Anda di halaman 1dari 20

A Micro

A Micro
-
-
electrochemical
electrochemical
Study of Friction Stir
Study of Friction Stir
Welded Aluminum 6061
Welded Aluminum 6061
-
-
T6
T6
Paul E. Hintze, Andrew P. Bonifas
Paul E. Hintze, Andrew P. Bonifas
and Luz M. Calle
and Luz M. Calle
Corrosion Technology Testbed
Corrosion Technology Testbed
NASA Kennedy Space Center
NASA Kennedy Space Center
Overview
Overview

Introduction
Introduction

Micro
Micro
-
-
electrochemical cell
electrochemical cell

Friction Stir Weld
Friction Stir Weld

Methods
Methods

Results
Results

Summary and future work


Summary and future work
Micro
Micro
-
-
Electrochemical Cell
Electrochemical Cell

Technique first described
Technique first described
by Suter and B
by Suter and B

hni
hni

Measures electrochemical
Measures electrochemical
properties of small areas
properties of small areas

Does not expose entire
Does not expose entire
surface to electrolyte
surface to electrolyte

One sample can be used
One sample can be used
for many measurements
for many measurements
Micro
Micro
-
-
Electrochemical Cell
Electrochemical Cell

Capillary tip is mounted
Capillary tip is mounted
to the bottom of a small
to the bottom of a small
Teflon electrolyte
Teflon electrolyte
reservoir
reservoir

Ports for reference and
Ports for reference and
counter electrodes
counter electrodes

Mounted on a
Mounted on a
microscope in place of
microscope in place of
an objective
an objective
Reference
Electrode
P
t

C
o
u
n
t
e
r

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
d
e
Micro
Micro
-
-
Electrochemical Cell
Electrochemical Cell

Tip is approximately 500
Tip is approximately 500

m in diameter (Area ~
m in diameter (Area ~
0.2 mm
0.2 mm
2 2
)
)

Ideal for measuring
Ideal for measuring
properties of welded
properties of welded
samples or studies of
samples or studies of
localized corrosion
localized corrosion
Friction Stir Weld
Friction Stir Weld

Patented in 1991 by The Welding Institute


Patented in 1991 by The Welding Institute

Advantages
Advantages

Lower temperature: no melting
Lower temperature: no melting

Defect free weld
Defect free weld

Weld zone has the same composition as bulk
Weld zone has the same composition as bulk
metal
metal

Disadvantages
Disadvantages

Pieces must be clamped
Pieces must be clamped

Keyholes
Keyholes

at the ends of the weld


at the ends of the weld
Friction Stir Weld
Friction Stir Weld
FSW Tool
Profile
Picture of welds and samples
Picture of welds and samples
Friction Stir Weld TIG Weld
Microstructure of FSW
Microstructure of FSW
A
B
C
D

A: Bulk Metal
A: Bulk Metal

B: Heat affected zone (HAZ)


B: Heat affected zone (HAZ)

C: Thermo
C: Thermo
-
-
mechanically affected zone (TMAZ)
mechanically affected zone (TMAZ)

D: Weld nugget, part of the TMAZ


D: Weld nugget, part of the TMAZ
Microstructure
Microstructure
1 mm
Materials and Methods
Materials and Methods

Al 6061
Al 6061
-
-
T6 friction stir welds
T6 friction stir welds

Al 6061
Al 6061
-
-
T6 TIG welds with Al 5356 filler
T6 TIG welds with Al 5356 filler
material
material

Al 6061 nominal composition: 1.0 % Mg, 0.6% Si,
Al 6061 nominal composition: 1.0 % Mg, 0.6% Si,
0.27% Cu, 0.2 % Cr
0.27% Cu, 0.2 % Cr

Al 5356 nominal composition: 5.0% Mg, 0.4% Fe,
Al 5356 nominal composition: 5.0% Mg, 0.4% Fe,
0.25% Si
0.25% Si
Materials and Methods
Materials and Methods

Polished to 600 grit
Polished to 600 grit

Linear polarization from
Linear polarization from
-
-
1 V vs. SCE to the
1 V vs. SCE to the
breakdown potential
breakdown potential
-13
-12
-11
-10
-9
-8
-7
-
1
0
0
0
-
9
0
0
-
8
0
0
-
7
0
0
-
6
0
0
-
5
0
0
-
4
0
0
-
3
0
0
-
2
0
0
-
1
0
00
1
0
0
Potential / mV vs SCE
l
o
g

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
Materials and Methods
Materials and Methods
FSW
TIG
FSW Breakdown Potential
FSW Breakdown Potential
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Distance / mm
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

/

m
V

v
s
.

S
C
E
TIG Breakdown Potential
TIG Breakdown Potential
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Distance / mm
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

/

m
V

v
s
.

S
C
E
FSW Corrosion Potential
FSW Corrosion Potential
-800
-750
-700
-650
-600
-550
-500
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Distance / mm
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

/

m
V

v
s
.

S
C
E
TIG Corrosion Potential
TIG Corrosion Potential
-800
-750
-700
-650
-600
-550
-500
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Distance / mm
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

/

m
V

v
s
.

S
C
E
Summary
Summary

FSW process yields a smaller


FSW process yields a smaller

affected zone
affected zone

than TIG process


than TIG process

Breakdown potential returns to that of the bulk
Breakdown potential returns to that of the bulk
metal closer to center of weld
metal closer to center of weld

Breakdown potentials are much more variable for
Breakdown potentials are much more variable for
TIG weld
TIG weld

Corrosion potential does not change across


Corrosion potential does not change across
FSW
FSW
Future Work
Future Work

Compare micro
Compare micro
-
-
electrochemical techniques to
electrochemical techniques to
large scale techniques
large scale techniques

Use technique to optimize weld parameters


Use technique to optimize weld parameters

Work on other system where a high spatial


Work on other system where a high spatial
resolution is necessary
resolution is necessary
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

This research is being performed while the


This research is being performed while the
author (PEH) holds a National Research
author (PEH) holds a National Research
Council Research Associateship Award at the
Council Research Associateship Award at the
NASA Kennedy Space Center
NASA Kennedy Space Center

NASA
NASA

Code M
Code M

Michael Fuchs of the NASA Prototype Shop for


Michael Fuchs of the NASA Prototype Shop for
supplying the welded samples
supplying the welded samples