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1

L. Kamariah, A. Azmi, A. Rosmawati, M.G. Wai Ching, M.D. Azlina, A. Sivapragasam, C.P. Tan and O.M. Lai J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc. 36(2)(2008): 000000
Physico-chemical and quality characteristics of virgin coconut oil
A Malaysian survey
(Ciri-ciri kimia zikal dan kualiti minyak kelapa dara Tinjauan di Malaysia)
L. Kamariah*, A. Azmi*, A. Rosmawati*, M.G. Wai Ching*, M.D. Azlina*,
A. Sivapragasam**, C.P. Tan*** and O.M. Lai****
Key words: identity characteristic, quality characteristic, virgin coconut oil, contaminant
Abstract
A total of 10 virgin coconut oil (VCO) samples from Malaysian market were
collected and analysed for their physico-chemical and quality characteristics.
Two of the samples were produced using MARDIs technologies i.e. dry and
wet processes. The remainders of the samples were produced either through
natural fermentation or mechanical process. The analyses were divided based on
physico-chemical characteristics and quality characteristics. As for the physico-
chemical characteristic, eight types of analysis were performed i.e. relative
density, refractive index, saponication value, iodine value, unsaponication
matter, specic gravity, slip melting point and fatty acid composition. In addition,
six types of analysis were carried out to determine the quality of the VCO.
Physico-chemical characteristic analysis of all VCO samples fall within narrow
ranges. However, for quality characteristics, some samples showed bad quality oil
especially for the free fatty acid and peroxide value. The percentage of free fatty
acid obtained from these samples were >0.5% and peroxide value >3 meq/kg.
Total plate counts of most samples were zero. In terms of contaminants, copper,
lead and arsenic were found to be below detectable levels except for iron. A few
samples had high iron content (more than 5 mg/kg) which may enhance oxidative
deterioration in the oil.
*Biotechnology Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, Serdang, P.O. Box 12301, 50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
**Rice and Industrial Crops Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, Serdang. P.O. Box 12301, 50774
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
***Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
****Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia
Authors full names: Kamariah Long, Azmi Azali, Rosmawati Abdullah, Mary Goh Wai Ching, Azlina Mohd. Danial,
Sivapragasam Annamalai, Tan Chin Ping and Lai Oi Ming
E-mail: amai@mardi.gov.my
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute 2008
Introduction
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is the miracle
oil for health, beauty and strength. It has
abundant utility in the functional foods,
health foods, pharmaceuticals, nutriceuticals,
infant foods and cosmoceuticals and thus
has multifunctions and uses in human life.
The health and benets that can be derived
from consuming VCO have been recognized
in many parts of the world. One of the
emerging applications of VCO is its medical
use and functional benet to human health.
Coconut oil in its virgin form is clear
in colour and has a distinct coconut avour
and aroma. VCO may mean the minimally
processed product which has not undergone
2
Virgin coconut oil
any further processing such as rening,
bleaching and deodorization. It can be
produced either from processing of fresh
coconut meat, coconut milk, or coconut milk
residue.
VCO is known for its medium chain
triglycerides (MCT) and high content of
lauric acid (about 50%). In vitro studies
showed that these medium chain fatty acids
and its corresponding monoglycerides have
antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral properties
including human pathogens like herpes
simplex virus and antiprotozoal (Kabara
1978; Shibasaki and Kato 1978; Welsh et
al. 1979; Thormar et al. 1987; Isaacs et al.
1995).
Currently there are many types and
brands of VCO available in the Malaysian
market. Most of them were VCO from
countries likes Indonesia and the Philippines
where prices are relatively cheaper. They
are produced either by natural fermentation
or mechanical process. The fermentation
process involves splitting the nut, grating
the meat to ne particles, squeezing the
milk either manually or mechanically with
or without adding of water and allowing the
milk to ferment for 3648 h. The skim milk
at the bottom is discarded, the oil is ltered
and the cream which contains part of the
oil is gradually heated to further recover the
oil. On the other hand, mechanical process
uses minimal heat to quick-dry the coconut
meat and the oil is pressed using coconut oil
expeller. Methods which can separate the oil
from the water include boiling, fermentation,
refrigeration, enzyme and mechanical
centrifugation.
The quality and physico-chemical
characteristics of the VCO produce are very
much dependent on the process and the
raw materials used. Because of the growing
popularity of VCO, the price and demand
for VCO has increased. There is also the
possibility of oil adulteration in which
VCO is blended with other oils to give a
product of unknown and variable quality. It
is thus essential that the physico-chemical
and quality characteristic of the VCO be
analysed to identify possible authentication.
Such determinants will prevent incidences
of VCO adulteration with cheaper oils
as well as allowing enforcement of food
regulations in Malaysia. VCO prices in
the Malaysian market in 2006 are between
RM20/120 ml and RM60/120 ml. This paper
reports a survey on the physico-chemical
and quality characteristic of VCO in the
Malaysian market.
Materials and methods
Ten samples of VCO were selected
and analysed for physical and chemical
characteristics. Two samples of VCO namely
A and B were produced using MARDIs
technologies i.e. dry and wet processes.
The remaining eight samples of VCO
were purchased from suppliers in Malaysia
and were coded as samples C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, and J. Samples C, D, E and J were
produced through natural fermentation
process whereas samples F, G, H and I were
obtained through mechanical process.
The relative density of the oil
was measured at 25 C by using 50 ml
pycnometer (with stopper tted with
calibrated thermometer) according to ISO/
FDIS 6883 (2000).
The refractive index of the oil was
measured according to ISO/FDIS 6320
(1999) at 40 C, using a refractometer
equipped with sodium vapour lamp as light
source. Refractive index of the oil was
measured within the range n
D
= 1.3000 to
1.7000.
The saponication value determination
was determined as described in AOCS
(1997). Samples were saponied with 0.5 N
potassium hydroxide solution. The samples
were then titrated with 0.5 N hydrochloric
acid with phenolphthalein solution as an
indicator.
Iodine value of oil samples was
determined by Wijs method as described in
PORIM (1995). 0.1 N sodium thiosulphate
solution was used to titrate the liberated
iodine.
3
L. Kamariah, A. Azmi, A. Rosmawati, M.G. Wai Ching, M.D. Azlina, A. Sivapragasam, C.P. Tan and O.M. Lai
Unsaponiable matter in the oil was
determined according to AOCS (1997).
Saponication of the oil was rst done with
ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution.
Extraction of the unsaponiable matter was
then carried out with petroleum ether for at
least six times.
The specic gravity of oil sample was
determined using 50 ml pycnometer (with
stopper tted with calibrated thermometer)
as described in AOCS (1997).
Slip melting point of oil was
determined using AOCS (1997). Heat was
increased at rate 1 C/min to heat the oil
sample in capillary tube. As the slip point
was approached, the rate was slowed to
0.5 C/min. The temperature at which the
oil in column rose was reported as the slip
melting point.
Fatty acid composition of VCO was
determined using gas chromatography
(GC Hewlett Packard 5890 Series II, SGE
30 m x 0.25 i.d. BPX5 column) with a FID
detector according to the AOCS (1997).
Helium was the carrier gas. About 0.5 l
sample was injected into the system at
200 C injector temperature. The oven was
operated isothermally at 170 C for 12 min.
The amount of free fatty acid present
in oil sample was determined according
to the method of Cocks and Van Rede
(1966) with slight changes. Five grammes
of sample was weighed and titrated with
0.02 N sodium hydroxide solution using
autotitrator (Mettler Toledo DL50) and end
point titration was employed.
The peroxide value of the VCO was
determined according to PORIM (1995). In
this method, the liberated iodine is titrated
with 0.01 N thiosulfate.
Moisture content of oil was determined
according to AOCS (1997). Karl Fisher
Mettler DL 38 Coulometer was used. End
point titration was determined by Karl
Fisher reagent.
Insoluble impurities of oil were
determined according to ISO 663 (1992).
Materials insoluble in petroleum ether
were collected in Gooch crucible and were
then weighed to determine the amount of
insoluble impurities present in each oil
sample.
The colour of the oil was determined
with a Lovibond tintometer (10 mm light
path). Results were expressed in red and
yellow values according to ISO/FDIS 15305
(1998).
Total viable count in oil sample
was determined according to the method
recommended by Messer et al. (1984).
About 1 ml of oil sample was aseptically
poured/spread onto a petridish containing
plate agar (Oxoid). The oil sample was
then mixed/spread immediately and was
incubated at 32 C or 37 C for 48 h.
Colony formed was then counted and
expressed as cfu/ml.
The content contaminant such as
iron, copper and lead in oil sample was
determined according to AACC (1994) by
using inductively couple plasma-optical
emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). A
calibration curve of concentration of iron,
copper and lead (standard solution) against
absorbance was plotted to determine the
concentration of each element in test sample.
The trace amount of arsenic in oil
sample was determined according to
AOAC (2005) by using atomic absorption
spectrophotometry (AAS) equipped with
arsenic hollow cathode lamp and arsenic
electrodeless discharge lamps. A calibration
curve of concentration of arsenic (standard
solution) against absorbance was plotted to
determine the concentration of arsenic in test
sample.
The matter volatile at 105 C in oil
sample was determined according to ISO
662 (1998). The test sample was heated at
105 C until moisture and volatile matter
were completely removed and the loss
in mass was recorded. The result was
expressed in percentage by mass.
Results and discussion
Relative density
The density of vegetable oils is temperature
dependent and decreases in value when
4
Virgin coconut oil
temperature increases (Table 1). In this
experiment, analysis was carried out at
20 C. The relative density of the VCO in
this survey ranged from 0.9185 to 0.9194
with a standard deviation of 0.0003. The
value obtained from this survey was
very close to the Asian Pacic Coconut
Community (APCC) standard range
(0.9150.920).
Refractive index (RI)
The RI of the oil measures the extent
to which a beam of light is refracted on
passing from air into oil. This can be a
useful characteristic in that the determination
is carried out with ease, speed and precision,
using small amounts of oil. The RI can
also be used for establishing oil purity. It is
generalized that the RIs of oils increase with
increase in the number of double bonds.
With increase in temperature, the RIs of oil
decrease. The RI can also be inuenced by
oxidative damage of the oil. For VCO in this
survey, the RI was measured at 40 C. This
means RI was at 1.4471 with a standard
deviation of 0.0001 (Table 1). The range of
the RI was found to be very narrow from
minimum 1.4467 to maximum 1.4472.
Saponication value (SV)
The SV is a measure of the free and
esteried acids present in fats and oils. It
measures the average molecular weight
or equivalent weight of fatty materials in
the oils. The range was minimum 258.8 to
maximum 263.7 mg KOH/g oil with mean
at 260.5 mg KOH/g and a standard deviation
of 1.4428 (Table 1).
Iodine Value (IV)
The IV of oil is a measure of its total
unsaturation. It is dened as the percentage
by weight of which an oil or fatty acid
will absorb halogens such as iodine under
the test conditions. In palm oil, it is an
important characteristic in determining the
yield of olein during fractionation process.
The mean IV of VCO was 6.11% with
minimum of 5.5% and maximum of 7.3%.
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5
L. Kamariah, A. Azmi, A. Rosmawati, M.G. Wai Ching, M.D. Azlina, A. Sivapragasam, C.P. Tan and O.M. Lai
On the other hand, IV of VCO from Asian
Pacic Coconut Council was between 4.1%
and 11.0%. The standard deviation of IV
from this survey was 0.642. Sample G
shown highest IV (7.3%) and lowest IV was
sample I (IV 5.5%), VCO from Sabah.
Unsaponiable matter
The unsaponiable matter of oil serves as a
check for contamination by foreign materials
such as mineral oils and damage to the oil
by oxidation. Highly oxidized oils contain
polymerized fatty acids which are extracted
together with the unsaponiable matter. The
unsaponiable components in VCO may
include sterols, hydrocarbons (squalene, beta
carotene), tocopherols and phenols. Coconut
oil has a total of 4701140 mg/kg sterols,
017 mg/kg tocopherol and 044 mg/kg
tocotrienols (Firestone 2006). The average
unsaponiable matters for 10 samples
were found to be 0.116 with a range from
minimum of 0.085% to maximum 0.135%
and a standard deviation of 0.0184 (Table 1).
VCO from sample A has the highest
unsaponiable matters (0.15%) compared
with other VCO samples (~ 0.11%).
Slip melting point (SMP)
This is an important characteristic of
fatty compounds as it can be used for
identication purposes and assessment of
purity. The melting point or SMP of oil
must be determined under strictly controlled
conditions of sample pre-treatment and
actual determination. The mean for SMP
of VCO found in Malaysian market was
24.8 C with a range stretching from 24.3
to 25.0 C and a standard deviation of
0.2461 C (Table 1).
Fatty acid composition
VCO is characterized by its high level of
lauric acid (C
12
), which ranged from 4750%.
Other fatty acid composition include caproic
acid (C
6
), caprylic acid (C
8
), caproic acid
(C
10
), myristic acid (C
14
), palmitic acid
(C
16
), stearic acid (C
18
), oleic acid (C
18:1
)
and nally linoleic acid (C
18:2
) (Table 2).
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0
6

3
.
1
0

5
.
9
7

1
.
2
6

N
D
M
e
a
n


S
D

0
.
8
8


0
.
0
0
4
7

8
.
6
2


0
.
2
3
7
1

6
.
5
1


0
.
2
4
0
7

4
8
.
4
3


0
.
8
1
6
7

1
8
.
2
5


0
.
4
6
1
1

8
.
2
9


0
.
4
0
9
7

2
.
8
3


0
.
1
5
4
1

5
.
2
2


0
.
5
1
2
9

0
.
9
8


0
.
1
8
1
5

N
D
6
Virgin coconut oil
It contains about 93% saturated fatty acids,
6% monounsaturated fatty acids and the
rest is polyunsaturated fatty acids. The
present survey show that more than 64%
of its saturated fatty acids are medium
chain fatty acids (C
6
C
12
), ~ 29% saturated
long chain fatty acids (C
14
C
18
) and 6.2%
are unsaturated fatty acids which are the
oleic acid (C
18:1
) and linoleic acid (C
18:2
)
(Table 2). Linolenic acid (C
18:3
) is not
detectable in this survey.
Free fatty acids (FFA)
This is the most important characteristic of
VCO quality used in sales and contracts.
The FFA is an indication of the care taken
during VCO production. The mean FFA
value of VCO obtained from Malaysian
market in the present survey was 0.38%
with a range of 0.20 to 1.20% and a
standard deviation of 0.3487% (Table 3).
Range of free fatty acid in this survey
was broader because of FFA content of
sample G and H were at 0.78% and 1.90%
respectively. These values are considered too
high and may not be acceptable to buyers
and can be considered as low quality VCO.
The recommended minimum FFA value
suggested by the Asian Pacic Coconut
Council (APCC) standard ranges at 0.5%
(Table 4).
Moisture content
Water is very slightly soluble in oils and
fats, and its presence is conned only
to very small amount. The Karl Fischer
titration method offers the best accuracy
for determination of very small amounts
of water (0.1% and below) in oils and fats.
In this survey the mean value for moisture
content of VCO is in the region of 0.09%
with ranging from 0.05% to 0.11% and
standard deviation of 0.0211. The maximum
moisture content of APCC standard range is
0.5% (Table 4).
Insoluble impurities
The term refers to extraneous substances
such as dirt, debris and bres. They are
dened as those substances which remain
insoluble and can be ltered off after the
oil is dissolved in a specic solvent such as
petroleum. The level of impurities in each
VCO sample was small and fall within a
narrow range from 0.003% to 0.008%. The
mean value insoluble impurities were at
0.005% and standard deviation of 0.0014.
The APPC standard range for moisture is in
the region of 0.10.5% (Table 4).
Table 3. Quality characteristic of virgin coconut oil
Sample Free fatty Peroxide Moisture Colour Insoluble Total plate
acid (%) value contents impurities count
(meq/kg) (%) (%) (cfu)
A 0.41 0.7 0.07 0.1R 0.5Y 0.008 0
B 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.1R 0.5Y 0.006 0
C 0.16 0.2 0.11 0.1R 0.3Y 0.005 0
D 0.15 0.2 0.11 0.1R 0.3Y 0.006 0
E 0.19 0.2 0.11 0.1R 0.3Y 0.006 0
F 0.29 5.5 0.09 0.1R 0.3Y 0.006 0
G 0.78 0.8 0.09 0.1R 0.5Y 0.005 0
H 0.90 0.2 0.08 0.1R 0.5 Y 0.003 0
I 0.35 0.5 0.11 0.1R 0.3Y 0.004 0
J 1.2 1.4 0.11 0.1R 0.5Y 0.004 0
Value range
Min 0.2 0.2 0.05 0.1R 0.3Y 0.003 0
Max 1.2 5.5 0.11 0.1R 0.5Y 0.008
Mean SD 0.38 0.3487 0.99 1.6326 0.09 0.0211 0.1R 0.5Y max 0.005 0.0014 0
7
L. Kamariah, A. Azmi, A. Rosmawati, M.G. Wai Ching, M.D. Azlina, A. Sivapragasam, C.P. Tan and O.M. Lai
Peroxide value (PV)
Peroxide value gives an indication of the
primary oxidation state of oil. One of the
rst products formed by oxidation of oil is
a hydroperoxide. The most common method
for determining oxidation is by measurement
of PV. The test is based on the ability to
liberate iodine from potassium iodide.
Although the method is highly empirical,
it is good guide to the quality of the VCO.
A freshly rened oil should have nil PV.
The peroxide value of most samples were
within the range given by APCC standard 3
meq/kg (Table 4). However, sample F was
found to have PV out of range, 5.5 meq/kg.
Most probably these samples have been
stored for a long time.
Colour
Coconut oil in its virgin form is clear in
colour with distinct coconut avour and
aroma. It is obtained from the mature
kernel of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L)
by mechanical or natural means with or
without the application of minimal heat.
High heat exposure during deodorization
process (230 C) normally will lead to
polymerization and consequently the oil will
Table 4. Identity and quality characteristics of VCO found in Malaysia market compared with APCC
standard range
Malaysia market range APCC standard range
Identity characteristic
Relative density 0.9185 0.9192 0.9150 0.9200
Refractive index 1.4467 1.4472 1.4480 1.4492
Moisture (%) 0.0500 0.1100 0.1000 0.5000
Saponication value (mg/g) 258.80 263.70 250.00 260.00
Iodine value (%) 5.5000 7.1000 4.1000 11.000
Unsaponiable matter (%) 0.0850 0.1500 0.2000 0.5000
Specic gravity at 30 C 0.9152 0.9197 0.9150 0.9200
Slip melting point (C) 24.300 25.000
Gas liquid chromatography range of fatty
acid composition (%)
Caproic acid C
6:0
0.80 0.95 0.40 0.60
Caprylic acid C
8:0
8.00 9.00 5.00 10.0
Capric acid C
10:0
5.00 7.00 4.50 8.00
Lauric acid C
12:0
47.0 50.0 43.0 53.0
Myristic acid C
14:0
17.0 18.5 16.0 21.0
Palmitic acid C
16:0
7.50 9.50 7.50 10.0
Stearic acid C
18:0
2.50 3.50 2.00 4.00
Oleic acid C
18:1
4.50 6.00 5.00 10.0
Linoleic acid C
18:2
0.70 1.50 1.00 2.50
Linolenic acid C
18:3
ND <0.5
Quality characteristic
Insoluble impurities (%) 0.003 0.008 0.05
Free fatty acid (%) 0.100 1.200 0.5
Peroxide value (meq/kg) 0.200 5.500 3
Total plate count (cfu) 0 <10
Contaminants
Matter volatile at 105 C (%) 0.08 0.150 0.2
Iron (mg/kg) 0.45 14.53 5
Copper (mg/kg) ND 0.4
Lead (mg/kg) ND 0.1
Arsenic (mg/kg) ND 0.1
8
Virgin coconut oil
turn yellow (Plate 1). Colour of VCO in
this survey was in range of 0.1 Red and 0.5
Yellow Max.
Total plate count
This is a very important analysis
in determining good quality VCO.
Occasionally, very limited number of
microbes can grow on oils and fats because
of the limited amount of water present.
However, it is necessary for producers to
have good manufacturer practices (GMP)
as VCO is being directly consumed from
the bottle without any treatments e.g. heat.
Result from analysis showed that most
samples had zero or less than 10 colony
forming unit (cfu) (Table 3).
Trace metals
Trace metals in VCO may originate from
soil and fertilizers or contaminants from
the processing equipment and also during
storage. Thus trace metals may be picked up
along the production line. The presence of
trace metals could also be attributed to the
presence of suspended solid impurities in the
oil (Yeoh 1976).
Oxidatively stable oils contain minimal
amounts of trace metals. Cu and Fe are
known prooxidants as they catalyse the
decomposition of hydroperoxides in oil to
free radicals. Of the two metals, Cu is more
potent being 10 times more active than Fe.
The mean level of Cu content in this survey
was below detectable level (<0.01 mg/kg).
Cu is useful test to determine the possible
cause of high oxidation. Peroxide value (PV)
does not gives a true indication of the state
of oxidative deterioration in an oil because
hydroperoxides are only transient species
and Cu accelerates the hydroperoxide
destruction rate. In the present survey, the
mean iron content was at 4.73 mg/kg with
minimum value from 0.73 to 14.53 mg/kg
(Table 5). Sample G had the highest iron
content at 14.53 mg/kg followed by sample
J at 11.73 mg/kg. This probably because
Plate I . Rened bleached and deodorized (RBD)
coconut oil (left) and virgin coconut oil (right)
Table 5. Contaminants of virgin coconut oil
Sample Iron Copper Lead Arsenic Volatile matter
(mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) at 105 C
A 1.5 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.08
B 5.66 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.13
C 5.9 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.15
D 2.21 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.14
E 0.45 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.15
F 0.96 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.11
G 14.53 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.14
H 3.64 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.1
I 0.73 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.13
J 11.73 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.01 N.D<< 0.05 0.13
Value range
Min 0.73 ND ND ND 0.08
Max 14.53 0.15
Mean SD 4.73 4.8737 ND ND ND 0.13 0.0227
9
L. Kamariah, A. Azmi, A. Rosmawati, M.G. Wai Ching, M.D. Azlina, A. Sivapragasam, C.P. Tan and O.M. Lai
VCO samples from G and J were exposed
to oxidation during handling and/or storage.
The APCC standard range of iron in VCO
was at 5mg/kg (Table 4).
Conclusion
Overall, the identity and quality
characteristics of VCO sold in Malaysian
market were comparable to APCC standard
range. However, the qualities of two VCO
samples were bad because of high FFA
and high PV content. Obviously, arsenic,
lead and copper were not detectable in all
VCO samples. Although the sample size
was small i.e. only involved 10 samples,
it is actually representative samples from
different regions and different methods
of producing. Consequently, we hope the
results obtained from this survey could be
used as a guideline to develop a draft for
Malaysian VCO standard.
References
AACC (1994). Inorganic constituents. In: American
Association of Cereal Chemist. St Paul,
Minnesota, USA: American Association of
Cereal Chemist, Inc.
AOAC (2005). Metal and other element at trace
levels in foods. In: Ofcial methods of
analysis. 17
th
ed. Washington D.C.: AOAC
International
AOCS (1997). Ofcial method and recommended
practices of AOCS. F. 5
th
ed. Washington
D.C.: US FDA
Cocks, L.V. and Van Rede C. (1966). Laboratory
hand book for oil and fat analyses. p. 6668,
305309. London: Academic Press
Firestone, D. (2006) Characteristics of oils and fats
of plant origin. In: Physical and chemical
characteristics of oils, fats and waxes, 2
nd
ed.,
p. 4546. Washington DC: AOCS Press
Isaacs, C.E., Litov, R.E. and Thormar, H (1995).
Antimicrobial activity of lipids added to
human milk, infant formula and bovine milk.
Nutrional Biochemistry 6: 362366
ISO 663 (1992). Animal and vegetable fats and
oils Determination of insoluble impurities
content. In: International Standard:
Agricultural food products, Animal and
vegetable fats and oils. 2
nd
ed. Geneva,
Switzerland: International Organization of
Standard
ISO 662 (1998). Animal and vegetable fats and
oils determination of moisture and volatile
matter content. In: International Standard:
Agricultural food products, animal and
vegetable fats and oils. 2
nd
ed. Geneva,
Switzerland: International Organization of
Standard
ISO/FDIS 15305 (1998). Animal and vegetable fats
and oils determination of Lovibond Colour.
In: International Standard: Agricultural
food products, animal and vegetable fats
and oils. Geneva, Switzerland: International
Organization of Standard
ISO/FDIS 6320 (1999). Animal and vegetable fats
and oils determination of refractive index.
In: International Standard: Agricultural
food products, animal and vegetable fats
and oils. Geneva, Switzerland: International
Organization of Standard
ISO/FDIS 6883 (2000). Animal and vegetable fats
and oils determination of conventional
mass per volume (litre weight in air). In:
International Standard: Agricultural food
products, animal and vegetable fats and
oils. Geneva, Switzerland: International
Organization of Standard
Kabara, J.J. (1978). Fatty acids and derivatives as
antimicrobial agents. In: The Pharmacological
effect of lipids, p. 114. Champaign:
American Oil Chemists Society
Messer, J.W., Peeler, J.T. and Gilchrist, E. (1984).
Aerobic plate count. In: Bacteriological
analytical manual of the Division of
Microbiological Center for food safety
and applied nutrition U.S. Food and Drug
Administration. p. 4.014.03. 6
th
ed.
New York: Association of Ofcial Analytical
Chemist
PORIM (1995). Method of test for palm oil and
oil products. In: PORIM test method. Vol 1.
Kuala Lumpur: Palm Oil Research Institue of
Malaysia
Shibasaki, I. and Kato, N. (1978). Combined effects
on anti-bacterial activity of fatty acids and
their esters against gram-negative. In: The
Pharmalogical effect of lipids. (Kabara, J.J.,
ed.), p. 1523. Champaign: American Oil
Chemists Society
Thormar, H., Isaacs, C., Brown, H.R., Barshatzky,
M.R. and Pessolano, T. (1987). Inactivation
of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by
fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial
Agents and Chemotherapy 31: 2731
10
Virgin coconut oil
Welsh, J.K., Arsenakis, M., Coelen, R.J. and
May, J T. (1979). Effect of antiviral lipids,
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140: 322328
Abstrak
Sejumlah 10 sampel minyak kelapa dara yang terdapat di pasaran Malaysia
telah dikumpulkan dan dikenal pasti ciri-ciri dan kualitinya. Dua daripada
sampel tersebut telah dihasilkan dengan menggunakan teknologi MARDI iaitu
secara proses kering dan basah. Sampel yang selebihnya dihasilkan sama ada
melalui proses fermentasi secara semula jadi atau melalui proses mekanikal.
Analisis dibahagikan kepada dua iaitu mengenal pasti ciri-ciri dan kualiti minyak
kelapa dara. Bagi mengenal pasti ciri-ciri, lapan jenis analisis telah dijalankan
iaitu ketumpatan relatif, indeks refraktif, nilai penyabunan, nilai iodin, bahan
bukan penyabunan, graviti khusus, titik gelincir cair dan komposisi asid lemak.
Sementara itu, enam jenis analisis telah dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti kualiti
minyak kelapa dara. Ciri-ciri kimia zikal bagi semua sampel menunjukkan
ciri yang hampir sama. Walau bagaimanapun, dari aspek kualiti sebahagian
sampel menunjukkan kualiti yang rendah terutamanya asid lemak bebas dan nilai
peroksida. Peratusan asid lemak bebas yang diperoleh daripada sampel tersebut
melebihi 0.5% dan nilai peroksida melebihi 3 meq/kg. Tiada pertumbuhan koloni
dikesan. Dari aspek pencemaran, kandungan plumbum, kuprum dan arsenik
didapati berada di bawah aras yang dibenarkan kecuali ferum. Terdapat beberapa
sampel yang menunjukkan kandungan ferum yang tinggi (melebihi 5 mg/kg)
yang mungkin menyebabkan kerosakan pada minyak akibat daripada proses
pengoksidaan.
Accepted for publication on 12 August 2008
Yeoh, G.H. (1976). A study on the nature and
effect of iron contamination in plam oil.
Proc. of Malaysian international symposium
on palm oil processing and marketing,
(Theme: International development in
palm oil). Kuala Lumpur: Incorporated
Society of Planters