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Chapter 9 Outline: Chemical Bonding

I. Lewis Dot Structures

A. Lewis Dot Symbol- - the symbol of an element and one dot for each valance electron in
an atom of an element.
B. Except for helium, the number of valance electrons each atom has is the same group
number for the element

C. The transition metals, lanthanides and actinides all have completely filled their inner
shells, we cannot write simple Lewis structures for them.
II. The Ionic Bond
A. Ionic bond- the electrostatic force that holds ions together in an ionic compound

III. Lattice Energy of Ionic Compounds
A. Lattice energy- a quantitative measure in of the stability of any ionic solid
B. The Born Harber Cycle for determining lattice energies
1. Coulombs Law- the potential energy (E) between two ions is directly proportional
to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the distance of
separation between them.

2. Born-Haber Cycle- relates lattice energies of ionic compounds to ionization energies,
electrons affinities, and other atomic and molecular properties (based on Hesss

IV. The Covalent bond

A. Covalent bond- a bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms
B. Covalnet compounds- compounds that counatin only covalent bonds (usually
represented as a single line)

C. Lone pairs- nonbonding electrons

D. Lewis Structure- a representation of covalent bonding in which shared electron pairs are
shown either as lines of a pair or pairs of dots on individual atoms

E. Octet Rule- an atom, other than hydrogen, tends to form bonds until it is surrounded by
eight valence electrons
F. Single Bond- two atoms are held together by one electron pair
G. Multible bonds- teo atoms share two or more pairs of electrons
H. Double Bond- if two atoms share two pairs of electrons
I. Triple bond- two atoms share three pairs of electrons
J. Bond Length- the distance between the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms in a
K. Comparison of the properties of covalent and ionic compounds
1. Two types of atrractive forces in compounds
a. The force that holds atoms together in a molecule
b. Intermolecular force
V. Electronegativity
A. Polar covalent bond (ex. HF): the electrons spend more time in the vicinity of one atom
than the other (polar bond)
B. Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract toward itself the electrons in a
chemical bond

C. Electronegativity and Oxidation Number
1. Fluorine- always has an oxidation number of -1
- It is the most electronegative element known, and and always forms a single
bond in its compounds
2. .

VI. Writing Lewis Structures
A. Write the skeletal structure of a compound, using chemical symbols and placing bonded
atoms next to one another
B. Count the total number of valence electrons present
C. Draw a single covalent bond between the central atom and each of the surrounding
D. If the central atom has fewer than eight electrons, try adding double or triple binds
between surround atoms and central atom. Use lone pairs from the surrounding atoms
to complete the octet of the central atom
VII. Formal Charge and Lewis Structure
A. Formal Charge- the electrical charge difference between the valence electrons in an
isolated atom and the number of electrons assigned to that atom in a Lewis structure
B. To assign the number of electrons on an atom in a Lewis structure
1. All the atoms nonbonding electrons are assigned to the atom
2. We break the bond(s) b/t the atom and other atom(s)and adding half of the bonding
electrons to the atom
VIII. Concept of Resonance
A. Resonance structure
1. One or two Lewis structures for a single molecule that cnnot be represented
accurately by only one Lewis Structure.
2. Resonance- the use of two or more Lewis structures to represent a particular
IX. Exceptions to the Octet Rule
A. The Incomplete Octet
1. In some compounds, the central atom has fewer than eight electrons

2. Boron (for example) only has three valence electrons (1s2,2s2,2p1).
3. Coordinate covalent Bond (Dative Bond)- a covalent bond in which one of the atoms
donates both electrons
B. Odd electron molecules
1. Some molecules contain an odd number of electrons
(example: NO2)
2. Because an even number is needed (to reach eight)- the octet rule cannot be
satisfies for all the atoms in these molecules
3. Odd number electrons are sometimes called radicals (many radicals being highly
4. The equation can be satisfied if it is paired up with another (NO2)
C. The expanded Octet
1. There could be more than eight valence electrons surrounding the central atom
2. Expanded octet (3d orbitals?)- an example is sulfur hexafluoride (NE) 3s2, 3p4
3. This creates 12 electrons or six bonding pairs
X. Bond Enthalpy
A. Bond Enthalpy- the enthalpy change require to break a particular bond in 1 mole of gaseous

B. Use of bond Enthalpies in Thermochemistry
1. Enthalpy of reaction in gas phase:


E BE (Reactants)- E BE(products) = total energy input- total energy released
2. Symbols
a. BE- average bond enthalpy
b. E is the summation sign