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Honors Biology 2006-2007

The History Of DNA


Honors Biology 2006-2007
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Quick Review
! Chromosomes are
made up of DNA
and Proteins.
! Genes are a
segment of the DNA
molecule that carries
the instructions for
producing a specic
traits.
Honors Biology 2006-2007
DNA or Proteins?
! Prior to the 1950s, scientists could not decide whether
DNA or protein was the material responsible for
heredity.
! 3 experiments would lead to the answer:
! 1. Frederick Grifth
! 2. Avery, McCarty & MacLeod
! 3. Hershey & Chase
1952)
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Grifths Experiment
! Frederick Grifth was
working to nd a cure for
Streptococcus pneumonia
(bacteria)
! Test Subjects: lab mice
! He used different strains
(types) of bacterium in this
experiment.
1928
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Strains of Bacteria Used
! S Bacteria = Disease Causing (pathogenic)
! Have protective outer coat that hides the bacteria from
the bodys immune defenses.
! R Bacteria = Do not cause disease (non-pathogenic)
! Lacked the protective coat and thus the immune system
can identify and destroy them.
Honors Biology 2006-2007
The Experimental Trials
Transformation?
something in heat-killed bacteria could still transmit
disease-causing properties
live pathogenic
strain of bacteria
live non-pathogenic
strain of bacteria
mice die mice live
heat-killed
pathogenic bacteria
mix heat-killed
pathogenic &
non-pathogenic
bacteria
mice live mice die
A. B.
C.
D.
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Grifths Transforming Factor
! Why did the mice die that were
given a mixture of heat-killed
pathogenic bacteria and live
non-pathogenic bacteria?
! A substance had been passed
from the dead bacteria to live
bacteria = Transforming
Factor
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Grifths Results
! After examining blood samples, he found that
somehow the uncoated bacteria had
TRANSFORMED into bacteria with coats.
! Transformation is a change in the genetic
makeup caused when cells take up foreign genetic
material.
BUT, what was it? DNA or Protein??
Honors Biology 2006-2007
What Next?
! Whatever the molecule, it had to have
several properties in order to t the bill:
! It had to be duplicated whenever a cell divided,
so it could be passed on unchanged.
! It had to be in the form of an informational
code
! It had to be (mostly) stable and resistant to
change
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Avery, McCarty & MacLeod
Oswald Avery
Maclyn McCarty
Colin MacLeod
1944
Honors Biology 2006-2007
DNA causes Transformation
! Avery, McCarty & MacLeod
! puried both DNA & proteins from Streptococcus
pneumonia bacteria
! which will transform non-pathogenic bacteria?
! Experiment 1:
! injected protein into bacteria = no effect
! injected DNA into bacteria = transformation!
! Experiment 2:
! added protein destroying enzymes to bacteria =
transformation!
! added DNA destroying enzymes to bacteria = no effect
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Hershey & Chase
Alfred Hershey Martha Chase
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Conrmation of DNA
! Hershey & Chase
! Blender experiment using bacteriophages
! viruses that infect bacteria
! Half of the phages had their proteins tagged with
radioactive sulfur (
35
S)
! The other half had their DNA tagged with
radioactive phosphorus (
32
P)
! All phage were then allowed to infect bacteria!
1952 | 1969
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Protein coat labeled
with
35
S
DNA labeled with
32
P
bacteriophages infect
bacterial cells
T2 bacteriophages
are labeled with
radioactive isotopes
S vs. P
bacterial cells are agitated
to remove viral protein coats
35
S radioactivity
found in the liquid
32
P radioactivity found
in the bacterial cells
Which
radioactive
marker is found
inside the cell?
Which molecule
carries viral
genetic info?
Hershey
& Chase
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Blender experiment Results
! Radioactive phage & bacteria in blender
!
35
S phage
! radioactive proteins were in liquid
! therefore protein did NOT enter bacteria
!
32
P phage
! radioactive DNA was in pellet
! therefore DNA did enter bacteria
Taaa-Daaa!
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Hershey & Chases Conclusion
! Hershey & Chase Conrmed
DNA is transforming factor
! Proved that DNA AND NOT
protein is the hereditary
material in cells (i.e., genes are
made up of DNA)
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Wilkins and Franklins Photographs
! In 1952, Maurice Wilkins and
Rosalind Franklin, developed
high quality X-ray diffraction
photographs of strands of DNA.
! These photos were key pieces of
data used to determine the helical
structure of DNA molecules.
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Watson and Crick
1953 article in Nature
Honors Biology 2006-2007
The Structure of DNA
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
! DNA is the molecule of
heredity.
! DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
is a double-stranded nucleic acid
that determines an organisms
traits by controlling the
production of proteins.
! DNA holds the information for life!
! ! Why do we study DNA?? Why do we study DNA??
Honors Biology 2006-2007
DNAs Size
! DNA is an extremely long molecule
! DNA from one of your cells
would measure 6 feet tall!
! ! All of the DNA in your body All of the DNA in your body
could stretch to the sun and back could stretch to the sun and back
400 times! 400 times!
! !5 million strands of DNA can 5 million strands of DNA can
t through the head of one t through the head of one
needle! needle!
The earth is 93 million miles from
the sun!
Honors Biology 2006-2007
DNAs Helical Structure
! Watson & Crick discovered DNA is made up of 2 chains of
nucleotides joined together by their nitrogen bases.
! The 2 strands are twisted together, forming a Double-
Helix.
! Like a spiral staircase, twisted ladder, or zipper
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Subunits of DNA
Subunits of DNA
! When we group the deoxyribose
sugar, phosphate group and
nitrogen base together into a subunit
it is called a Nucleotide.
! One strand of DNA has
many millions of
nucleotides.
nucleotide
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Nucleotides Continued
Phosphate
C
C
O
O
C
C
O -P O
O
O
Nitrogenous
base
Deoxyribose
C
! Sugar = Deoxyribose.
! The Phosphate Group = Phosphorus atom surrounded by 4
oxygen atoms.
! The Nitrogen Bases are carbon ring structures that
contain one or more atoms of nitrogen.
Honors Biology 2006-2007
What is DNA made of?
What is DNA made of?
! The backbone of the
molecule is alternating
phosphate groups and
deoxyribose sugars.
! The rungs of the DNA
ladder are nitrogenous
bases.
phosphate
deoxyribose
bases
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Four nitrogenous bases
Four nitrogenous bases
! DNA has four different nitrogenous bases:
! Adenine (A)
! Thymine (T)
! Cytosine (C)
! Guanine (G)
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Two Classes of DNA Bases
! ! Pyrimidines Pyrimidines are single ring are single ring
bases. bases.
! ! Thymine Thymine
! ! Cytosine Cytosine
( (Pyrimidins Pyrimidins have a have a y y ) )
! ! Purines Purines are double ring bases. are double ring bases.
! ! Adenine Adenine
! ! Guanine Guanine
C
C
C
C
N
N
O O
N
C
C
C
C
N
N
N
N
N
C
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Chargaffs Rule
! The amount of Adenine is always equal to the
amount of Thymine.
! Adenine and Thymine have a 1:1 ratio
! The amount of Guanine is always equal to the
amount of Cytosine.
! Guanine and Cytosine have a 1:1 ratio
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Base pairing in DNA
! Pairing
! Adenine and Thymine always
join together
! Two Hydrogen Bonds
! Cytosine and Guanine always
join together
! 3 Hydrogen Bonds
! Adenine-Thymine and Guanine-
Cytosine are called
Complimentary Base Pairs.
Honors Biology 2006-2007
How do the strands stick?
How do the strands stick?
! Hydrogen Bonds form
between the nitrogenous bases.
! Weak, but there are millions and
millions of them in a single
molecule of DNA.
! Remember hydrogen bonds can
form between hydrogen and any
electronegative atom!
hydrogen
bonds
Honors Biology 2006-2007
Nucleotide Sequence
! Nucleotide Sequence is extremely important.
! Differences in organisms are due to the difference in sequence of
the nucleotides along a strand of DNA.
! Nucleotide sequence forms the unique genetic information of an
organism.