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AP Physics

Enosburg Falls High School


Mr. Bushey

Week 6: Work, Energy, Power

Homework
! Read Giancoli Chapter 6.1 6.10 AND/OR Read Saxon
Lessons 12, 16, 29, 48
! Read Topic Summary Handout
! Answer Giancoli p.174 Problems 1, 4, 7, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23,
25
! Answer Princeton Review p.79 AP Set multiple choice, free
response questions


Supplemental Review / Study Group Focus
! Review Key Concepts Handout
! Schaums Outlines, Chapter 6 Problems 6.24 6.53
! Schaums Outlines, Chapter 7 Problems 7.10 7.17
! Solve problems from associated Saxon lessons




Work and Work-Energy Theorem
Work
Work is defined as the scalar product of force and displacement. Work is done when a non-zero
net force acts on a moving object. If a force F moves an object over a distance d, work can be
found by using the formula:




W F d !
! !
"
If F and d are parallel, the work is W F d ! . If they are not parallel, then the work is
cos W F d " ! .
From this formula, one can conclude that for the work to be done, the following conditions must
be met:
# The object must move (i.e. d $ 0). A force can be exerted on an object with no work done,
e.g. pushing on a wall, holding up 100 lb, etc.
# If F and d are perpendicular, no work is done (cos" = 0). For example, carrying something is
not work because the angle between the force (upwards) and displacement (horizontal) is
equal to 0.
# The SI unit of work is Joule (J), and 1 J = 1 N x 1 m.
# If the angle between force and displacement is less than 90
0
, cos" >0, and the work is
positive. If 90
o
<" < 180
o
, cos" <0, and the work is negative. Friction always does negative
work because it always acts in the direction opposite (180
o
) to the motion of the object.

Work either changes the velocity of an object or counteracts the work done by an opposing force.
For example, if a car is moving at a constant speed, the engine does work on the car to
counteract the work done by friction in the opposite direction. If an object is moving with constant
velocity, the net force acting on it is zero. In this case, the net amount of work done on it must
also be zero (W
net
=F
net
d).

"
F
!
"
F
!

d
!


Energy
Energy is one of the most fundamental concepts of Physics. It is a very abstract concept that
does not have a single definition. Energy is a characteristic of a system. Energy in a system gives
it the capability to perform some operation. When work is done on a system or by a system, the
energy of the system changes. In other words, the system gains or loses energy through the
process of work. If positive work is done, the system gains energy. If work is negative, the system
loses energy. If no work is done, the total energy of the system does not change.

There are many types of energy. Kinetic energy (K or E
k
) is the energy of motion. It depends only
upon the square of the speed and the mass of the object.

2
1
2
mv K !

Work - Energy Theorem
An object is moving with an acceleration a over a distance d. Then according to the formula,
:
2 2
2
f i
v v ad ! "

2 2
2( )
f i
F
v v d
m
! " .
F
!
F
!

d
!

v
i v
f
Solving for F d gives

2 2
( )
2
f i
m
F d v v ! #
The work done on the object W is given by
2 2 2 2
1 1
( )
2 2 2
f i f i f i

m
W F d v v mv mv K K ! ! # ! # ! #
Or, we can rewrite it as

i f
W K K K ! # ! $

This is the kinetic energywork theorem: The change of kinetic energy of a body is equal to
the work of all the forces acting upon it.
Work and Work-Energy Theorem
1. A box, initially at rest, is pulled a distance of 5 m across a floor by a horizontal force of 23 N. At
the end of the 5 m, the kinetic energy of the box is 87 J.

a. What was the net work done on the box?

According to the Work-Energy theorem, the net work done on the box is equal to the change in
the kinetic energy.

87J
net k
W E ! " !
b. How much work was done by the 23 N force?

W = F d = (23 N)(5 m) = 115 J

c. How much work was done by friction?

The net work is equal to the sum of the work done by the applied force and the work done by the
friction.
W
net
= W
A
+ W
f
W
f
= W
net
W
A
=87 J 115 J = 28 J

d. How much work was done by the gravitational force?

The gravitational force is perpendicular to the displacement. Thus, the gravitational force does no
work. W
g
= 0 J.

2. Bill carries a 35 N package from the ground up to the fifth floor of a 15 m high office building.
How much work is done by Bill on the package?

The force Bill is applying to the package is directed up. He must be applying a force directed up
to the package that is equal to the packages weight. Hes also moving up. Therefore, # = 0.

F = 35 N W = F d cos# = F d
d = 15 m W = (35 N)(15 m)(cos 0) = 525 J
W = ?





3. A 4 kg brick slides a distance (d) of 5m along an icy slope of inclination angle of 30
o
. The
coefficient of kinetic friction is !
k
= 0.20. What will be the speed of the brick at the end of the
slope?

"


There are three forces acting on the brick.
The work done by gravity = m g d cos(90 - "), as the angle enclosed by G and the slope is 90 - ".
Note that cos(90 - ") = sin" (trigonometry), therefore, W
g
= m g d sin ". Note that d sin" = h
where h is the height of the slope. Thus, the work is equal to m g h.
The normal force encloses 90
o
with the displacement, so W
n
= F
n
d cos(90
o
) = 0.
The work of the friction is W
fr
= - !#F
n
#d = - !
k
m g d#cos(").
The work of all forces is W = m g d (sin " - !
k
cos ") and this will be equal to the kinetic energy K
f

= 1/2 mv
f
2
.

2
2
2
(sin cos )
2
2 (sin cos )
2 (sin cos )
2(9.81m/s )(5m)(0.500 (0.20)(0.866))
5.7m/s
f
f
f
mv
mgd
gd v
v gd
" ! "
" ! "
" ! "
$ %
$ %
% $
% $
%


4. A 2 kg block is accelerated from rest along a horizontal, smooth surface by a force of 5 N over
a distance of 6 m.

a. Determine the acceleration of the block and the final velocity of the block.

2
5 N
2.50m/s
2 kg
F
a
m
% % %
& ' & '& '
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
0 m/s 2 2.50m/s 6 m 30 m /s
30 m /s 5.48 m/s
f o
f
f
v v a x
v
v
$ % # (
$ % %
% %
2 2

b. Calculate the work done by the accelerating force.

! "! " ! "
o
5 N 6 m Cos 0 30 N m 30.0 J W F d Cos # $ $ $ % $


c. Use the Work-Energy theorem to determine the final velocity of the block. Compare your
answer to the answer obtained in part (a).


! "
i
2
f
2 2
f
-
30 J 0 J 30 J
1
2kg v 30 J
2
30 J
v 30m /s 5.48 m/s
1 kg
f
f i
W KE KE KE
KE W KE
$ & $
$ ' $ ' $
$
$ $ $



d. Find the final velocity of the block if it has an initial velocity of +2 m/s.
! " ! "! "
! "
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
-
1 1

2 2
1 1
30J = 2 kg 2 kg 2 m/s
2 2
30J = 1 kg 4 J
34 J
34 m /s 5.83 m/s
1 kg
f i
f i
f
f
f
W KE KE KE
W mv mv
v
v
v
$ & $
$ (
(
(
$ $ $



e. If the block is moving with a velocity of 8 m/s, what magnitude retarding force is needed to
bring the block to rest over a distance of 5 m?


! " ! " ! "! "
2 2
2 2
-
1 1
-
2 2
1 1
2 kg 0 m/s - 2 kg 8 m/s
2 2
-64 J
f i
f i
KE KE KE
m v m v
& $
$
$
$





-64 J

(5 m)(1)
-12.8 N
KE
F
x Cos

#
&
$
& %
$
$

5. Hookes law states that F k x ! " .

a. Find the work required to compress the spring through a distance x.

Because the force is not constant throughout the distance moved, we need to integrate the
product of the distance and the force to determine the work. Also the force we exert is opposite in
direction to the force exerted by the spring, so the force we exert is F k x ! .
2
2 2
0 0
0
1 1
0
2 2 2
x
x x
x
W F dx k x dx k k x k x ! ! ! ! " !
# #

The work required is then
2
1
2
W k x ! .


b. What is the potential energy of a spring which was initially at zero and was compressed to a
point x?

When the spring has been compressed its velocity is zero, so there is no kinetic energy, all of the
energy is then potential energy.
Work is equal to the change in the energy. Thus,
2
1
2
spring
U k ! x .
Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
Conservative Forces
Definition: A force is called conservative if the work it does on an object depends only on the
initial and final positions of the object and is independent of the path taken between those
positions.
Gravity is one such conservative force. Near Earths surface, the work done by gravity on an
object of mass m depends only on the change in the objects height h.
In the case of conservative forces, we assign a number--the potential energy, U--to each
configuration of the system. The zero level of the potential energy is arbitrary; it can be assigned
to any position. If the place with zero potential energy is chosen, the potential energy at any point
A is the work done by the force when the body moves from the point A to the point 0 with zero
potential energy. So, U(A) = W
A0
.
The work is additive. If the body moves from A to B and then to point 0, then
,
0 0 A AB
W W W ! "
B
or . ( ) ( )
AB
U A W U B ! " ( ) ( )
AB
W U A U B ! #

Examples of Potential Energy
The Gravitational Potential Energy
Gravity is an example of a conservative force. The work done on an object of mass m when it is
raised height h at constant velocity by an external force is mgh. U
g
= mgh is called the
gravitational potential energy of the object.
The only physically significant quantity is the change in potential energy, and not the absolute
value of the potential energy. For this reason, in problem solving, we usually choose a convenient
point (table top level, ground level, sea level, etc.) and set the potential energy at this level to be
zero. All heights are measured from this level. Then, if the object is below the zero level, its
potential energy is negative. It is important to stress again that only the change in potential
energy is physically significant.

Gravitational Potential Energy: U
g
= mgy
Change in Gravitational Potential Energy: $
o
g g g
U =U - U = mgh- mgh
o

The Elastic Potential Energy
Springs, rubber bands, and other springy objects also exert conservative forces. At relatively
small elongations, the force exerted by a spring is proportional to the amount x by which the
spring has been stretched,

spr
F k x ! " ,
(The - sign indicates that the force is directed in the opposite direction to the stretch.)
k is the constant of proportionality and is called the springs spring constant. This proportionality
between the force F and the amount of stretching (or compression) x is known as Hookes Law.
The work done by a spring with a given spring constant depends only on x, so an associated
potential energy is
2 1
spr 2
( ) U x k x ! .
Note that x = 0 is at the equilibrium (unstretched) position of the spring.

Nonconservative forces
Unlike conservative forces, the work done by nonconservative forces depends on the path the
object moves and not just on the initial and final points. Friction is an example of a
nonconservative force. A nonconservative force is often called a dissipative force.
Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

1. A 5 kg bowling ball is carried to the top of a tower that is 45 m high. The bowling ball is
released from rest and falling freely to the ground.

a. What force is required to lift the bowling ball to the top of the tower at constant velocity?

Wt = 50 N
F
App
= 50 N

Net
0 N -
= (5kg)(10m/s) 50 N
Applied
Applied
F F W
F W mg
! !
! ! !









b. How much work is done by the lifting force to lift the bowling ball from the ground to the top of
the tower?

" #" # 50 N 45 m 2250 J
Net
W F d ! ! !


c. What is the Gravitational Potential Energy of the bowling ball on the top of the tower?

2250 J
top
GPE W ! ! $


d. How do the GPE and the KE of the bowling ball change if the bowling ball falls from the top of
the tower to the ground?

As the bowling ball falls, it loses height and its GPE decreases. Because of the
gravitational force, the bowling ball accelerates (g = 10 m/s
2
), its speed increases, and its
KE increases.


e. Use the equations of motion to find the speed of the bowling ball at the moment it hits the
ground. What is the KE of the bowling ball at the instant it strikes the ground? Compare it with the
answer from part (c).


" #" #
" #" #
2
0
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
45 m ; 0 m/s ; 10 m/s
2
(0 m/s) 2 10 m/s 45 m 900 m /s
900 m /s 30 m/s
1 1
5 kg 30 m/s 2250 J
2 2
f o
f
f
k f f
d v a
v v a d
v
v
E mv
! % ! ! %
% !
% ! % % !
! !
! ! !
2 2


The answer is the same as in part (c).
f. Use the equations of motion for free fall to determine the height above the ground and the
potential energy of the bowling ball at t = 2 s after it is released.


! "! " ! " ! "
! " ! "! "
2
0 0
2
2
2
1

2
1
45m 0 m/s 2 s 10m/s 2 s
2
25 m
5 kg 10m/s 25 m 1250 J
f
f
f
h h v t at
h
GPE mgh
# $ $
# $ $ %
#
# # #



g. Calculate the velocity and the KE of the bowling ball at time t = 2 s after it is released.


! " ! "
! "
0
2
2
2

0 m/s 10 m/s 2 s 20 m/s
1

2
1
(5 kg) 20 m/s 1000 J
2
f
f f
v v at
KE m v
# $
# $ % # %
#
# % #



h. Calculate the sum of the KE and GPE of the bowling ball at this time and compare it with its
initial potential energy and with its final kinetic energy at the moment it hits the ground.


GPE
f
+ KE
f
= 1000J + 1250J = 2250J = GPE
top
= KE
f


i. The bowling ball hits the ground and compresses the ground a distance of 0.020 m.

What is the magnitude of the average force exerted by the ground on the bowling ball as it
comes to rest?

Ignoring the small change in GPE as the ground is compressed, the Change in KE is
equal to the work done by the force exerted by the ground:


0 J - 2250 J -2250 J
Work Done
= ( )
( 0.020 m 0 ) 2250 J
2250 J
113,000 N
0.020 m
f o
f i
KE KE KE
KE
F d F d d KE
F m
F
& # % # #
# &
% # &
% % # %
%
# #
%

Conservation of Energy and Power
According to the Work-energy Theorem,

_ All Forces
W K ! "
Work of all forces can be separated into two components, work of conservative forces and work
of non-conservative forces.

_ _ _ All Forces Consearvative Forces Non Conservative Forces
W W W ! #
_
K
U
Further,

_ Conservative Forces
W U ! $"
Then the work energy theorem becomes

_ _ Non Conservative Forces
W U $ " ! "

_ _ Non Conservative Forces
W K ! " # "
This leads to the concept of the conservation of mechanical energy.
If there is no non-conservative force in the system,
_ _
0
Non Conservative Forces
W !
and 0 K U ! " # " .

In the absence of dissipative forces in a mechanical system, the mechanical energy E
mech
= K + U
is a constant. For example, E
mech
in time t = t
initial
is the same as E
mech
at time t = t
final
.
The work energy theorem gives the result
0
mech
E K U " ! " # " !

In an isolated system where only conservative forces cause energy to be transformed, the
mechanical energy of the system is constant.
If no non-conservative forces are acting in a system, then 0 K U ! " # "
.

When there are forces such as friction present, we can still include these forces and conserve
total energy taking into account the heat generated as a result of work of dissipative forces such
as friction.
For Friction,
nc k k
W f d N ! " # " $ d
!!" !"
This work takes away mechanical energy and transfers this detracted amount into heat.
From the work energy theorem,

k
Nd K U ! $ " % & %
0
k
K U Nd ! " % & % &
0
mech thermal
E E " % & %

Thermal energy is one of the forms of non-mechanical internal energy stored inside of the bodies.
Internal energy will be covered in the following units of the course. The conservation of energy
with inclusion of internal energy becomes

int
0
mech
E E " % & %

If there are external forces applied to an isolated system as a whole then, the work energy
theorem is

int ext mech
F d E E # " % & %
!!!" !"

or,

ext
F Total
W E " %

All of this can by summed up in the following equation:
Total final
mechanical energy
= + -
Total initial
mechanical energy
Any work done
Any losses due to
nonconservative forces
or
app loss f f i i
K U K U W W & " & & $

Power
Power is the rate (how fast) at which work is done.

Work Done
Power .
Time Spent Performing Work
!

W
P
t
!

The unit of power is the "Watt," which is equal to a Joule/second. The "horsepower" is the English
system unit of power; it is equal to 746 W.
Conservation of Energy and Power

1. An electrical motor lifts a 575 N box 20 m straight up by a rope in 10 s. What power is
developed by the motor?

F = 575 N the amount of force the rope must apply to the object to lift it up at constant velocity is
equal to the objects weight
F = 575 N
W
P
t
!
d = 20 m W F d !
t = 10 s
Fd
P
t
!
P = ?
3
(575N)(20m)
1.15 10 W
10s
P ! ! "

2. A block slides down a frictionless inclined plane of height h = 1 m, making angle # with the
horizontal. At the bottom of the plane, the block continues to move on a flat surface with a
coefficient of friction $ = 0.30. How far does the mass move on the flat surface?

We apply the law of Conservation of energy. The equation is
E K U % ! % & %

The velocity of the block is zero both in the beginning and the end. Thus, 0 K % !

We also have

friction k
E W m g d $ % ! ! '

The change in GPE is
U mg % ! ' h

Putting it all together

1m
3.3m
0.30
k
k
E K U
mg d mgh
h
d
$
$
% ! % & %
' ! '
! ! !


3. A cyclist approaches the bottom of a hill at a speed of 11 m/s. The hill is 6 m high. Ignoring
friction, how fast is the cyclist moving at the top of the hill? Assume that he doesnt peddle and
ignore air resistance.

Since there is no friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. Thus,
. 0 U K % & % !
and 0 U mgh mgh % ! ' !
2 2 1 1
2 2 f i
K mv mv % ! ' ,

Substitute these into the energy conservation equation

2 2 1 1
2 2
2 2
0
2
f i
f i
mgh mv mv
v v gh
& ' !
! '


Thus,
2 2
2 (11m/s) 2(9.81m/s )(6m)
f i
v v gh ! ' ! '
2
=
2 2
3.28m /s 1.81m/s ! .

4. A 100 kg mass traveling with a velocity of 15 m/s on a horizontal surface strikes a spring with a
spring constant k = 5 N/m.

a. Find the compression of the spring required to stop the mass if the surface is frictionless.

Since there is no dissipative force, we will use the Law of Conservation of Energy.

. 0 U K ! " ! #

2 2 1 1
2 2
0 U kx kx ! # $ #

2 2 1 1
2 2
0 K mv mv ! # $ # $

2 2 1 1
2 2
0 kx mv $ #

Solve for x:

m
x v
k
#

100kg
(15m/s) 67.1m
5N/m
x # #

b. Find the compression of the spring if the surface is rough ( 0.4
k
% # 0).

The more general form of the equation including nonconservative forces is

E U K ! # ! " !

k
E F d mg x % ! # & # $
! !

2 1
2
U kx ! # and
2 1
2
K mv ! # $

Putting it all together we get:


2 2 1 1
2 2 k
mg x kx mv % $ # $

where
2
0.40(100kg)(9.81 m/s ) ( 392.4 N)
k
mg x x x % $ # $ # $
and
2 2 1 1
2 2
(5N/m) (2.5N/m) kx x x # #
2

and
2 2 1 1
2 2
(100kg)(15m/s) 11250N mv # #

Simplifying (and leaving off the units to make the quadratic equation easier to read)

2
392.4 2.5 11250 x x $ # $

In standard form this quadratic equation becomes

2
2.5 392.4 11250 0 x x " $ #
$

Solving by the quadratic formula we obtain
24.8m or 182m x x # #

The physical solution here is positive. Thus, x = 25 m.

5. An amusement park roller coaster car has a mass of 250 kg. During the ride, it is towed to the
top of a 30 m hill, where it is released from rest and allowed to roll. The car plunges down the hill,
then up a 10 m hill and through a loop with a radius of 10 m. Assume that the tracks are
frictionless. (Use g = 10 m/s
2
.)

a. What is the Potential Energy of the car at the top of the 30 m hill?

! "! "! "
Top of Hill
2

250 kg 10m/s 30 m
75000 J
GPE mg h #
#
#

b. What are the Kinetic Energy and the speed of the car at the bottom of the 30 m hill?


Top of Hill Tot Bottom of Hill
2
Bottom of Hill
2 2
75000 J
1

2
2 2 (75000 J)
600 m /s 24 m/s
250 kg
GPE E KE
KE m v
KE
v
m
# # #
#
# # # #


c. What are the Kinetic Energy and the speed of the car at the top of the 10 m hill?


! "! "! "
2
10 m
10 m 10 m Tot
10 m Tot 10 m
2 2
10 m
250 kg 10 m/s 10 m 25000 J
75000 J
75000 J 25000 J 50000 J
2 2 (50000 J)
400 m /s 20 m/s
250 kg
GPE mg h
GPE KE E
KE E GPE
KE
v
m
# # #
$ # #
# % # % #
# # # #



d. If the hill makes an angle of 60
o
with the horizontal and the car takes 15 seconds to be towed
up the hill, determine the length of the hill, the velocity of the car, the force required to tow the car
up the hill, and the power of the motor pulling the car up the hill.


||
2
30m (sin 60 )
30m
34.64m
sin 60
sin 60
(2500 N)( sin 60 ) 2165N= 2200 N
34.64m
2.31m/s =2.3m/s
15s
Work Done 75000J
5000J/s 5000W
15s
or
= (mg)(sin 60 )( )=(250 kg)(10 m/s )(sin 60 )(2.31
o
o
o
o
L
L
F Wt
L
v
t
P
t
P F v v
#
# #
# &
#
# # #
'
# # # #
'
#
! !
! "
m/s)
= (2165 N) 2.31m/s 5001J/s 5.0kW # #