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Modul #07

TE3113 TE3113
SISTEM KOMUNIKASI 1 SISTEM KOMUNIKASI 1
NOISE
PADA SISKOM
TE-29-02 TE-29-02
Program Studi S1 Teknik Telekomunikasi
Departemen Teknik Elektro - Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Telkom p gg g
Bandung 2007
Model Komunikasi Radio
Blah blah
blah bl ah
) (t r
PEMANCAR (TX) PENERIMA (RX)
) (t s
i
) (t h
c
) (t r
) (t n
SUMBER TUJ UAN
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Model Sinyal Terima
M d l th i d i l Model the received signal
) (t h
c
) (t s
i
) (t r
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t n t h t s t r
i
+ =
) (
c
) (
i
) (t n
) (
AWGN Additi Whit G i N i
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t n t h t s t r
c i
+
Si lif th d l
AWGN = Additive White Gausian Noise
Simplify the model:
Received signal in AWGN
) (t n
) (t r
) (t s
i
Ideal channels
) ( ) ( t t h
c
=
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t r
i
+ =
) (t n
AWGN
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Klasifikasi Noise
Noise/Derau sebagai unsur pengganggu yang hampir selalu Noise/Derau sebagai unsur pengganggu yang hampir selalu
terlibat dalam Siskom memerlukan pemodelan yang
representative untuk memudahkan keperluan analisis bagi
t k lit t ki j Si k penentuan kualitas ataupun kinerja Siskom.
Klasifikasi noise berdasarkan sumbernya :
Dari luar system y
Dari dalamsystem (umumnya paling dominan)
Klasifikasi noise berdasarkan equivalensi dengan suhu:
Thermal-Noise
Non Thermal-Noise
Klasifikasi noise berdasarkan model matematis/statistic : Klasifikasi noise berdasarkan model matematis/statistic :
Gaussian Noise
White noise
White Gaussian Noise
Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
4
Gaussian Noise
n1(t) [volt]
n3(t) [volt]
t
n2(t) [volt]
t
f ngsi distrib si Ga ss
t
1
fungsi distribusi Gauss :
2
n
607 , 0
2
2
v
1

2
n
2
n
2
n
N n
e
2
1
) v ( f ) v ( f


= =
Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
5
V
0 =
n

n
+
Gaussian Noise
dimana:

n
= standar deviasi, dan mean = 0


= = 1 ) ( ) ( dv v f dv v f
N n

)] ( [ t N VAR
n
=
akar daya rata-rata
=r ms/eff
Tegangan r.m.s/eff. dapat diukur dengan TRUE-RMS
)] ( [
n
= r.m.s/eff.
VOLT-METER, yang dapat berupa sinyal apa saja,
termasuk NOISE.
Tapi Voltmeter biasa hanya mengukur tegangan rata rata Tapi Voltmeter biasa hanya mengukur tegangan rata-rata
sin/cos.
Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
6
White Noise
Its PSD is flat, hence, it is called white noise.
[ /H ] [w/Hz]
Power spectral
density
Autocorrelation
Probability density function
Autocorrelation
function
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
AWGN: Additive White Gausian Noise
Memiliki sifat gabungan antara Gaussian-noise dan white
noise
Berupa noise dalam/thermal noise : Berupa noise dalam/thermal noise :
(f)
N

kT
= =
No
(f)
N

kT No = =
2 2 2
D bl id d

Si l id d
R t d i i k i l i d th l
Double sided
K J k

= /
23
10 . 38 , 1 Boltzman konst.
Single sided
Rapat daya noise mempunyai ekuivalensi dengan thermal.
Sehingga secara praktis dapat juga noise dinyatakan dalam
thermal (ekivalensinya). ( y )
Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
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Classification of signals
Deterministic and random signals
Deterministic signal: No uncertainty with
respect to the signal value at any time.
Random signal: Some degree of uncertainty
in signal values before it actually occurs.
Thermal noise in electronic circ its d e to the Thermal noise in electronic circuits due to the
random movement of electrons
Reflection of radio waves from different layers of y
ionosphere
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Classification of signals
Periodic and non-periodic signals
A non-periodic signal
A periodic signal
Analog and discrete signals
p g
A discrete signal
Analog signals
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Classification of signals ..
Energy and power signals
A signal is an energy signal if, and only if, it has
nonzero but finite energy for all time:
A signal is a power signal if, and only if, it has
finite but nonzero power for all time:
General rule: Periodic and random signals are power
signals. Signals that are both deterministic and non-
periodic are energy signals.
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Random process
A random process is a collection of time functions, or
signals, corresponding to various outcomes of a
randomexperiment For each outcome there exists a random experiment. For each outcome, there exists a
deterministic function, which is called a sample
function or a realization.
Random
variables
m
b
e
r
Sample functions
or realizations
R
e
a
l

n
u
m
or realizations
(deterministic
function)
time (t) time (t)
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Random Sequences and Random Processes
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Specifying a Random Process
A random process is defined by all its joint CDFs
for all possible sets of sample times
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
n
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Stationarity
If time-shifts (any value T) do not affect its joint CDF If time-shifts (any value T) do not affect its joint CDF
t
t
n
+T
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
n
t
0
+ T
t
1
+T
t
2
+T
n
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Random process
Strictly stationary: If none of the statistics of the Strictly stationary: If none of the statistics of the
random process are affected by a shift in the time
origin.
Wid t ti (WSS) If th d Wide sense stationary (WSS): If the mean and
autocorrelation function do not change with a shift in
the origin time.
Cyclostationary: If the mean and autocorrelation
function are periodic in time.
Ergodic process: A randomprocess is ergodic in Ergodic process: A random process is ergodic in
mean and autocorrelation, if
d and
, respectively. , respectively.
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Ergodicity
Ti E bl Time averages = Ensemble averages
[i.e. ensemble averages like mean/autocorrelation can be computed as
time-averages over a single realization of the random process]
A d di i d t l ti (lik ) if A random process: ergodic in mean and autocorrelation (like w.s.s.) if
and
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Autocorrelation
A t l ti f i l Autocorrelation of an energy signal
Autocorrelation of a power signal
For a periodic signal: p g
Autocorrelation of a randomsignal Autocorrelation of a random signal
For a WSS process: p
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Spectral density
Energy signals:
Energy spectral density (ESD):
Power signals:
Power spectral density (PSD):
Random process:
Power spectral density (PSD): p y ( )
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom
Properties of an autocorrelation
function function
For real-valued (and WSS in case of For real valued (and WSS in case of
random signals):
1 Autocorrelation and spectral density form 1. Autocorrelation and spectral density form
a Fourier transform pair.
2 Autocorrelation is symmetric around zero 2. Autocorrelation is symmetric around zero.
3. Its maximum value occurs at the origin.
4 Its value at the origin is equal to the 4. Its value at the origin is equal to the
average power or energy.
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Modul 07 - Siskom I - Noise pada Siskom