which the force acts is known as the centre of pressure.
This distance xp is measured parallel to the submerged surface and can be
determined from the general formula:
xp =
cg
Ax
+x
Where cg is the second moment of area about the centroid of the submerged area.
is the distance from the water surface to the centroid of the submerged area
measured parallel to the submerged surface.
x
x=
h
sin
When the submerged surface is vertical = 90, hence sin = 1 and
Moment of a Force, Rotation and Equilibrium
A force may cause not only linear motion, but also
rotation of a body. This principle is used in the case of
a lever system. The person pushes down with force F,
causing a load W to rise by rotation about the pivot P.
Figure 20 : Moment of Force
The magnitude of F required to cause rotation depends on W and on x and y, the
perpendicular distances from the forces to the pivot P. Each force is said to
produce a moment about P.
i.e., the moment of the force F about P = F x (anticlockwise)
and the moment of the force W about P = W y (clockwise)
For anticlockwise rotation to take place, F x > W y.
For clockwise rotation to take place, W y > F x.
For balance, equilibrium or no rotation, F x = W y.
Worked Examples Hydrostatic Forces
1. A rectangular plate 1.5m x 3.0m is submerged in water and makes an angle of
60 with the horizontal, the 1.5m sides being horizontal. Calculate the magnitude of
the force on the plate and the location of the point of application of the force, with
reference to the top edge of the plate, when the top edge of the plate is 1.2m
below the water surface.
Solution:
x=
1.2
+1.5 = 1.386 +1.5 = 2.886m
sin 60
h = x sin 60 = 2.886 sin 60 = 2.499m
60
1.2m
F =
g hA =1000 9.812.499 3 1.5
F =109.92 10 3 N =109.92 kN
xP = x +
x
xp
IG
bd
1
d
=x+
=x+
12 bd x
Ax
12 x
1.5m
a
CG
x P = 2.886 +
32
= 2.886 + 0.260 = 3.146m
12 2.886
From the top edge of the plate, a = 3.146 1.386 = 1.760m
Figure 21 : Worked Example H.F. 1
CP
3.0m
2. A vertical bulkhead 4m wide divides a storage tank. On one side of the
bulkhead petrol (S.G. = 0.78) is stored to a depth of 2.1m and on the other side
water is stored to a depth of 1.2m. Determine the resultant force on the bulkhead
and the position where it acts.
Width = 4m
Petrol
Solution:
F = g hA = g
h
bh = 12 gh 2 b
2
2.1m
F1 = 12 780 9.81 2.12 4 N = 67.5 kN
FR
F1
F2 = 12 1000 9.811.2 2 4 N = 28.25 kN
F2
x1
xR
1.2m
Water
x2
Figure 22 : Worked Example H.F. 2
Hence the resultant force
FR = F1 F2 = 67.5 28.25 = 39.25 kN
xP = x +
IG
h bh 3
1
h h
= +
= + = 23 h
A x 2 12 bh ( h 2) 2 6
From the diagram, x = h 2/3h = 1/3h
Hence, x1 = 2.1 / 3 = 0.7m and x2 = 1.2 / 3 = 0.4m
Taking moments about O, FR xR = F1 x1 F2 x2
i.e. 39.25 xR = 67.5 0.7 28.25 0.4 and hence xR = 0.916m
3. A hinged, circular gate 750mm in
diameter is used to close the opening
in a sloping side of a tank, as shown
in the diagram in Figure 23. The gate
is kept closed against water pressure
partly by its own weight and partly by
a weight on the lever arm. Find the
mass M required to allow the gate to
begin to open when the water level is
500mm above the top of the gate.
The mass of the gate is 60 kg.
(Neglect the weight of the lever arm.)
Hinge
800mm
500mm
Mg
mg
45
750mm
Figure 23 : Worked Example H.F. 3
Solution:
a=
500
= 707 mm
sin 45
x = a +375 =1082mm
h = x sin 45 = 765mm
F = g hA =1000 9.810.765 0.75 2 4
)
x
F =3.315 10 3 N =3.315 kN
xP = x +
IG
d 4
4
d2
=x+
2 =x+
64 d x
Ax
16 x
x P =1.082 +
xp
0.75 2
=1.082 + 0.032 = 1.114m
16 1.082
Figure 24 : Worked Example H.F. 3 Solution
0.8m
Taking moments about the hinge
0.375 cos 45
F( x P a ) = Mg 0.8 + mg 0.375 cos 45
Hinge
3315(1.114 0.707 ) = 9.81( M 0.8 + 60 0.375 cos 45)
M 0.8 =
3315(1.114 0.707 )
60 0.375 cos 45
9.81
45
Mg
0.375m
= 137.5 16 = 121.5
121.5
M =
=152 kg
0.8
mg
F
Xpa
Figure 25 : Worked Example H.F. 3 Solution (Moments)
Tutorial Questions Hydrostatic Forces
1. A rectangular plate 1.2m x 1.8m is submerged in water and makes an angle
of 30 with the horizontal, the 1.2m sides being horizontal. Calculate the
magnitude of the force on the plate and the location of the point of
application of the force, with reference to the top edge of the plate, when the
top edge of the plate is:
a. at the water surface. [9.54kN, 1.2m]
b. 500mm below the water surface. [20.l3kN, 1.042m]
c. 30m below the water surface. [645kN, 0.904m]
2. A vertical bulkhead 3m wide divides a storage tank. On one side of the
bulkhead petrol (S.G. = 0.78) is stored to a depth of 1.8m and on the other
side oil (S.G. = 0.88) is stored to a depth of 0.9m. Determine the resultant
force on the bulkhead and the position where it acts.
[26.7kN, 0.718m from the bottom of the tank]
3. A circular opening A in the sloping wall of a reservoir is closed by a circular
disc valve B (700mm diameter), as shown in Figure 26 Diagram 1. The disc
is hinged at P and the balance weight W is just sufficient to hold the valve
closed when the reservoir is empty. What additional mass should be placed
on the balance arm, 900mm from P, in order to keep the valve closed, until
the water level is 600mm above the centre of the valve? [139.6 kg]
4. A hinged gate (900 x 600mm rectangular flat plate with the 600mm side
horizontal) is used to close the opening in a sloping side of a tank, as shown
in Figure 26 Diagram 2. The gate is kept closed against water pressure
partly by its own weight and partly by a weight on the lever arm. Find the
mass M required to allow the gate to commence to open when the water
level is 400mm above the top of the gate. (Neglect the weight of the lever
arm). [232 kg]
Diagram 1
Figure 26 : H.F. Tutorial Questions
Diagram 2
Hydrodynamics Fluids in Motion
Whilst hydrostatics is a relatively precise subject, hydrodynamics can only be
analysed with approximate accuracy. The reason for this is that the motion of fluid
particles is often random/unpredictable which creates inaccuracies in analysis.
The major effect is friction between the pipe wall and the fluid which creates a
velocity variation across the pipe diameter. However to simplify matters in this unit
all velocities considered will be average velocities, i.e. v = Q/A.
Types of Flow
Steady flow
conditions at a point in the flow system remain constant
with respect to time.
Unsteady flow
conditions change with respect to time.
Uniform flow
flow conditions remain constant with respect to distance.
Nonuniform flow
conditions change with respect to distance.
Laminar flow
fluid particles retain same relative positions at
successive cross sections.
Turbulent flow
fluid particles follow random, disorganised paths.
N.B. 95% of real life flows are turbulent.
Determination of Laminar/Turbulent Flow Reynolds
Number, Re
Reynolds recognised that viscosity, average velocity and the diameter of the pipe
determined the flow pattern. He determined the Reynolds Number to predict flow
type, where
Re =
vd
= average velocity
d = pipe diameter
= coefficient of dynamic viscosity
= fluid density
Re > 4000 and flow is turbulent
2000 < Re < 4000 and flow is transitional
Re < 2000 and flow is laminar
The major difference between the two flow patterns is that greater frictional losses
occur in turbulent flow.
Analysis of Fluid Flow
The three basic equations are:
1) Continuity Equation
2) Energy Equation (Bernoulli)
3) Momentum Equation
1) Continuity Equation
For continuity, the flow rate entering section 1 must be equal to the flow rate
leaving section 2. i.e., Q1 = Q2 = Q and
Q1 = volume/sec = length/sec x area
i.e., Q1 = V1A1 and Q2 = V2A2
thus Q = V1A1 = V2A2
Figure 27 : Flow Continuity
Worked Examples  Continuity
A 300mm diameter pipeline divides into two smaller pipelines, one being 150mm in
diameter and the other being 225mm in diameter. If the velocity in the 150mm pipe
is 0.5m/s and that in the 225mm pipe is 0.8m/s, calculate the flowrate in litres/s
and the velocity in m/s in the 300mm pipe
Solution:
Q150 = A150 v150 =
0.15 2
0.5 = 8.84 10 3 m 3 s
4
Q 225 = A 225 v 225 =
0.225 2
0.8 = 31.8 10 3 m 3 s
4
150mm
225mm
Q 300 = Q150 + Q 225 = ( 8.84 + 31.8) 10 3 m 3 s = 40.64 litres s
v 300 =
Q 300
Q 300
4 40.64 10 3
=
=
= 0.575 m s
A 300 0.32 4
0.32
300mm
Figure 28 : Worked Examples Continuity
Tutorial Questions Continuity
A 200mm diameter pipeline divides into two smaller pipelines, one being 100mm in
diameter and the other being 150mm in diameter. If the velocity in the 100mm pipe
is 0.3m/s and that in the 150mm pipe is 0.6m/s, calculate the flowrate in litres/s
and the velocity in m/s in the 200mm pipe. [13 l/s, 0.413m/s]
Work, Energy and Efficiency
When the point at which the
force acts moves, the force is
said to have done work. The
man moving the block has
done work equal to the
(constant) force applied times
the distance he has moved the
block in the direction of the
applied force.
Figure 29 : Work  Directed Force
i.e., Work done = Ps = force x distance moved Work done is a scalar quantity.
The units are Nm or joules (i.e., 1 Nm = 1 joule).
A body which has the capacity to work is said to possess energy. As a body does
work it expends energy (e.g., the man moving the block). Thus, units of energy are
the same as those of work (joules).
There are many forms of energy; e.g., electrical energy, chemical energy, heat
energy, nuclear energy, mechanical energy, etc. Obviously, they all have the
same units. A fundamental law of physics states that energy can be neither
created nor destroyed but can change from one form to another.
The amount of energy expended by the man moving the block = Work done +
energy wasted. The energy wasted is mainly heat generated (moving the block is
a lot of work!)
Efficiency =
Work output
100%
Energy input
i.e., the efficiency of the mans body in moving the block is
P s
P s + heat energy generated
Water Energy
Water in a reservoir possesses energy since it can be used to do the work of
driving a turbine (usually to produce electrical energy). Water energy is a
mechanical energy and may be held (by the water) in three forms:
Gravitational or potential energy
Kinetic energy
Pressure energy
Gravitational or Potential Energy
If a body (e.g., of water) of mass m is at a height z above some (arbitrary) datum,
e.g., sea level, then it is said to posses a Potential energy = mgz (joules) relative
to the datum. This is the work which must be done to raise a mass m of fluid by a
height of z metres.
Energy Head
Since fluids move as a continuum rather than as a discrete mass m, it is
convenient to consider their energy per unit weight or energy head.
i.e., Potential energy head = mgz /(mg) = z
Hence, energy head has the dimension of length and is measured in metres.
Kinetic Energy
A body (e.g., of water) may possess energy due to its motions as well as its
position. The kinetic energy of a body may be defined as the amount of work
which must be done by a force in order to bring it to rest.
Let a body of mass m moving with speed v be brought to rest with uniform
retardation (a) by a constant force P in distance s.
Using v2 = u2 + 2as where v = 0 and u = v and a = (a)
0 = u2 2as i. e., s = u2/2a
Work done = Ps = Pu2/2a however, P = ma and hence
Work done = mau2/2a = mu2, and hence kinetic energy = mu2
thus
kinetic energy head =
1 2
mv
2
mg
v2
2g
(metres)
Pressure Energy
A fluid also possesses energy (the ability to do work) because of the pressure
within it.
If the outlet pipe shown has a close fitting, frictionless
piston and the distance moved per second is v then
work done per second = force x distance moved/sec
Figure 30 : Pressure Energy
= pA v where A v = Q
Hence work done per second = pQ
Now, the weight of fluid which has done this work per second = mass flow rate g
= volume flow rate g = Qg
pQ
Hence work done per unit weight of fluid = Qg= pressure energy / unit weight of
fluid
i.e., pressure energy head = p/(g) (metres)
Energy Losses
Frictional Energy Loss
As fluid flows down a pipe (or channel) it must do work (use energy) to overcome
the frictional shear stress exerted on it by the pipe wall (or channel bed). This
energy is converted from the mechanical energy of the fluid into heat energy which
is lost through the pipe wall (or channel bed). The frictional energy loss per unit
weight of fluid or head loss due to friction is given by the symbol h f.
Minor Energy Losses
Other energy losses occur at particular places in the pipe or channel when the
uniform fluid flow is interrupted by bends, valves, changes in pipe diameter or
when the water flows into or our of a reservoir. These energy losses, caused by
the fluid swirling about and generating heat, are much smaller than the frictional
energy losses. Hence they are called minor head losses, h L.
The Energy (Bernoulli) Equation
The total energy head H of the fluid is found by adding the three types of
mechanical energy possessed by the fluid at that point.
H=
p
v2
+
+z
g 2g
As water flows between two points, or sections of a pipeline or channel, no energy
can be created or destroyed (fundamental law of physics concerning conservation
of energy). However, if any mechanical energy is converted into say heat energy
through friction then it is lost to the mechanical system and the total energy head
H is reduced.
The energy heads involved are measured in metres and can be represented as
vertical distances (heights) on an energy diagram.
Considering flow between 2 points labelled 1 and 2:
H1 = H 2 +h f +h L
p1 v12
+
+ z1
g 2g
or
p 2 v 22
+
+z 2 +h f +h L
g 2g
( = sum of )
Figure 31 : Bernoulli Energy Diagram
N.B. Piezometric head = p/g + z = height to which water would rise in a
piezometer tube.
Worked Examples Energy
1. Oil (S.G. = 0.85) at a pressure of 150 KN/m 2 flows at a rate of 3m3/min through
pipe A (100mm diameter). A tapered section, 5m long, connects pipe A to pipe B
(150mm diameter) situated at a distance h below pipe A. If the pressure in pipe B
is 180 KN/m2 and the energy loss due to friction through the tapered section is
0.12m/m length, determine the distance h.
Solution:
QA
3 60
4 3
vA =
=
=
= 6.37 m s
2
2
2
d A 4 0.1 4 0.1 60
vB =
QB
dB2 4
4 3
= 2.83 m s
0.15 2 60
p A v 2A
p
v2
+
+ zA = B + B + zB + h L
g 2g
g 2g
Figure 32 : Worked Examples E. 1
3
150 10
6.37
180 10
2.83 2
3
+
+ zA = 3
+
+ z B + ( 0.12 5)
10 0.85 9.81 2 9.81
10 0.85 9.81 2 9.81
h = z A z B =
(180 150) + 2.832 6.37 2
0.85 9.81
2 9.81
+ 0.6 = 3.598 1.66 + 0.6 = 2.54 m
2. A 500m long pipeline slopes upwards at 1 in 50 and changes from 450mm in
diameter to 300mm in diameter 300m from its lower end. If the frictional head
losses in the pipes are 1.0 and 7.0m/km length respectively and the pressure at
the upper end is 120 KN/m2, find the pressure at the lower end when the flow rate
in the pipeline is 100 l/s.
2
Solution:
Q1
0.1
4 0.1
v1 =
=
=
= 0.63 m s
d12 4 0.45 2 4 0.45 2
v2 =
Q2
2
d2 4
4 0.1
= 1.42 m s
0.32
1
Figure 33 : Worked Examples E. 2
v12
v 22
p1
p
+
+ z1 = 2 +
+ z2 + hf
g 2g
g 2g
Let Z1 = 0, then Z2 = 10. Also h f = 0.3 1 + 0.2 7 =1.7 m
p1
0.632
120 10 3
1.42 2
+
+
0
=
+
+ 10 + 1.7
10 3 9.81 2 9.81
10 3 9.81 2 9.81
p1 = (120 + 1.01 0.2 + 11.7 9.81) 103 N / m 2 = 235.7 kN m 2
Tutorial Questions Energy
1. Oil ( S.G. = 0.8 ) at a pressure of 110 KN/m 2 flows at a rate of 2.85m3/min
through pipe A (150mm diameter ). A tapered section, 4.75m long, connects
pipe A to pipe B (225mm diameter) situated at a distance h below pipe A. If
the pressure in pipe B is 136 KN/m2 and the energy loss due to friction
through the tapered section is 0.14m/m length, determine the distance h.
[3.68m]
2. A 300m long pipeline slopes downward at 1 in 100 and changes from
600mm in diameter to 450mm in diameter half way along its length. If the
frictional head losses in the pipes are 5 and 25m/km length respectively and
the pressure at the upper end is 150 KN/m2, find the pressure at the lower
end when the flowrate in the pipeline is 500 l/s. [131.9kN/m 2]
Flow Measurement in pipelines
There are two devices which are commonly used to measure flow in pipes:
1. The venturimeter
2. The orifice meter
The venturimeter consists essentially of a convergence in a pipeline followed by a
short parallel sided throat and then a divergence.
Continuity requires a greater velocity at the throat than the inlet, there is
consequentially a difference of pressure between the inlet and throat and
measurement of this pressure difference allows the flow rate to be calculated.
The orifice meter works on a similar principal to the venturimeter and is cheaper
and simpler to install but it generates larger energy losses. It consists of a circular
disc, with an orifice machined in its centre, which is easily bolted between pipe
lengths.
The flow rate through a Venturi and Orifice meter can be found from the equation
a1a 2
Q = Cd
2gH
a12 a 22
where the crosssectional areas are a1 for the inlet pipe and a2 for the throat or orifice.
The term
a1a 2
a 12 a 22
is known as the meter coefficient, K. CD is the coefficient of discharge.
Momentum Equation
When a force acts on a fluid in motion, there is a rate of change of momentum in
the fluid in the direction of the force, in accordance with Newtons Second Law of
Motion.
m( v u )
i.e.,
Resultant force on a fluid =
t
=
volume( v u )
t
Resultant force on a fluid, F = Q change in velocity (in the direction of the force)
This equation is applied in various situations, including the impact of fluid jets on
plates and vanes (turbines and pumps) and the forces occurring on pipe nozzles,
contractions and bends.
Jet Impact on a Stationary Flat Plate
Applying the momentum equation perpendicular to
the plate, Fx = Q (vx2 vx1)
Now, vx2 = 0 all flow after impact is parallel to the y axis.
vx1 = v1cos
Hence Fx = Qv1cos. This is the direction of the
force on the fluid.
Figure 34 : Jet Impact on Stationary Flat Plate
Any force Fy is of necessity a shear force. Thus, for an ideal fluid F y = 0. When
shear forces are involved, it is necessary to know the proportion of flow in each
direction along the plate before F y can be estimated.
Jet Impact on a Stationary Curved Vane
Fx = Q(vx2vx1) = Q(v2 cos  v1)
If k = v2/v1 1 then
Fx = Qv1(k cos  1)
For an ideal fluid (no friction) k=1
Fy = Q(vy2vy1) = Q(v2 sin  0)
Fy = Qv1(k sin)
Figure 35 : Jet Impact on a Stationary Curved Vane
Resultant force on the jet = F = F 2 + F 2 = Q ( k cos 1 )2 + k 2 sin 2
x y
1
Direction of force on jet = = tan 1 (Fy / Fx ) = tan 1( k sin /( k cos 1 ))
However, k cos < 1 and hence Fx acts in the opposite direction
thus = tan1
k sin

k cos 1
Forces on a Pipe Bend
Figure 36 : Forces on a Pipe Bend
Consider the component forces Fx and Fy from the pipe bend acting on the water
(Figure (b) above).
Resolving forces on the fluid in the x direction:
Fx + pA pA cos = Q(v cos  v)
Resolving forces on the fluid in the y direction:
Fy + pA pA sin = Qv sin
The force of the water on the pipe bend is equal in magnitude but opposite in
direction:
Fx = ( pA + Qv )( 1 cos )
N .
Fy = ( pA + Qv ) sin
N.
Forces on a Pipe Contraction or Nozzle
Resolving forces on the fluid in the x direction:
Fx + p1A1 p2A2 = Q(v2v1)
Thus, the force of the water on the contraction is:
Fx = p1A1 p2A2  Q(v2v1)
In the case of the nozzle p2 = 0 and usually
v1 << v2 and may be ignored.
Thus Fx = p1A1 Qv2
Figure 37 : Forces on a Pipe Contraction
This force is put to good use in garden sprinklers and filter bed distributor arms at
sewage works.
Thrust Blocks
In water engineering practice, thrust blocks must be designed to reduce earth
pressures and allow the bend or contraction to be held in position.
Worked Examples Momentum
1. A tapered section in a horizontal pipeline reduces the diameter from 600mm to
450mm in the direction of flow. If the flowrate is 750 l/s and the upstream pressure
is 300 KN/m2, calculate
(a) the downstream pressure
(b) the magnitude and direction of the force on the taper
Solution:
Applying Newtons 2nd law of motion, the resultant force on the water in the taper,
R x = p1A1 F p 2 A 2 = Q( v 2 v1 ) . F is the force exerted by the taper on the water.
F
RX
Hence, F = p A p A Q( v v )
1
v1 =
v2 =
Q1
2
d1 4
Q2
2
d2 4
p1 v12 p 2 v 22
+
=
+
g 2g g 2g
4 0.75
= 2.653 m s
0. 6 2
4 0.75
= 4.716 m s
0.45 2
2
1
Q
Figure 38 : Worked Examples M. 1
p2
300 103 2.6532 4.716 2
=
+
2
2
10 3
10 3
p 2 = ( 300 + 3.5 11) 10 3 N m 2 = 292.5 kN m 2
F = 300 10 3
0.6 2
0.45 2
292.5 10 3
10 3 0.75 ( 4.716 2.653)
4
4
F =10 3 [84.82 46.52 1.5] N =36.8 kN
2. A 450mm diameter pipeline conveying 1.0 m3/s of water contains a 22.5 bend
in the horizontal plane. If the pressure in the bend is 250 KN/m 2, calculate the
magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.
Fy
Solution:
v=
Q
4 1.0
=
= 6.29 m s
2
d 4 0.45 2
Fx = ( pA + Qv )(1 cos 22.5)
Fx
0.45 2
3
=
250
10
+10 3 1.0 6.29
(1 cos 22.5) N
4
= ( 39.76 + 6.29 )(1 cos 22.5) = 46.05(1 cos 22.5) = 3.5 kN
Fy = ( pA + Qv ) sin 22.5 = 46.05 sin 22.5 =17.62 kN
22.5
v
Figure 39 : Worked Examples M. 2
R = Fx2 + Fy2 = 3.5 2 +17.62 2 =17.96 kN
Fy
= tan 1
Fx
17.62
= tan 1
= 78.75
3.5
Tutorial Questions Momentum
1. A tapered section in a horizontal pipeline carrying water reduces the
diameter from 450mm to 300mm in the direction of flow. The flowrate is 400
l/s and the upstream pressure is 200 KN/m 2. Ignoring energy losses,
calculate
a. the downstream pressure [187.15 kN/m 2]
b. the magnitude and direction of the force on the taper. [17.32 kN, in
flow direction]
2. A 300mm diameter pipeline conveying 0.7m 3/s of water contains a 45 bend
in the horizontal plane. If the pressure in the bend is 150 KN/m 2, calculate
the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend. [13.42kN, 67.5]
Friction Loss in Pipelines
The DarcyWeisbach Equation
So far we have expressed frictional head loss in metres/metre length when
substituting in Bernoullis Equation. The following details a more realistic way of
assessing pipe friction losses.
Turbulent Flows
Turbulent flow in pipes is highly complex and cannot be solved by maths alone.
For turbulent flows Newtons Laws of Viscosity do not apply. Reynolds
experiments and work by Darcy Weisbach showed that frictional head loss was
proportional to the square of the velocity. The following equation was developed:
Lv 2
hf =
2gd
Where hf is the friction head loss, L is the pipe length, is the flow velocity, d is the
pipe diameter, is the Darcy friction factor. Note is dimensionless. The
equation is sometimes written with 4f replacing , this is the American version.
N.B. The head loss due to friction per unit length of pipe (h f/L) is the hydraulic
gradient (i). Thus i = hf/L = 2/2dg. This will be the gradient of the TEL and HGL.
Also,
Q
4Q
=
A d 2
16
h f =
2
2g
hf =
and hence
LQ 2
d 5
or
hf =
L 4Q
2dg d 2
LQ 2
12.1d 5
Thus, for a given flow rate, hf 1/d5, i.e. halving the size of pipe to be used will
increase frictional head losses 32 times. The head loss due to friction is a multiple
(L/d) of the kinetic (v2/2g), i.e. hf = (L/d)(v2/2g).
Originally it was thought that was constant, however, experiments showed that it
was related to Reynolds Number and pipe roughness.
ColebrookWhite Formula for
The following equation for was derived by carrying out laboratory experiments on
commercial pipes. The equation is:
1
2.51
k
= 2 log s +
3.7d Re
Where ks is height of pipe surface roughness, d is the pipe diameter and Re is the
Reynolds Number of the flow.
In this format it is difficult to find directly, modifications were made by Barr:
1
5.1286
k
= 2 log s +
0.89
3.7d Re
Worked Examples DarcyWeisbach Equation
A pipeline connecting two reservoirs having a difference of level of 6m is 720m
long, and rises to a height of 3m above the upper reservoir at a distance of 240m
from the entrance before falling to the lower reservoir. If the pipe is 12m in
diameter and the frictional coefficient, = 0.04, what will be the discharge and the
pressure at the highest point of the pipeline?
Figure 40 : Worked Examples D.E.
Solution:
Figure 40 shows the layout. Since no information is given that exit or entry to the
pipe is sharp no shock loss need be considered. Apply Bernoullis equation to A
and B on the free surface of the reservoir, where the velocities are zero and the
pressures atmospheric. Take B as datum level.
Total energy per unit wt at A = Total energy per unit wt at B + frictional loss
H+
pA
v2
p
v2
L v 2
+ A =0 + B + B +
g
2g
g
2g
d 2g
pA = pB = 0 and vA = vB = 0, so that
L v2
H =
d 2g
Putting H = 6m, = 0.04, L = 720m, d = 1.2m
0.04 720 v 2
6=
1.2
2g
2
i.e. v =
Discharge = area x velocity =
6 1.2 2 9.81
v =
2.22 m s
= 4.92
0.04 720
1.2 2
2.22 = 2.51m 3/s (Answer)
4
To find the pressure pC at C apply Bernoullis theorem to A and C, taking datum
level at A and vA = 0.
pA pC
v 2 L1 v 2
=
+h +
+
g g
2g
d 2g
pC pA
v 2 L
=
h 1 + 1
g g
2g
d
Putting pA = atmospheric pressure = 0, h = 3m, = 0.04, L1 = 240m, V = 2.22m,
d= 1.2m
pC
2.22 2
0.04 240
= 0 3
1 +
= 5.26m of water
g
2 9.81
1 .2
p C = 1000 9.815.26 = 51.6kN / m 2 (Answer)
Tutorial Questions DarcyWeisbach Equation
1. Determine the loss of head due to friction in a cast iron pipe 400m long and
150mm in diameter which carries 43 l/s. Use the Darcy equation with =
0.02. [16.09m]
2. What size of pipe should be used to deliver 30 l/s of water through a
distance of 1300m if the drop in the hydraulic grade line is not to exceed
25m. Take = 0.025. [157mm ie. 175mm]
3. Water is discharged from a reservoir through a pipe 1500m long which is
0.4m diameter for 750m and 0.25m diameter for the remaining distance.
Calculate the flowrate, taking only frictional losses into account, if the outlet
level of the pipe is 30m below the reservoir level. = 0.016 for the 0.4m
pipe and 0.024 for the 0.25m pipe. [137 l/s]
Tables for the Hydraulic Design of Pipes and Sewers
Explanation of Table Layout
These were developed as an aid to pipeline design. They are based on the DarcyWeisbach and ColebrookWhite formulae.
Ks = 1.500 mm.
i = 0.004 to 0.1
Water (or sewage) at 15C;
full bore conditions.
continued
ie hydraulic gradient =
1 in 250 to 1 in 10
Velocities in m/s
discharges in I/s
Gradient
Pipe diameters in mm:
50
75
80
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
0.00400
1/ 250
0.256
0.503
0.342
1.511
0.358
1.799
0.418
3.282
0.487
5.978
0.551
9.743
0.612
14.713
0.669
21.013
0.723
28.762
0.776
38.074
0.826
49.057
0.875
61.816
0.00420
1/ 238
0.263
0.516
0.351
1.549
0.367
1.844
0.428
3.365
0.499
6.127
0.565
9.986
0.627
15.080
0.686
21.536
0.741
29.478
0.795
39.021
0.846
50.277
0.896
63.353
0.00440
1/ 227
0.269
0.528
0.359
1.586
0.376
1.888
0.439
3.445
0.511
6.273
0.579
10.224
0.642
15.438
0.702
22.047
0.759
30.177
0.814
39.946
0.867
51.468
0.917
64.854
0.00460
1/ 217
0.275
0.540
0.367
1.622
0.384
1.931
0.449
3.523
0.523
6.416
0.592
10.456
0.656
15.788
0.718
22.547
0.776
30.860
0.832
40.850
0.886
52.633
0.938
66.320
0.00480
1/ 208
0.281
0.552
0.375
1.658
0.393
1.973
0.458
3.600
0.534
6.555
0.605
10.683
0.671
16.130
0.733
23.035
0.793
31.529
0.850
41.735
0.905
53.773
0.959
67.756
Figure 41 : Pipeline Design Table
The book of tables, published by Hydraulics Research Limited, is in the format
shown above. The tables are ordered in relation to the surface roughness of the
pipe, ks, ranging from 0.006mm to 15.0mm. The ks value is shown in the top left
hand corner of each page. The value of ks depends upon the pipe material, age
and condition and is chosen by consulting Table 38 located at the back of the book
of tables.
The tables consist of three variables; pipe diameter running across the top of the
page, hydraulic gradient, i or So running down the lefthand edge of the page and
flow rate/velocity values located within the table itself.
Thus if any two variables are known, the third can be read off the table.
Worked Example Design Table
A pipe with surface roughness ks = 1.5 mm
Having a flow rate Q = 29.5 litres/sec
In a pipe diameter d = 225 mm
Requires a hydraulic gradient So of 1 in 238 = 0.0042
If the pipeline is 500 m long then the frictional head loss is;
hf = So 0.0042 500 = 2.1 m
Note that the hydraulic gradient, i.e. the frictional head loss per metre, is not
necessarily the same as the pipe gradient. This is only generally true when the
water is flowing under gravity and the pipe is running full (i.e. not surcharged).
Tutorial Questions Design Tables
1. Two reservoirs are connected by a spun precast concrete pipeline (k s =
0.15mm) which is 3.5km long and has a diameter of 200mm. If the water
level in the upstream reservoir is 180m AOD and the pipeline carries a flow
of 30 l/s, determine the water level in the downstream reservoir. If the flow
were to be increased to 75 l/s, determine the diameter of concrete pipe
required to replace the existing one. [163.5m, 300mm]
2. A spun bitumen lined metal pipe 450 mm in diameter and 2000m long
connects two reservoirs having water levels 150m AOD and 120m AOD.
Determine the flowrate in the pipeline
a. taking only frictional losses into account. [515 l/s]
b. allowing for a 7m head loss through the inlet valve to the downstream
reservoir. [458 l/s]
Minor Losses
Wherever the uniform cross section of a pipeline is interrupted, then the fluid loses
contact with the pipe wall temporarily which induces additional turbulence causing
energy losses known as minor losses. These occur at fittings such as bends and
valves and the head loss is hL, where
hL =
K L 2
2g
These are also known as separation losses. They need only be taken into account
in short pipelines where there are a number of fittings. An example of this is a
short pumping main where minor losses may account for up to a third of the total
energy loss.
There are two methods of analysing pipelines which include minor losses. The first
is to simply add each minor loss into the Bernoulli Equation;
P1 V12
P
V2
+
+Z1 2 + 2 +Z 2 +h f +h L1 +h L 2
pg 2g
pg 2g
Alternatively, they may be expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight
pipe which would give the same frictional energy loss. The length l is usually
expressed as a multiple of the pipe diameter d (see table). Thus; l = nd. Thus
actual (L) and equivalent pipe lengths (l) are added together to give;
hf =
( L +l) v 2
2gd
Fitting
Elbows
22.5
45.0
90.0
Long radius bends
22.5
45.0
90.0
Gate valve
Fully open
Quarter closed
Half closed
Threequarters closed
Sudden enlargement
Inlet dia. : outlet dia.
1
:
2
1
:
3
1
:
5 and over
Sudden contraction
Inlet dia.
2
3
5
: outlet dia.
:
1
:
1
:
1 and over
Figure 42 : Table of Minor Losses
KL
l
=n
d
0.2
0.4
1.0
9
18
45
0.1
0.2
0.4
5
9
18
0.12
1.0
6.0
24.0
5
45
270
1080
0.60
0.80
1.0
27
36
45
0.35
0.45
0.50
16
20
22
Minor losses occur at:
Entry to a pipe
Sudden increase in pipe diameter
Sudden decrease in pipe diameter
Bends, elbows, tee junctions and divergent taper sections
Partially closed valves
Exit from a pipe
Figure 43 : Entry to a Pipe
Sharp edged entry
 vena contracta forms with turbulence
 flow expands downstream of vena contracta
h L =0.5
Figure 44 : Sudden Increase in Pipe Diameter
A v2
h l = 1 1 1
A 2 2g
or
hL =
( v1 v 2 ) 2
2g
v2
2g
Figure 45 : Sudden Decrease in Pipe Diameter
From 1 3, convergent flow stable, little energy loss.
3 2, sudden expansion of flow from vena contracta to small pipe diameter.
A
h L = 2 1
A C
Now
v 22
2g
AC
= CC coefficient of contraction
A2
hL
=
1
C C
v 22
2g
Figure 46 : Bends, Elbows, and Tee Junctions
Bend made by bending the pipe
R>>d
Elbow manufactured unit
R=d
Tee Junction manufactured unit
Not possible to give general equation for these fittings
Values of KL for individual fittings are found from reference books or
manufacturers information.
e.g.
Typical KL values:
Return bend (180)
2.2
90 bend (large radius)
0.4
90 tee junction
1.6
90 elbow
1.0
45 elbow
0.4
Reference:
Manual of British
Engineering Practice
Vol. II
Figure 47 : Divergent Taper or Diffuser
A gradual increase in pipe diameter, manufactured to minimise the energy
loss due to expansion of the flow.
For minimum energy loss:
7 and L 10(d2 d1)
Then
v2
h L = 0.14 1
2g
Figure 48 : Partially Closed Valves
The value of KL depends on the type of geometry of the valve. Details are given in
the manufacturers information.
e.g. Gate valve
fully open
KL = 0.25
25% open
KL = 25
Figure 49 : Exit from a Pipe : into a reservoir
Equivalent to a sudden expansion where A 2
2
i.e.
A v2
h L = 1 1
A 2 2g
hL =
v2
2g
Figure 50 : Exit from a Pipe : to atmosphere
Note: The nozzle creates convergent flow however; there are some energy losses,
so a coefficient of discharge, Cd, is introduced.
The pressure energy is converted to potential energy, but the kinetic energy
(v2/2g) is lost. hL = 0
Through a pipeline nozzle, the potential energy causes the water to be
projected in a high velocity jet, i.e. v2 > > v1
Worked Examples Minor Losses
1. Water from a large reservoir is discharged to atmosphere through a 100mm
diameter pipe 450m long. The entry from the reservoir to the pipe is sharp and the
outlet is 12m below the surface level in the reservoir. Taking = 0.04in the Darcy
formula, calculate the discharge.
Figure 51 : Worked Examples M.L. 1
Solution:
Apply Bernoullis theorem to A and B (Figure 51), assuming velocity at A is zero
and that pA = pB = atmospheric pressure = 0. zB = 0 and zA = H.
Total energy at A = Total energy at B + loss at entry + frictional loss.
H =
v2
1
v2
L v 2
+
+
2g
2 2g
d 2g
Putting H = 12m, = 0.04, L = 450m, d = 100mm = 0.1m
12 =
2
i.e v =
v2
0.04 450
v2
1.5 +
=181.5
2g
0.1
2g
12 2 9.81
=1.3 v =1.14 m / s
181.5
Discharge = area x velocity =
1
4
0.12 1.14 = 8.96 10 3 m 3/s (Answer)
2. Water is discharged from a reservoir into the atmosphere through a pipe 39m
long. There is a sharp entrance to the pipe and the diameter is 50mm for 15m from
the entrance. The pipe then enlarges suddenly to 75mm in diameter for the
remainder of its length. Taking into account the loss of head at entry and at the
enlargement, calculate the difference of level between the surface of the reservoir
and the pipe exit which will maintain a flow of 2.8 l /s. Take as 0.0192 for the
50mm pipe and 0.0231 for the 75mm pipe.
Figure 52 : Worked Examples M.L. 2
Solution:
Figure 52 shows the arrangement. If Q = discharge, then
Q = 14 d12 v1 = 14 d 2 2 v 2
v1 =
4Q 4 2.8 10 3
4Q 4 2.8 10 3
=
=
1
.
426
v
=
=
= 0.634 m/s
m/s
and
2
d12
0.05 2
d 22
0.075 2
Applying Bernoullis theorem to A and D at which p A = pD = atmospheric pressure
and vA = 0,
Total energy at A = Total energy at D + shock loss at B + frictional loss in BC + shock loss at C +
frictional loss in CD.
There is no shock loss at D as discharge is to atmosphere.
H=
v 22 1 v12 1L1 v12 ( v1 v 2 ) 2 2 L 2 v 2 2
+
+
+
+
2g 2 2g
d1 2g
2g
d 2 2g
v12 1 1L1 v 22 1L1 ( v1 v 2 ) 2
+ 1 +
+
= +
2g 2 d1 2g
d1
2g
=
1.426 2
2g
0.0232 24 ( 0.792 )
1 0.0192 15 0.634
+
+
1 +
+
0.05
2g
0.075
2g
2
= 0.647 + 0.173 + 0.032
Difference of level = H = 0.852m of water.
(Answer)
3. Two reservoirs are connected by a pipeline which is 150mm in diameter for the
first 6m and 225mm in diameter for the remaining 15m. The entrance and exit are
sharp and the change of section is sudden. The water surface in the upper
reservoir is 6m above that in the lower. Tabulate the losses of head which occur
and calculate the rate of flow in m3/s. Friction coefficient is 0.04 for both pipes.
Draw also the hydraulic gradient and the total energy gradient.
Figure 53 : Worked Examples M.L. 3
Solution:
The arrangement is shown in Figure 53. The velocities v1 and v2 are related by the
2
2
continuity of flow equation Q = 14 d1 v1 = 14 d 2 v 2
2
9
0.225
3
v1 =
v2 = v2 = v2
0
.
150
2
4
Since d1 = 150mm and d2 = 225mm
Applying Bernoullis equation to A and B,
Total energy at A = Total energy at B + Losses
Pressures at A and B are equal and if the reservoirs are large the velocities will be
2
2
2 L 2 v 2 2 v 22
1 v12 1L1 v1 ( v1 v 2 )
H
=
+
+
+
+
zero. Taking datum level at B,
2 2g d 1 2g
2g
d 2 2g 2g
Substituting for v1 gives
2
v2
1 9 v 2 0.04 6 9 v 22 9 v 22 0.04 15 v 2
H = 2 +
+ 1
+
+ 2
2 4 2g
0.15 4 2g 4 2g
0.225 2g 2g
6=
2
v 22
( 2.53 + 8.10 +1.56 + 2.67 +1.00) =15.86 v 2
2g
2g
v2 =
6 2 9.81
= 2.72 m / s
15.86
Discharge =
1
4
d 2 2 v 2 = 14 0.225 2 2.72 = 0.108 m3/s
(Answer)
v 22
2.72 2
= 0.377
The head losses can be found as multiples of
, i.e.
2g
2g
The individual losses are thus
Entry
= 2.53 x 0.377 = 0.954m
Friction in pipe1
= 8.10 x 0.377 = 3.054m
Enlargement
= 1.56 x 0.377 = 0.588m
Friction in pipe2
= 2.67 x 0.377 = 1.007m
Exit
= 1.00 x 0.377 = 0.377m
The total head loss is, of course, H = 6m.
The total energy at any point can be represented graphically, as shown in Fig.53.
At the entry to the pipeline there will be an entry loss ab; next follows the frictional
loss in the first pipe, which gives the sloping straight line bc. The loss at the
sudden enlargement is shown as cd. From d to e the frictional loss in the larger
pipe causes the total energy to fall slowly and the shock loss at exit ef brings the
total energy gradient to the level of the surface in the lower reservoir.
The hydraulic gradient is obtained by plotting the sum of the potential and pressure
energy and will therefore be a distance equal to the velocity head in the pipe below
the total energy gradient. The hydraulic gradient shows the level to which the liquid
in the pipe would rise if a vertical stand pipe was inserted in the pipeline at the
point under consideration.
Tutorial Questions Minor Losses
1. Water flows from a storage tank along a 250mm diameter pipe, 50m long at
a rate of 0.1m3/s. The pipe includes two 90 bends (kL = 0.7), two 45 bends
(kL = 0.2), a fully open gate valve (kL = 0.25) and a partially shut valve (kL =
6). If the pipe entrance is sharp and the flow discharges to atmosphere at
the end of the pipe, calculate the necessary difference in level between the
tank water level and the outlet. Take the pipe friction factor, = 0.04.
[3.713m]
2. Water is discharged from a reservoir into the atmosphere through a pipe
50m long. There is a sharp entrance to the pipe and the diameter is 75mm
for 20m from the entrance. The pipe then enlarges suddenly to 100mm in
diameter for the remainder of its length. A valve in the 75mm pipe has a k L =
1.5 when fully open. Taking into account the loss of head at entry, at the
valve and at the enlargement, calculate the difference of level between the
surface of the reservoir and the pipe exit which will maintain a flow of 10 l /s.
Take as 0.02 for the 75mm pipe and 0.025 for the 100mm pipe. [2.537m]
3. Two reservoirs are connected by a pipeline which is 225mm in diameter for
the first 12m and 150mm in diameter for the remaining 28m. The entrance
and exit are sharp and the change of section is sudden, with C c = 0.6. The
water surface in the upper reservoir is 7.5m above that in the lower.
Calculate the rate of flow in m3/s and tabulate the losses of head which
occur. Friction coefficient is 0.03 for the 225mm pipe and 0.04 for the
150mm pipe. [0.069m3/s]
Open Channel Flow
Flow in an open channel or duct in which the liquid has a free surface differs from
flow in pipes in so far as the pressure at the free surface is constant (normally
atmospheric) and does not vary from point to point in the direction of flow, as the
pressure can do in a pipeline. A further difference is that the area of cross section
is not controlled by fixed boundaries, since depth can vary from section to section
without restraint.
Open channel flow is generally more complicated than pipe flow. Open channels
have sections varying from simple geometric shapes to irregular sections of natural
streams. The state of the boundary surfaces may vary widely from smooth
concrete to uneven beds of rivers.
The choice of a friction factor for an open channel is thus likely to be more
uncertain that a similar choice for a pipe.
Types of Channel Flow
Most flows in channels are turbulent. The flow is said to be uniform or nonuniform.
Uniform Flow
Velocity of flow is constant along the
channel occurs when a crosssection of channel is constant
constant depth
fluid surface is parallel with
channel bed
Figure 54 : Uniform Flow
Nonuniform Flow or Varied Flow
Flow velocity is not constant along
the channel
depth varies
fluid surface is not parallel
with channel bed
Figure 55 : Nonuniform (or Varied Flow)
Steady Flow
Velocity and hence depth remain constant with respect to time.
Unsteady Flow
Velocity and depth vary with respect to time at any section of the channel.
For analysis purposes, it is usual to consider the flow in open channels to be
steady uniform flow, however most real life flows are nonuniform and unsteady.
Terminology Used in Channel Flow
Figure 56 : Channel Flow Diagram
Term
Definition
flow depth = vertical distance from free surface to channel bed
2
v
2g
kinetic or velocity energy head
v2
+y
2g
specific energy, E
channel width = width of channel at free surface
area of flow normal to direction of flow
wetted perimeter = length of wetted surface measured normal to
direction of flow
hydraulic radius = A/P
So
slope of channel
Fr
Froude Number =
flow rate per unit width = Q/B
(for rectangular channels only)
gy
Equations
Continuity, Energy and Momentum equations may be applied in the same way as
pipe flow:
Figure 57 : Flow Diagram for Equations
Consider point X, where the velocity is v, at a depth h, below the free surface:
From Bernoulli we get H =
p
v2
+
+( z + y h )
g 2g
p = hydrostatic pressure at depth h below free surface
p
=h
g
i.e. H = z + y +
v2
= Total Energy Head
2g
(1)
Specific Energy
In channel flow however, it is usual to refer to the channel bed, rather than a
horizontal datum. Hence, equation (1) becomes:
y+
v2
= Energy Head = E, specific energy
2g
The hydraulic grade line coincides with the free surface. The total energy line lies
v2/2g above this.
For a given value of specific energy E the flow can have two depths. The first is
where the flow is deep and slow moving and is known as tranquil or subcritical
flow. The second is where the flow is shallow and fast moving and is known as
rapid or supercritical flow.
Critical Depth
Figure 58 : Critical Depth Graph
For a given value of Specific Energy, it can be seen from the diagram above, there
is one depth corresponding to maximum flow rate. This is called the critical depth,
yc.
Certain flow measuring devices e.g. weirs and flumes generate critical depth flow
in their operation.
The equation for critical depth is: y c = 3
q2
g
The Froude Number, Fr is used to classify the flow:
Fr > 1, flow is supercritical (rapid, shallow)
Fr = 1, flow is critical
Fr < 1, flow is subcritical (slow, deep)
v = C RS O
or Q = AC RS O Chezys Equation
Equations for Steady Uniform Flow in Open Channels
Initial experimental work was done by Chezy, which led to:
where C = Chezys coefficient related to channel geometry and channel
roughness.
It was thought that Chezys C was constant for all channels, but it was found to be
variable (usually 50 70). So Manning developed an equation based on Chezy:
v=
1 2 3 12
A 2 1
R SO or Q = R 3 SO2
n
n
Mannings Equation
(very widely used in practice)
where n = Mannings number a roughness coefficient.
Typical values of Mannings n:
smooth concrete
rough concrete
brickwork
steel sheet piles
smooth earth
rough rock
0.011
0.013
0.014
0.018
0.022
0.035
Worked Examples Uniform Channel Flow
1. Find the gradient necessary for a rectangular flume 1.5m wide and 0.75m deep
to deliver 3.5m3/s of water when running full. Take C = 72.
Solution:
A = by =1.5 0.75 =1.125 m 2
y = 0.75m
P = b + 2 y =1.5 + 2 0.75 = 3 m
Hence, R =
A 1.125
=
= 0.375 m
P
3
b = 1.5m
Figure 59 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 1
Q = AC RS0
1 Q
1
3.5
S0 =
=
= 1 206.5
R AC
0.375 1.125 72
2. A rectangular open channel has a bottom width of 2.4m and a surface
roughness corresponding to Manning n = 0.015. If the slope of the bed is 0.001
and the depth of flow is 1.2m, what is the discharge under conditions of uniform
steady flow?
Solution:
y = 1.2m
A = by = 2.4 1.2 = 2.88 m 2
P = b + 2 y = 2.4 + 2 1.2 = 4.8 m
b = 2.4m
Figure 60 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 2
A 2.88
= 0.6 m
Hence, R = =
P
4.8
Q=
2
1
A 2 3 12
2.88
R S0 =
0.6 3 0.001 2 = 4.32 m 3 s
n
0.015
3. A channel of trapezoidal section, with side slopes at 60 to the horizontal base
of the channel, conveys water at a depth of 0.9m. Find the width of the base and
the gradient of the bed to discharge 1.7m 3/s with a mean velocity of flow of 0.6m/s.
Take Manning n = 0.025.
x
Solution:
Q = Av A =
Q 1.7
=
= 2.833
v 0.6
y = 0.9m
60
t
b
Figure 61 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 3
From Figure 61 ,
tan 60 =0.9 x
x =0.9 tan 60 and
b + x = 2.833 0.9
From the diagram,
and thus
thus A = 0.9 [ b + ( b + 2 x ) ] 2 = 2.833
b =3.148 0.9 tan 60 = 2.628m
sin 60 = 0.9 t
t = 0.9 sin 60
P = b +2 t = 2.628 +2 0.9 sin 60 = 4.706m
R =A P = 2.833 4.706 =0.602m
A 2 1
Q = R 3 S02
n
nQ 0.025 1.7
S0 =
=
2
2
AR 3 2.833 0.602 3
= 1
2259
4. A canal has a bottom width of 4m and sides with a slope of 1 vertical to 1.5
horizontal. The depth of water is 1.0m when the discharge is 4 m 3/s.
(a) Calculate the slope of the channel bed using the Manning formula with
n = 0.022.
(b) Calculate the discharge in m3/s when the depth of flow is 1.2m.
Solution:
(a)
1.0
A=
[ b + ( b + 2 1.5 y ) ] = 4 +1.5 1.0 = 5.5m 2
2
P = b +2 y 12 +1.5 2 = 4 +2 1.0 3.25 = 7.6m
R=
y = 1.0m
A 5.5
=
= 0.724m
P 7.6
1
1.5
Figure 62 : Worked Examples U.C.F. 4
Q=
(b)
A 2 3 12
R S0
n
nQ 0.022 4
S0 =
=
2
2
AR 3 5.5 0.724 3
= 1
2540
A =1.2( 4 +1.5 1.2 ) = 4 +1.5 1.2 = 6.96m 2
P = 4 +2 1.2 3.25 =8.327m
R=
Q=
A
6.96
=
= 0.836m
P 8.327
2
A 2 3 12 6.96
1
R S0 =
0.836 3
= 5.57 m 3 s
1
2
n
0.022
2540
Tutorial Questions Uniform Channel Flow
1. Find the gradient necessary for a rectangular flume 1.2m wide and 0.6m
deep to deliver 2.25m3/s of water when running full. Take C = 70. [1 in 151]
2. A rectangular open channel has a bottom width of 2.4m and a surface
roughness corresponding to Manning n = 0.015. If the slope of the bed is
0.001 and the depth of flow is 1.2m, what is the discharge under conditions
of uniform steady flow? [4.32 m3/s]
3. A channel of trapezoidal section, with side slopes at 45 to the horizontal
base of the channel, conveys water at a depth of 0.75m. Find the width of
the base and the gradient of the bed to discharge 1.27m 3/s with a mean
velocity of flow of 0.78m/s. Take Chezy C = 66. [1.42m; 1/3311]
4. A canal has a bottom width of 3m and sides with a slope of 1 vertical to 2
horizontal. The depth of water is 1.2m when the discharge is 3.51m 3/s.
Using the Manning formula with n = 0.022
a. Calculate the slope of the channel bed. [1/5000]
b. Calculate the discharge in m3/s when the depth of flow is 1.3m.
[4.12m3/s]
Nonuniform Open Channel Flow
There are, broadly speaking, two kinds of steady nonuniform flow. In one the
changes in depth and velocity take place over a long distance. Such flow is
termed gradually varied. In the other type the changes in depth and velocity take
place over a short distance and may in fact be quite abrupt. This is termed rapidly
varied flow.
Standing wave or Hydraulic Jump
This phenomenon occurs when subcritical flow in a channel is changed to
supercritical flow, due to some feature in the channel, and the flow then reverts
back to subcritical flow. Consider a sluice gate:
Figure 63 : Hydraulic Jump
The height of the sluice gate above the channel bed is such as to cause
supercritical flow immediately downstream of the sluice, where otherwise the flow
would be subcritical. The flow reverts back to subcritical flow with a dissipation of
energy, resulting in a turbulent area known as a standing wave or hydraulic jump.
The energy loss, dE, can be seen on the diagram.
The equation of the hydraulic jump is:
Figure 64 : Jump Equation Diagram
y2
2
y1
y2 =
2
y1 =
( 1 + 8Fr 1)
( 1 + 8Fr 1)
2
2
2
1
Flow Measuring Devices in Channels
There are three main types:
1. Flow measuring structures, (permanent, expensive, affects flow conditions).
2. Determination of flow rate from velocity, (cheap, temporary, accurate).
3. Chemical means, (used for special conditions, specialised, accurate).
1. Flow Measuring Structures
Basically, an obstruction is placed in the channel to create critical flow depth (y c).
There are two main kinds of structures: weirs and flumes.
Weirs
Figure 65 : Broad Crested Weir
b = width of channel
Cd found from BS 3680
Figure 66 : Round Crested Weir
Q actual = C d 1.7bH
Broad crested weirs are essentially low dams across the entire channel, which to
produce critical depth over the weir, must have a width in the direction of channel
flow, of at least three times the maximum height of water above the weir. Thus
they are massive and expensive structures, which invariably collect silt against
their upstream faces and require annual maintenance. As measuring systems they
tend to be inaccurate at low rates of flow.
Crump and flatvee weirs are modern developments, designed to increase flow
measurement accuracy and to reduce construction costs.
Figure 67 : Vnotch Weir Plate
Figure 68 : Rectangular Weir Plate
Notches, often termed sharp crested or thin plate weirs, are little more than steel
plates inserted vertically into a channel section and with a crest plate of some nonrusting metal (usually brass) with a precisely machined bevel.
The openings in such notches can be made triangular, for accurate measurement
of small flow rates, or rectangular when larger flow rates have to be passed. The
accuracy achievable with thin plate weirs is by far the highest of any type of weir
(about 1 or 2 percent) but their use is rather restricted because they are unable,
structurally, to withstand the forces met in real life situations and their crest units
are easily damaged by floating debris and vandalism.
The equations for notches are:
5
For the triangular notch Q = C d 8 tan 2g H 2
15
For the rectangular notch Q = C d 2 b 2g H 2
3
Flumes
Figure 69 : Flume Plan
b = width of channel
Cd Cv found from BS 3680
Figure 70 : Flume Elevation
Q actual = 1.7C d C v bH
Flumes do not suffer from siltation problems, since any silt is washed through the
structure. However their length and thus cost of construction are higher than for
normal weirs. To minimise these costs, a large number of flumes have been
constructed by driving sheet piles into the channel bed and backfilling to the
original river bank with suitable fill materials.
Another advantage of flumes is the very limited backing up of the upstream water
level it produces. In flat areas this is a considerable advantage.
Figure 71 : Depth Measurement
2. Flow Rate from Velocity
Uses Q = VA i.e. measuring V and A. Velocity measured with current meter
values recorded at points across the section and average velocity taken.
Figure 72 : Variation of Velocity
Figure 73 : Irregular Sections  Rivers/Streams
1. Find area of each width by use of measuring staff = A
2. Record average velocity for each width = V
3. Flow rate for each width = VA = q
4. Total flow rate = Q = q1 + q2 + q3 . + qn
This method is known as velocity area gauging. With care the accuracy for the
flow rate equals 5%.
3. Chemical Means
Used for rough, highly disturbed flow, the method involves the introduction of a
known quantity of a chemical at a prescribed rate at an upstream location. The
turbulent nature of the flow ensures thorough mixing of the chemical. Samples of
the fluid are taken at a downstream location and by chemical analysis, the
concentration of chemical in the fluid can be found. This degree of concentration
can be related to flow rate. The chemical dilution method gives an accuracy to
5%.
Some modern develops include electrochemical methods, laser scanning and
ultrasonic devices.
Hydraulic Machines
Functions and Types
Hydraulic machines are power or energy converters. They convert between
mechanical and hydraulic forms of power. There are two types pumps and
turbines.
Pumps:
A motor converts electrical power into mechanical power. The pump
then converts the mechanical power into hydraulic power.
Turbines:
The turbine converts hydraulic power into mechanical power. A
generator then converts the mechanical power into electrical power.
The effect on the hydraulic system may be shown on the total energy diagram.
Figure 74 : Total Energy Diagram for Pump and Turbine
1 Inlet
2 Outlet
flow velocity (m/S)
pressure (N/m2)
H total head across the machine (m)
Most pumps and turbines provide a continuous flow rate through a rotodynamic
action. However, positive displacement pumps are used in some situations.
Positive Displacement Pumps
These function as a result of volumetric changes
within the pump. E.g. the reciprocating or piston
pumps.
The piston displaces a fixed volume of fluid at
each stroke. The action results in an unsteady
(discontinuous) flow rate.
These pumps are used for dewatering
excavations, transferring sludge at sewage
treatment works and injecting chemicals into the
flow at water treatment works.
Figure 75 : Positive Displacement Pump
Rotodynamic Pumps
The mechanical power is transmitted through a rotating shaft P M = 2NT watts
where N = rotational speed of shaft (rev/s)
T = torque in the shaft (N/m)
Impeller blades, attached to the shaft, transfer power / energy to the fluid. The
hydraulic power PH = gQH watts
where Q = discharge / flow rate through the pump (m 3/s)
H = increase in total energy head across the pump (m)
i.e. H is the rise in the T.E.L. in the direction of flow.
The efficiency of the pump =
P
output power
100% = H 100%
input power
PM
Types of Rotodynamic Pumps
From the equation PH = gQH it is evident that two machines producing the same
power may deliver different flow rates at different heads. The relative values of Q
and H will depend on the shape of the impeller, producing different types of
machines which are suited to different tasks.
Centrifugal Pumps (low Q, high H)
Figure 76 : Centrifugal Pumps
Flow past the impeller is entirely radial. The volute casing is designed to withstand
the high pressures generated. The centripetal action produces a relatively high
pressure difference.
These types of pumps are used to extract water from boreholes, in water supply
pipelines and sewage pumping through long rising mains.
Axial Flow Pumps (high Q, low H)
Figure 77 : Axial Flow Pump
Flow past the impeller is entirely axial. The impeller, which is shaped like a ships
propeller, allows relatively high flows, but the head difference which can be
maintained across it is low. The twist which is imparted to the water is partially
removed using guide vanes downstream, thus reducing the energy loss.
These types of pumps are used in land drainage schemes, and to return activated
sludge in large sewage works.
Mixed Flow Pumps
Figure 78 : Mixed Flow Pump
Flow past the impeller is partially radial and partial axial. The shape of the impeller
and casing depends on the characteristics required. Some mixed flow pumps
resemble centrifugal pumps, but with a thickened volute casing; others resemble
axial flow pumps, but with a bulb or bowl casing around the impeller.
These types of pumps are used to pump storm water through short rising mains,
and in small land drainage schemes.
Multistage Pumps
These are formed by building a number of identical centrifugal impellers onto a
single driving shaft (in series). The same flow rate passes each impeller in turn,
the water receiving an accumulating head lift at each stage.
These pumps are usually installed with the shaft vertical in boreholes and deep
wells.
Pump Performance Characteristics (Curves)
Mathematical equations relating the variables H, Q, N, P and are long and
complicated. It is more convenient to hold the information in the form of graphs,
using data obtained from performance tests.
Pumps are usually tested at constant speed N, and the other variables plotted
against discharge Q. The tests are repeated for different speeds, producing a
family of characteristic curves.
Centrifugal Pump Curves
A stable characteristic shows a head which falls
continuously with flow rate. High eddy losses in the
pump may cause an unstable characteristic, allowing
hunting between two flow rates at a given head.
A nonoverloading characteristic shows a fall off in
power as flow rate increases indefinitely. This avoids
overloading the pump motor.
Figure 79 : Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curves
Axial Flow Pump Curves
At low flows the head and power consumption
are high. To avoid overloading the motor, the
pump should not be run against a closed, or
nearly closed outlet valve.
A variable angle propeller type pump (as
opposed to a fixed blade pump) allows high
efficiencies to be maintained over the full range
of discharge.
Figure 80 : Axial Flow Pump Characteristic Curves
Mixed Flow Pump Curve
Performance curves lie between those of the centrifugal
and axial flow pumps. The flat powerdischarge curve is
an important feature, showing that power demand is
almost constant over the working range of the pump.
Figure 81 : Mixed Flow Pump Characteristic Curve
Other Characteristic Curves
Figure 82 : Design Point Curve
Figure 83 : Families of Characteristic Curves
Hydro Power Turbines
There are many hydroelectric power installations throughout the world. The
various modern water turbine designs are capable of covering a wide range of
operating conditions. Hydroelectric schemes may now be found in mountains,
river or estuarine environments.
For large scale power generation, three types of turbines are dominant.
1. Radical flow or Francis turbine
2. Axial flow turbine
3. Pelton Wheel turbine
The first two are known as reaction turbines, the third is called an impulse turbine.
Francis Turbine
The Francis turbine may be regarded as a centrifugal pump operating in reverse.
Figure 84 : Francis Turbine
The water enters the outer part of the casing and flows through the guide vanes
which direct the flow radially inwards through the rotating element (called the
runner), transferring energy to the runner. The water then drains out of the casing
through the central outlet passage.
Axial Flow Turbine
The axial flow turbine may be regarded as an axial flow pump operating in
reverse. The guide vanes direct the flow so that it meets the runner in an axial
direction.
Figure 85 : Axial Flow Turbine
There are two major differences between the turbine and the pump:
a) In the turbine, the rotating element is surrounded by guide vanes, so that
the velocity and direction of the water can be adjusted. This provides for
optimum flow conditions over a wide range of discharge and power output.
(N.B. electrical requirements vary over a 24 hour period.)
b) The water leaving the turbine passes through a draft tube, which is tapered
so as to minimise the loss of kinetic energy. This ensures that the
maximum energy is available at the turbine.
Virtually all modern units incorporate mechanical means of varying the propeller
blade angle of the runner, so that high runner efficiency may be maintained over
the specified range of discharge and power output.
Variable angle designs are called Kaplan turbines. In recent years, a number of
pumped storage schemes have utilized a special type of Kaplan unit. This unit
operates as a turbine during periods when the demand for electricity is high.
However, demand is low during the night. The blade is then reversed and the unit
is motor driven so as to act as a pump.
Both the Kaplan and Francis units run full of water. There is therefore a
continuous flow of water between the reservoir and the tailwater.
Generally, turbines are very efficient, i.e. hydraulic and mechanical energy losses
are low. They commonly attain efficiencies in excess of 90%.
Kaplan units are generally applied where there is a large discharge at a low
pressure, whereas the Francis unit is appropriate for moderate discharges at
moderate head (250 300 m).
Pelton Wheel Turbine
The Pelton Wheel turbine is appropriate where a high pressure water supply is
available. In contrast to the other turbines, the casing does not run full of water.
Figure 86 : Pelton Wheel Turbine
Essentially, the runner comprises a disc, with a series of flow deflectors or
buckets around its periphery. The water enters the casing through one or more
nozzles as a high velocity jet. As the runner rotates, the jet impinges upon each
bucket in turn. The water is deflected by the buckets, and the change in
momentum transfers a force to the bucket, and hence a torque to the drive shaft.
The jet incorporates a streamlined control valve which is used to regulate the
discharge, and hence the power output.
The gross head for the Pelton Wheel is due only to the height of the reservoir
above the nozzles.
Sewage Pumping Station Layouts
Figure 87 : Sewage Pumps  Axial and Mixed Flow
Figure 88 : Sewage Pumps  Centrifugal and Submersible