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PRACTICUM REPORT

Heat Dissipation of Hot Wire










Name : Asti Diar Safitri
NPM : 1206292414
Faculty : Faculty of Engineering
Department : International Program/ Civil Engineering
Practicum Code : KR-01
Practicum Week : 3


Unit Pelaksana Pendidikan Ilmu Pengetahuan Dasar
(UPP-IPD)
University of Indonesia
Depok

Purpose
Using hot wire as airflow speed sensor
Apparatus
1. Hot wire
2. Fan
3. Voltmeter and Ampere meter
4. Adjustable power supply
5. Camcorder
6. PC Unit with DAQ and automatic control device
Basic Theory
Single normal probe is a type of hotwire that generally used as sensor to give airflow
velocity information in axial direction only. This probe including a smooth-short-
metal wire that incorporated in the two-wire. Each probe tip is connected to a voltage
source. Electrical energy that flows in the probe will be dissipated by the wire into
heat energy. The amount of electrical energy that dissipated is proportional to the
voltage, electric current flowing in the probe, and duration of electric current flowing.
W = v i!t .........( 1 )

When the probe is blown by air then it will change the value of resistance wire that
alter the amount of electrical current flowing. The faster the airflow, the bigger
changes of resistance value and the electric current that flows also changed. The
number of heat transfer that received by the probe is expressed by overheat ratio,
which is defined as:

Rw = wire resistance at operating temperature (blown by air)
Ra = wire resistance at ambient temperature (room)
airflow from fan
Hot wire probe must be calibrated to determine the equation that states the
relationship between voltage wire (wire voltage, E) with a reference velocity
(reference velocity, U) after the equation is obtained, then the information velocity in
each experiment can be evaluated using the equation. Equations derived in the form
of linear equations or polynomial equations.
In the experiment about to be done is to measure the voltage wire at ambient
temperature and measure the voltage across the wire when energized air produced by
the fan velocity. Airflow velocity by the fan will be varied through the power supplied
to the fan is 70, 110, 150 and 190 of the maximum power of 230 m / s.
Procedure

This rLab experiment can be done by clicking the rLab button at the bottom of this
site.
1. Activating webcam
2. Giving airflow with a speed of 0 m/s, by clicking the drop down option adjust
the flow rate
3. Turning on the fan motor by clicking the radio button on the "turn on the fan
power supply
4. Measuring voltage and electric current in the hotwire by clicking the icon
"measure"
5. Repeating step 2 until step 4 for speeds of 70, 110, 150, 190 and 230 m/s
Assignment and Evaluation
1. Based on the data obtained, make a graph illustrating the relationship Voltage
Hotwire with time for each air velocity.
2. Based on the data processing above, make a graph illustrating the relationship
of hotwire voltage with wind flow velocity.
3. Make the wind velocity equation as a function of the hotwire voltage.
4. Based on the experiments and the data obtained, can we use Hotwire as a wind
speed measure?
5. Give the analysis of the results of this experiment.
Data Tubulations
1lme Wlnd
veloclLy
v-PW l-PW
1 0 2.112 33.9
2 0 2.112 34.7
3 0 2.112 33.0
4 0 2.112 33.9
3 0 2.112 34.3
6 0 2.112 33.2
7 0 2.112 33.9
8 0 2.112 34.2
9 0 2.112 33.4
10 0 2.112 33.9
1 70 2.048 33.2
2 70 2.030 37.3
3 70 2.048 34.3
4 70 2.030 34.3
3 70 2.048 37.4
6 70 2.048 33.0
7 70 2.047 34.2
8 70 2.049 36.3
9 70 2.049 36.3
10 70 2.048 34.2
1 110 2.029 33.1
2 110 2.030 38.0
3 110 2.029 36.2
4 110 2.029 34.4
3 110 2.029 33.8
6 110 2.028 38.2
7 110 2.029 33.3
8 110 2.028 34.4
9 110 2.029 36.3
10 110 2.030 38.0
1 130 2.022 38.7
2 130 2.021 33.1
3 130 2.022 34.7
4 130 2.022 37.3
3 130 2.022 37.3
6 130 2.022 34.8
7 130 2.022 33.0
8 130 2.021 38.0
9 130 2.022 36.8
10 130 2.021 34.6
1 190 2.013 38.8
2 190 2.013 37.3
3 190 2.016 34.9
4 190 2.016 33.0
3 190 2.017 37.3
6 190 2.016 37.9
7 190 2.018 33.2
8 190 2.018 34.6
9 190 2.018 36.7
10 190 2.017 38.6
1 230 2.014 34.7
2 230 2.014 33.1
3 230 2.013 37.3
4 230 2.013 38.8
3 230 2.013 37.4
6 230 2.014 33.2
7 230 2.014 34.7
8 230 2.014 33.7
9 230 2.013 38.0
10 230 2.013 38.4


Graph illustrating the relationship Voltage Hotwire with time for each air velocity

Graph illustrating the relationship of Voltage Hotwire with wind flow velocity
X = Wind velocity
Y = Average voltage
X Y X^2 Y^2 XY
0 2.112 0 4.4605 0
70 2.0485 4900 4.1963 143.395
110 2.029 12100 4.1168 223.19
150 2.0217 22500 4.0872 303.255
190 2.0166 36100 4.0666 383.154
230 2.0135 52900 4.0541 463.105
750 12.2413 128500 24.9815 1516.099


According to equation 1 above states that the amount of electrical energy that is
dissipated is proportional to the voltage, the electric current flowing in the probe, and
duration of electric current flowing.
W= V.I.t
Then the electrical energy is also proportional to the force and the distance.
W= F.s
While the value ratio depends on and velocity and time, so electrical energy depends
on the force, velocity, and time.
V.I.t = F.v.t
V.I = F.v
V = F v/I
y = m x + b
Explanation:
x is a given air flow rate
y is the voltage hotwire

m=
m= - 0.0004

b=
b= 2.0908
y= - 0.0004x + 2.0908
The equation that links voltage and hotwire air velocity is:
y= - 0.0004x + 2.0908
with y as hot wire voltage and x as the wind velocity.
Based on the equation above, if its including one of the wind velocity values,
obtained voltage value is almost the same (approach). For example, if you put the
value of wind speed of 70 m/s then obtained 2.0628 voltage values so that the relative
error obtained is small so it can be concluded that hotwire can be used as a wind
speed measure.
Analysis
Experiment
In this rlab KR01 experiment, it has a purpose to determine the hot wire as air
speed sensor. Due to changes in temperature on the hot wire, the experiment
was carried out until the temperature of the wire to be normal as before. Air
source such as a fan. In this KR01 experiment, the varied air velocity is 0 m /
s, 70 m / s, 110 m / s, 150 m / s, 190 m / s and 230 m / s . At the time of the air
velocity equals to 0, the value of the voltage and current values are read, have
not been affected by the wind velocity. Then the flow rate is set to 70 m / s
then the value of the legible voltage becomes smaller and readable current
value becomes greater. In addition the wind velocity to 230 m / s, the voltage
value that is read becomes smaller and the current value becomes larger. This
is because the wind flow affects the resistance value of hotwire that increases,
so its causing the current value increases and voltage value decreases which
is in accordance with the formula:
V = I x R
R = V / I
In addition, due to the brunt of the wind that was given force F with velocity V
in 10 seconds that affect the value resistansis, thus also affecting the value of
the transferred heat.
Result
Based on the experiment that have been conducted on KR01, showed that the
greater the speed of air that blown by fan, the smaller voltage on the wire and
the current flowing in the hotwire increases. The equations from the
calculations above, obtaining appropriate voltage value (approach) if its
including wind velocity value as x in this following equation:
y= - 0.0004x + 2.0908
For example, if you put the value of wind speed of 70 m/s then obtained
2.0628 voltage values. Obtained errors are relatively small for the experiment
because its performed with computerized thereby preventing Human Error.
Graph
Based on the graph of voltage vs velocity above, it indicates that the air
velocity is inversely proportional to the voltage generated hotwire. This is in
accordance with the procedures that the higher air velocity indicates the
smaller value of voltage and the gradient is minus. And on the other graph
which is a graph of voltage vs time shows the consistency of data despite very
small changes. This occurs because the velocity of the wind coming from the
fan does not go directly to the desired speed, the velocity accelerates before
reaching the desired speed. For example to get to the speed of 110 m / s are
initially 0 m / s, not directly from 0 m / s and then directly to 110 m / s but it
accelerates to 110 m / s first. Therefore, we measured up to 10 seconds. While
the voltage vs time graph fluctuates when probe blown by winds with certain
velocity so that the voltage values varie.
Conclutions
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References
1. Giancoli, D.C.; Physics for Scientists & Engeeners, Third Edition,
PrenticeHall, NJ, 2000.2.
2. Halliday, Resnick, Walker; Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition,
ExtendedEdition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NJ, 2005