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The Research Base

of
Phonics and Friends
Moves Your Students from Phonics to Literacy!
Systematic and explicit instruction
Simple, effective, and fun to teach
Focuses on one phonetic element at a time
Multiple levels for maximum flexibility
Easy to connect to your core Reading/Language Arts curriculum
I. Introduction: The Research Base of Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 3
II. Overview of Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 4
III. Evidence of Effectiveness of Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 6
IV. Phonemic Awareness Instruction in Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 7
V. Phonics Instruction in Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 11
VI. Fluency Instruction in Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 16
VII. Vocabulary Instruction in Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 18
VIII. Comprehension Instruction in Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 21
IX. Support for English Learners in Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 24
X. Assessment in Phonics and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 26
XI. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 28
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends
Hampton-Brown 1
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 2
The most recent initiatives within the new
No Child Left Behind federal legislation have
generated a commitment to ensure that all
children learn to read well by the end of third
grade. Along with this commitment, is the
need for schools to use research-based,
research-proven reading curriculum designed to
support all children as they become successful,
proficient readers.
Hampton-Brown used the most current
scientifically based research in the development
of the supplemental reading program Phonics
and Friends. More than 20 years of reading
research, the same research that was endorsed
and found to be most effective by the National
Reading Panel, is the foundation for the
reading instruction in Phonics and Friends. The
research that was used is cited in this report and
comes from the current documents that define
scientifically research-based reading instruction,
including the National Institute of Child Health
and Human Developments (NICHD) report of
the National Reading Panel, the National
Research Councils report Preventing Reading
Difficulties in Young Children, and other studies
that focus on scientifically research-based
reading instruction.
Hampton-Brown is dedicated to providing
research-based and research-proven instruction
in early literacy using systematic, explicit
reading instruction for all children, including
English Language Learners, to help develop the
skills needed to become proficient readers.
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends
Hampton-Brown 3
Overview of Phonics and Friends
Phonics and Friends is a supplemental PreK
through Grade 3 reading program designed to
provide direct, systematic, and explicit
instruction in the areas of phonemic awareness
and phonics and strategic application of those
skills in reading and writing. The program is
designed to help children read with
automaticity and accuracy, and write with
conventional spelling, ultimately supporting
them as they become independent readers and
writers.
The instructional design of Phonics and Friends is
based on the most current research providing
systematic, explicit instruction in phonemic
awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension,
and fluency, the same five essential reading
components defined in the report from the
National Reading Panel. Phonics and Friends is
not a revision of an existing program, but an
all-new series, released in 2000, and specifically
designed to take advantage of the considerable
body of recent research.
The instruction in Phonics and Friends begins by
building phonemic awareness and phonics
skills, bridges these skills with word building
and decoding strategies, and finally applies all
of these skills with reading application to build
vocabulary and comprehension skills. Fluency
is also supported as children read interesting
and motivating fiction and nonfiction selections
with natural-sounding language that feature a
high percentage of words with the targeted
phonics element as well as previously taught
high-frequency words. In a well-designed,
research-based reading program, Good
training in phonological awareness should be
combined with systematic, direct and explicit
instruction in phonics as well as rich
experiences with language and literature to
make a strong early reading curriculum
(Torgesen and Mathes, 1998).
Essential Components of Reading
from the National Reading Panel
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 4
The instructional design in all levels of Phonics
and Friends involves explicit, systematic
instruction using a three-step Teaching Plan
designed to build mastery of each phonics skill
and to ensure application in reading and
writing. For Levels A and A+, the three steps in
the Teaching Plan are as follows:
1) Listen and Sing focuses on skill practice
related to phonemic awareness,
2) Learn the Letter is designed for strategy
building related to sound-symbol
correspondence, and
3) Read and Write provides opportunities to
model and apply phonics skills and strategies in
reading and writing.
For Levels B through F, the three steps differ
from those in Levels A and A+ due to the
complexity of skills:
1) Introduce focuses on phonemic awareness,
sound-symbol correspondence, and strategies
for meeting individual needs,
2) Practice is designed for hands-on blending,
spelling practice and explicit instruction of
decoding strategies while providing practice in
decodable text, and
3) Read and Write provides many opportunities
for application to literature and writing.
Three-Step Teaching Plan
SKILLS
Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
DECODING STRATEGIES
Modeling and Practice in Decodable Text
APPLICATION
Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Fluency
Hampton-Brown 5
Effective, research-based teaching and learning
practices, as set forth in the reading and
language acquisition research, are those
incorporated in Phonics and Friends. Specifically,
the results of the findings of the National
Reading Panel in 2000 in the areas of phonemic
awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension,
and fluency confirm the effectiveness of the
instructional strategies in Phonics and Friends.
Phonics and Friends has been implemented in
numerous districts across the country since its
release in 2000. Hampton-Brown is in the
process of conducting formal research studies
on the implementation and effectiveness of
Phonics and Friends with data becoming available
in 2003. These studies analyze the successful
implementation of Phonics and Friends in a
variety of PreK through Grade 3 settings
including mainstream literacy programs,
reading intervention, and ESL settings.
Student reading and language acquisition gains
are being measured to demonstrate the
effectiveness of Phonics and Friends as part of an
overall English reading and language arts
curriculum with diverse groups of learners.
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 6
Evidence of Effectiveness of Phonics and Friends
Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice,
think about, or manipulate the individual
sounds in words (Torgesen and Mathes, 1998).
Phonemic awareness is a powerful and proven
predictor of learning to read. The findings of
the National Reading Panel concluded that
teaching children to manipulate phonemes in
words was highly effective under a variety of
teaching conditions, with a variety of learners,
grade and age levels, and that it significantly
improved reading more than instruction that
lacked any attention to phonemic awareness
(National Reading Panel, 2000). The research
in Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children
concluded that when phonemic awareness
instruction is in place, the reading and spelling
growth of children is accelerated and the
incidence of reading failure is diminished
(Snow, Burns, Griffin, 1998).
The research of Keith Stanovich, Hallie K.
Yopp, as well as research found in the report
from the National Reading Panel on the
discrete skills of phonemic awareness was
invaluable in the development of the phonemic
awareness strand and its instructional
approaches in the kindergarten and first grade
levels of Phonics and Friends.
The phonemic awareness instruction in Phonics
and Friends starts at a broader level of
phonological awareness with tasks such as
rhyming and counting syllables and moves to
narrower phonological awareness tasks such as
working with onsets and rimes and individual
phonemes within words (phonemic awareness).
Phonological awareness follows a developmental
sequence with easier tasks developed in
preschool and early kindergarten and more
difficult tasks (awareness of individual
phonemes) developed in kindergarten and first
grade. This instructional approach is supported
by the findings of the National Reading Panel.
Phonemic Awareness Instruction in Phonics and Friends
Hampton-Brown 7
Fun and engaging songs, chants, and rhymes
are used to begin building the necessary
phonemic awareness skills starting in the PreK
levels of Phonics and Friends, moving to more
advanced phonemic awareness tasks in the first
grade levels. Lundberg, Frost and Peterson
(1988) found that phonemic awareness can be
taught in a fun, engaging, and interactive way.
Their research also demonstrated that 15 - 20
minute daily sessions were sufficient to help
develop the phonemic awareness skills children
need to become successful readers. Each lesson
plan within Phonics and Friends supports the
playful nature of phonemic awareness
instruction, using explicit instruction in daily
15 - 20 minute sessions. Children are actively
engaged in the phonemic awareness activities
and tasks as they notice, think about, and
manipulate the individual sounds in words.
The following chart lists the phonemic
awareness tasks that are explicitly taught and
incorporated in all lessons of Phonics and
Friends, PreK through first grade. The skills on
this chart are arranged in order of difficulty,
with the easiest tasks listed first.
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 8
Phonemic Awareness Tasks in Phonics and Friends
The most difficult tasks,
but also the most
directly correlated with
reading success.
Counting Words in a Spoken Sentence
Counting Syllables in a Spoken Word
Rhyming
Matching Words
Matching Sounds
Blending Sounds to Form a Spoken Word
Isolating a Sound in a Word
Counting Sounds in a Word
Segmenting Sounds in a Word
Substituting a Sound in a Word
Adding a Sound to a Word
Taking Away a Sound from a Word
Mastery of these 12 phonemic awareness tasks is
monitored in Phonics and Friends using pre-,
progress, and post tests to help identify and
limit the number of phonemic awareness tasks
taught, ultimately informing decisions
regarding instruction.
A variety of instructional approaches within
Phonics and Friends, designed to help children
become phonemically aware, come from many
known and proven researchers. All of the
instructional strategies, focusing on the 12
phonemic awareness tasks and using the songs,
chants, and rhymes in Phonics and Friends, are
the same instructional strategies found to be
effective by the National Reading Panel.
Match Sounds: Say words one at a time
choosing -et words from the song and
the Word Bank. Children can hold their
arms out when they hear a word that
rhymes with jet and put their arms down
when a word does not rhyme. Repeat for
-ed and -en words.
Segment Words: Distribute counters and
3-square Grids to children. Using words
from the Word Bank, say words one at a
time and have children sound them out.
Have children slide a counter into each
square for each sound they hear as they
segment the sounds.
Level B Sing-Along Songs Big Book
Example of phonemic awareness instruction in Phonics and Friends using Sing-Along Songs.
Hampton-Brown 9
The National Reading Panel also determined
that phonemic awareness instruction that
involves print was found to be more effective
than phonemic awareness instruction without
print (National Reading Panel, 2000).
Another phonemic awareness strategy, the use
of Elkonin Boxes* or sound boxes to help
segment sounds, is incorporated in many of the
kindergarten and first grade lessons of Phonics
and Friends. Researchers found that many
children had difficulty progressing in learning
to read because they could not hear the sound
sequences in words. A technique based on the
research of Russian psychologist Elkonin uses
sound boxes to help teach children to hear the
sound sequences in words (Beck and Juel,
1992). This technique, used in Phonics and
Friends, uses Elkonin Boxes* to help support
children as they hear and segment sounds and
identify the individual sounds in words.
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 10
* Elkonin Boxes
Phonics instruction focuses on teaching
children the correspondence between letters
(graphemes) of written language and the
individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken
language. The goal of phonics instruction is to
help children understand and learn the
alphabetic principlethe understanding that
there are systematic and predictable
relationships between written letters and spoken
sounds, and to ensure that children know how
to apply this knowledge in their reading and
writing (National Reading Panel, 2000).
The research of Marilyn Adams, Linnea Ehri
and others influenced the development of the
programs scope and sequence in the order and
manner in which new skills are introduced.
A full array of letter-sound correspondences is
explicitly taught in Phonics and Friends focusing
on high-utility letters in the PreK and
kindergarten levels and moving on to more
advanced phonics skills in the upper levels. For
example, in Level A+, instruction begins by first
introducing the high-utility letter-sound
correspondences, e.g. /m/, /s/, /t/, etc., then
moves to the introduction of a vowel so
children can begin to decode words. Mastery of
sounds and letters and beginning decoding
skills, through instruction in Level A+, prepares
students for exploring more complex concepts,
such as CVC word patterns in short vowel words
in Level B; long vowels in Level C; blends and
digraphs in Level D; long vowels, r-controlled
vowels, and inflections in Level E; and variant
sounds, diphthongs, suffixes, and prefixes in
Level F. The chart on the following page
describes the scope and sequence of Phonics
and Friends.
Phonics Instruction in Phonics and Friends
Hampton-Brown 11
Many different instructional approaches,
including onset-rime instruction, phonics
through spelling, and analogy-based phonics
are used in Phonics and Friends to explicitly teach
phonics skills, providing an abundant amount
of practice with these skills to support children
as they read and write. The three instructional
approaches previously mentioned are described
in the National Reading Panels report as being
systematic and explicit and more effective than
other approaches that do not use systematic and
explicit instruction, such as embedded phonics.
Research has also shown that systematic and
explicit phonics instruction using these
strategies significantly improves reading,
spelling, and comprehension skills in
kindergarten, first, and second grade children
(National Reading Panel, 2000).
Phonics and Friends Scope and Sequence
Sounds and Letters
Sounds and Letters + Decoding
Short Vowels
Long Vowels and Inflections
Blends and Digraphs
Long Vowels, R-Controlled Vowels, Inflections
Variant Sounds, Diphthongs, Suffixes and Prefixes
Level A
Level A+
Level B
Level C
Level D
Level E
Level F
Children learn to identify the sound
of the letter or letters before the
first vowel (the onset) in a
one-syllable word and the sound
of the remaining part of the word
(the rime).
Onset-Rime Instruction*
Children learn to segment words into
phonemes and to make words by
writing letters for phonemes.
Phonics through Spelling*
Children learn to use parts of word
families they know to identify words
they dont know that have similar
parts.
Analogy-Based Phonics*
* National Reading Panel, 2000
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 12
After children have finished the phonemic
awareness activities in Phonics and Friends and
matched the sound to the symbol using the
Rhyme Cards, the instruction moves on to
various practice activities where children
physically manipulate letters to focus on the
patterns and structures within words. One of
these instructional strategies, connecting
phonics and spelling, comes from the research
of Patricia Cunningham and is called Making
Words. This activity helps children hear and
see the patterns and structures within words
and has been shown to increase the decoding
abilities of children, as compared to children
who have not had explicit phonics instruction
(Cunningham and Cunningham, 1992).
The Making Words activities in Phonics and
Friends bridge the phonemic awareness and
phonics skills that were previously taught with
the decoding strategies that will be introduced
later in the lesson. Children have the
opportunity to focus on encoding as they make
new words focusing on letter-sound
correspondence. Word Pockets and Letter
Cards (pictured below) are used during this
activity so each child has an opportunity to be
actively involved. Making Words is a powerful
activity because within one instructional format
there are endless possibilities for discovering
how our alphabetic system works. It is a quick,
every-pupil response, manipulative activity with
which children get actively involved.
(Cunningham and Cunningham, 1992).
Hampton-Brown 13
Level B Rhyme Card
(front and back)
Word Pocket and Letter Cards
In addition to teaching the alphabetic system
and patterns and structures in words, children
need practice applying this knowledge while
they read (National Reading Panel, 2000). The
decoding instruction in Phonics and Friends
provides an intermediate step between skills
instruction and the application of these skills in
guided and independent reading and writing.
Explicit instruction of decoding strategies
supports children as they become successful,
proficient readers. The following chart explains
the decoding strategies that are explicitly taught
in all levels of Phonics and Friends using the Big
Phonics Storybooks and the Lets Read Big
Books. These decoding strategies align with the
strategies that the National Reading Panel
found most effective in the research studies they
reviewed.
Strategy Instruction
Phonics and Friends Level
A+ B C D E F
Sound Out Words
Use Word Patterns
(Phonograms, CVC, CVCe, etc.)
Predict from Pictures,
Confirm with Print
Use Word Structures
(Plurals, Verb Endings, Affixes)
Break Words into Syllables
Use Word Chunks

Decoding Strategy in Phonics and Friends


The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 14
Children have opportunities to apply the
phonics skills and decoding strategies they have
learned using the Phonics Storybooks and
Take-Home Books in Phonics and Friends that
contain a large numbers of words that children
can decode, along with previously taught
high-frequency words. This reading experience
not only supports accuracy and automaticity in
reading, but contributes to comprehension
skills, as research has also demonstrated.
Hampton-Brown 15
Level B Phonics Storybooks Set Phonics and Friends Take-Home Books
Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately,
quickly, and effortlessly, with appropriate
expression and intonation, to help gain
meaning from what is read. Fluency is an
essential component of any reading program
because it provides the bridge between word
recognition and comprehension (National
Reading Panel, 2000).
The National Reading Panel found two
instructional approaches related to fluency to
be the most effectiverepeated reading and
modeling fluent reading. Repeated reading
involves reading passages aloud several times
until a certain level of fluency is reached. The
second instructional approach, modeling fluent
reading, involves students listening to good
models of fluent reading to learn how a readers
voice can help written text make sense.
(National Reading Panel, 2000).
The goal of Phonics and Friends is to develop
fluent, independent readers and writers. The
research of Keith Stanovich on the importance
of teaching for accuracy and automaticity so
children can spend more mental energy on
comprehension underlies the entire program.
The National Reading Panels endorsement of
repeated reading is the focus of every lesson in
Phonics and Friends, occurring in the Read and
Write step of each Teaching Plan. Phonics and
Friends provides practice for fluency using the
Phonics Storybooks, Storybook Tapes, and
Take-Home Books to support repeated readings
while also helping children apply the previously
taught phonics skills and decoding strategies
while they read.
For additional fluency support, Phonics and
Friends has Benchmark Books at the end of each
level to help evaluate reading fluency before
moving on to another level of instruction. The
need for ongoing fluency assessment is
supported in the National Research Councils
report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young
Children. The report states, Because the ability
to obtain meaning from print depends so
strongly on the development of word
recognition, accuracy, and fluency, both the
latter should be regularly assessed in the
classroom. (Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998).
Fluency Instruction in Phonics and Friends
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 16
Research reveals that it is important for
children to hear good models of fluent reading
along with providing support for having
children reread that same text. (National
Reading Panel, 2000). Phonics and Friends
provides a model for fluent reading in Levels A
and A+ to help lay the foundation for fluency in
PreK and kindergarten classrooms. Big Books
are used as teachers model how to read a text
fluently, and children have the opportunity to
reread that same text independently. At all
levels of the program, from Level A to Level F,
audio recordings of the Phonics Storybooks also
provide excellent models of fluent reading.
Phonics and Friends is a supplemental reading
program and references other storybooks (in
addition to the Phonics Storybooks and
Take-Home Books) in each Teaching Plan that
contain the phonics target element that
children can read. Teachers and families can
also provide many opportunities for children to
read books to apply decoding strategies and
focus on fluency.
Level B Phonics Storybooks
Hampton-Brown 17
Vocabulary plays a very important role in
learning to read as it is directly linked to
reading comprehension. Children who have
well-developed oral vocabularies have an easier
time when they encounter new words as they
read. As children read more advanced texts,
they must learn the meaning of new words that
are not part of their oral vocabulary (National
Reading Panel, 2000). The National Research
Councils report Preventing Reading Difficulties in
Young Children confirms the importance of
direct vocabulary instruction by stating that
learning new concepts and the words that
encode them is essential for comprehension
development (Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998).
The most current research on vocabulary
instruction reveals that most vocabulary is
learned indirectly and that some vocabulary
must be taught directly. Children learn the
meaning of most words indirectly when they
engage in oral language, when adults read to
them, and when they read on their own. Even
though most vocabulary is learned indirectly,
some vocabulary should be taught directly
focusing on individual words and word learning
strategies (National Reading Panel, 2000).
Vocabulary is developed in Phonics and Friends
through the many listening, speaking, reading,
and writing activities. Numerous opportunities
are provided for teachers to read aloud to
children, engage students in discussions about
books, and allow children to read
independently. In addition, direct vocabulary
instruction occurs in all lessons of Phonics and
Friends focusing on concept vocabulary,
descriptive vocabulary, story vocabulary, and
direct study of different types of words, such as
high-frequency words and multiple-meaning
words.
Vocabulary Instruction in Phonics and Friends
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 18
High-frequency words are introduced in each
Teaching Plan, with 1 to 6 words presented in
each lesson and the number of words increasing
with each Phonics and Friends level. The
high-frequency words are explicitly taught prior
to reading using various strategies to introduce
the words. These high-frequency words are used
often in the Phonics Storybooks and
Take-Home Books and accumulate throughout
the Phonics and Friends levels. Research shows
that the average child needs between 4 and 14
exposures to a new word before it is committed
to memory (Lyon, 1998). Many opportunities
are provided for children to commit these
words to memory as they read the Phonics and
Friends Storybooks and Take-Home Books.
To support the development of concept, story,
and descriptive vocabulary, graphic organizers
are used in Phonics and Friends. Word webs,
concept maps, flow charts, and other graphics
are excellent tools for vocabulary development
and are used in the vocabulary building
activities.
computer
Communication
radio
talk
telephone
Internet
books
TV
Concept and Vocabulary Web
for use with The History Nook in Level F
Concept and Vocabulary Chart
for use with Blairs Deer in Level E
Forest Animals
Kinds of Animals Signs of Animals
deer
foxes
birds
rabbits
chipmunks
sounds
tracks
nests
broken branches
holes in ground
Hampton-Brown 19
In addition to teaching high-frequency words
and concept, story, and descriptive vocabulary,
direct instruction for studying different types of
words occurs in many Phonics and Friends
lessons. The following chart lists the skills
taught to develop vocabulary in Phonics and
Friends.
Vocabulary Development in Phonics and Friends
High-Frequency Words
Story Words in Concept Categories
Context Clues
Describing Words
Synonyms
Antonyms
Sound-Alike Words
Multiple-Meaning Words
Compound Words
Prefixes and Suffixes
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 20
The ultimate goal of any reading experience is
comprehension. Children who have a solid
foundation in phonemic awareness, phonics,
vocabulary, and fluency can ultimately focus on
the meaning of any text that they read.
Comprehension is a critically important aspect
of reading that can be improved using
instructional strategies that help readers use
specific comprehension strategies. Some
comprehension strategies can be acquired
informally, but explicit instruction in the
application of comprehension strategies has
proven to be effective. Over 30 years of
research has demonstrated that instruction in
comprehension skills can help students
understand what they read and communicate
with others about what they read (National
Reading Panel, 2000). In all levels of Phonics
and Friends, comprehension is developed in
each lesson in response to the Phonics
Storybooks, including both fiction and
nonfiction titles.
In Levels A and A+, listening comprehension is
the focus of each lesson as teachers help
children preview each book to activate prior
knowledge and establish the topic before
reading. This experience invites children to
share what they already know about a topic and
also builds familiarity with the books language
to support them as they make predictions and
set the purpose for reading. Research has
clearly demonstrated the importance of the
readers background knowledge for
understanding what is read (Snow, Burns, and
Griffin, 1998).
Comprehension Instruction in Phonics and Friends
Hampton-Brown 21
Many opportunities exist in each lesson to
discuss the main idea of a story, retell the
critical details, and summarize what was read.
The Big Books in Levels A and A+ are a critical
tool to model these comprehension strategies
with children. Interactive writing, in response to
the Phonics Storybooks, is also used as a
strategy in Levels A and A+ to help model
comprehension skills.
Literal and inferential comprehension continue
to be the focus in every lesson in Levels B, C,
and D as children read in guided reading
groups as well as independently. Just like Levels
A and A+, a preview is conducted prior to
reading in Levels B-D to establish the books
topic, to activate prior knowledge, and build
familiarity with the content and language of
each book. The three cueing systems are
modeled and employed in guided reading
groups as children use semantic cues, grammar
and structural cues, and print cues to support
comprehension. In Levels E and F of Phonics
and Friends, after children have mastered the
phonemic awareness tasks and many of the
phonics skills, comprehension becomes more of
a focus in each lesson and centers on
comprehension strategies that are taught
explicitly using graphic organizers. Children
have the opportunity to apply both phonics
skills and comprehension strategies as they read
the fiction and nonfiction Phonics Storybooks.
Research has revealed that text comprehension
can be improved using explicit instruction for
specific comprehension strategies and that
graphic and semantic organizers help readers
develop concepts in fiction and nonfiction text
and help them focus on the text structure as
they read (National Reading Panel, 2000). The
Phonics Storybooks in Levels E and F include
comprehension questions on the final page that
focus on both literal and inferential
comprehension. These questions are a useful
tool to help children engage in discussion after
they read. This experience also prompts
students to generate their own questions to
improve their active processing of text and
comprehension. Levels E and F also include
Key Story Concepts Sentence Strips that
support concept development and sequence of
events in each story. The following chart lists
the comprehension strategies that are explicitly
taught in Phonics and Friends.
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 22
Comprehension Skills and Strategies Taught in Phonics and Friends
Sample of a Graphic Organizer Used to Develop Comprehension
Activate Prior Knowledge
Make Predictions
Set Purposes for Reading
Relate Words
Use Context Clues
Character Traits
Characters Feelings
Sequence of Events
Steps in a Process
Cause and Effect
Comparison and Contrast
Main Idea
Main Idea/Supporting Details
Make Inferences
Form Generalizations
Make Judgements and Decisions
Authors Purpose
Authors Point of View
Story Elements: Plot
Story Elements: Goal and Outcome
Story Elements: Problem and Solution
Story Elements: Setting
Story Elements: Theme
Story Elements: Mood
Summarize
Fact and Opinion
Relate to Personal Experience
Draw Conclusions
K-W-L Chart from Level E
Bugs
What We Know What We Want to Know What We Learned
Ants have 6 legs.
Butterflies drink from
flowers.
Fireflies light up at
night.
Walking sticks have
long, thin bodies.
How can ants carry big
pieces of food?
How do butterflies
eat?
Why do fireflies light
up?
Why do walking sticks
look like twigs?
Hampton-Brown 23
Todays classrooms are linguistically and
culturally diverse. They include native speakers
of English (at a variety of ability levels) and
English learners representing a variety of home
languages and different stages of language
proficiency. Native speakers of English and
English learners have different needs and
benefit from different instructional strategies
when learning to read.
As a leader in the field of both English
Language Arts and ESL instruction, Hampton-
Brown has brought research-based teaching
methodologies together with specialized
strategies for English learners, so that all
children may become successful, proficient
readers.
The National Reading Panel has yet to
evaluate research studies focusing on the
literacy needs of English learners, but a wide
body of research does exist which provides
research-based strategies that support the
literacy development of English learners. A new
commission is currently being established by the
U.S. Department of Education to analyze and
synthesize the wide body of research that
addresses the literacy needs of English learners.
English learners move through a series of
predictable stages as they progress in their
language development toward native-like
fluency in English. The chart on the following
page lists the Stages of Language Acquisition
and defines a few characteristics of English
learners at each of these stages focusing on
literacy needs.
Each lesson in Phonics and Friends provides
activities that will help adapt instruction to
ensure success for English learners. These
activities employ various strategies and
reinforcement activities to help English learners
understand the concepts and make the new
vocabulary their own. The following strategies
are incorporated into all lessons of Phonics and
Friends:
Make It Real: Realia, manipulatives, and
illustrations are used in each lesson to give
hands-on experiences with new vocabulary.
Act It Out: Gestures, facial expressions, and
body movements are incorporated into each
lesson to help make concepts, vocabulary, and
story text comprehensible.
Support for English Learners in Phonics and Friends
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 24
Try Out Language: Children have numerous
opportunities to hear new vocabulary and recite
simple text patterns, especially in songs, rhymes,
and patterned books where language is
especially memorable.
Shelter the Content: Strategies are
incorporated into the lessons to help familiarize
children with each story, one chunk at a time.
Summarization of each chunk is supported
using the Phonics and Friends Sentence Strips.
Children have opportunities to reread the strips
to ensure understanding of the key story
concepts and the new vocabulary.
Stages of Language Acquisition
Stage 1: Pre-Production
Shows limited comprehension of chunks or gist of language
Gains familiarity with the sounds, rhythms, and patterns of English
Attends to shared readings, but relies on picture clues for understanding
Stage 2: Early Production
Listens with greater understanding
Repeats and recites memorable language
Can identify people, places, and objects
Stage 3: Speech Emergence
Participates more in discussions, including those relating to academic content
Engages in independent reading based on oral fluency
Explains, describes, compares, retells in response to literature
Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency
Uses more extensive vocabulary
Reads a wider range of texts with increasing comprehension
Demonstrates use of higher order language, explores concepts at greater depth
Stage 5: Advanced Fluency
Produces language with varied grammatical structures and vocabulary,
comparable to native English speakers
Hampton-Brown 25
The goal of Phonics and Friends is the strategic
application of phonics in reading and writing.
The chart on the following page describes the
variety of assessment tools included in the
program, which inform placement, instruction,
and grading.
Mastery of the 12 phonemic awareness tasks
taught in Phonics and Friends is monitored using
the Phonemic Awareness Test in Levels A+
through D to help identify and limit the
number of phonemic awareness tasks taught,
ultimately informing decisions regarding
instruction.
To help measure and assess a childs ability to
decode words with the targeted phonics
elements, Phonics and Friends has pre-, progress,
and posttests for phonics skills in all levels.
These assessment tools assist with placement
into the program and help monitor and inform
instruction.
Phonics and Friends also includes Book Scripts
for the Phonics and Friends Storybooks, to assist
teachers with Running Records. This assessment
allows the teacher to conduct a miscue analysis
to help evaluate knowledge of sound-letter
correspondence, high-frequency words, and
reading fluency.
Children vary greatly with regard to the skills
they bring to school. Some children know their
sounds and letters before they enter
kindergarten and may even be able to decode
words, while other children arrive with little or
no knowledge in either of these areas. Phonics
and Friends is designed with the flexibility to
individualize and differentiate instruction for
all children.
The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 26
Assessment in Phonics and Friends
Hampton-Brown 27
Assessment in Phonics and Friends
Phonemic Awareness Test
Measures the childs ability to isolate sounds,
to rhyme, to blend sounds and segment words, and to
manipulate sounds.
Levels A,
A+, B, C, D
Levels A,
A+, B, C, D
Levels A,
A+, B
Levels B, C,
D, E, F
Levels A+,
B, C, D, E, F
Levels A,
A+, B, C, D,
E, F
Levels A,
A+, B, C, D,
E, F
Phonics and
Friends
Assessment Tool Pretesting
Progress
Testing
Posttesting
Concepts of Print Test
Measures the childs knowledge of how books work,
parts of a book, directionality, letters, word, and sentence
boundaries, and punctuation clues.
Sound-Letter Assessment
Measures accuracy and fluency with which the child gives
the sound for a letter; evaluates knowledge of letter
names and key words for each sound.
Phonics Pretest
Measures the childs ability to decode words with the
targeted phonics skills and assists in placement and
instructional grouping.
Progress Test
Measures the childs phonemic awareness, knowledge of
sound-letter correspondences, and targeted phonics
elements for each Teaching Plan.
Running Records
For conducting a miscue analysis that evaluates the
childs knowledge of sound-letter association,
high-frequency words, and reading fluency.
Posttest
This multiple-choice, group-administered test assesses the
phonics skills, decoding skills, and high-frequency words
taught in each level, and provides a Benchmark Book
(Levels B-F) for measuring reading accuracy and fluency.

The Research Base of Phonics and Friends 28


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Beck, I.L. & Juel, C. (1992). The role of decoding in learning to read. In S. Jay Samuels and
Allan E. Farstrip (Eds), What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction. Newark, DE:
International Reading Association.
Chard, D. J., D. C. Simmons, & E. J. Kameenui. (1998). Word recognition: Instructional and curricular
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NY: HarperCollins.
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& H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed., pp. 323-359).
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phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 263-284.
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Human Resources (April 28, 1998).
Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
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Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
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References
Spector, J.E. (1992). Predicting progress in beginning reading: Dynamic assessment of phonemic
awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 353-363.
Stanovich, Keith E., Cunningham, A.E. & Cramer, B. (1984). Assessing phonological awareness in
kindergarten children: Issues of task comparability.
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38, 175-190.
Stanovich, K.E. (1991). Word Recognition: Changing Perspectives. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal,
& P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. II, pp. 418-452). NY: Longman.
Torgesen, J.K. & Mathes, P. G. (1998) What Every Teacher Should Know About Phonological
Awareness. Florida State University, Florida Department of Education.
Yopp, Hallie K. (1992). Developing phonemic awareness in young children.
The Reading Teacher, 45, 696-703.
Yopp, Hallie K. & Ruth H. (2000). Supporting phonemic awareness development in the classroom.
The Reading Teacher, 54, 2, 130-143.
To learn more about
Phonics and Friends,
contact Hampton-Brown or
your local representative.
P.O. Box 369
Marina, CA 93933
Phone: 800-333-3510
Fax: 831-384-8940
Web: www.hampton-brown.com
SLL05-0505A