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Tech Guide 1

Hardware
TG1.1 Components of a Computer System
TG1.2 Evolution of Computer Hardware
TG1.3 Types of Computers
TG1.4 Microprocessor and Primary Storage
TG1.5 Input/Output Devices
TG1.1 Components of a Computer System
Computer ardware is composed of te following components! central processing unit
"CP#$% primary storage% secondary storage% input devices% output devices% and
communication devices& Communication devices are covered in detail in Tec 'uide (&
Te input devices accept data and instructions and convert tem to a form tat te
computer can understand& Te output devices present data in a form people can
understand& Te CP manipulates te data and controls te tas)s done *y te oter
components& Primary stora!e "internal storage tat is part of te CP#$ temporarily
stores data and program instructions during processing& Secondary stora!e "e+ternal
storage suc as flas drives$ stores data and programs tat ave *een saved for future use&
Communication devices manage te flow of data from pu*lic networ)s "e&g&% Internet%
intranets$ to te CP#% and from te CP# to networ)s& , scematic view of a computer
system is sown in -igure T'.&.&
"#P"#S#$T%$G &'T'( P%CT"#S( T%)#( '$& S%*# %$ ' C+)PT#"
'SC%%. Computers are *ased on integrated circuits "cips$% eac of wic includes
millions of su*/miniature transistors tat are interconnected on a small "less tan l/inc/
s0uare$ cip area& Eac transistor can *e in eiter an 1on2 or an 1off2 position&
Te 1on/off2 states of te transistors are used to esta*lis a *inary . or 3 for storing one
*inary digit% or *it& , fi+ed num*er of *its representing specific caracters4letters%
num*ers% and special sym*ols4is )nown as a *yte% usually 5 *its& 6ecause a *it as only
two states% 3 or .% te *its comprising a *yte can represent any of 7
5
% or 789% uni0ue
caracters&
Te caracter tat te *yte represents depends upon on te coding sceme used& Te two
most commonly used coding scemes are!
.& 'SC%% ,'merican $ationa- Standard Code for %nformation %nterchan!e.%
pronounced ask-ee.
7& #/C&%C ,#0tended /inary Coded &ecima- %nterchan!e Code.(
pronounced ebsa-dik.
T'./.
E6CDIC was developed *y I6M and is used primarily on large mainframe computers&
,SCII is te standard coding sceme for microcomputers& Tese coding scemes% and te
caracters tey present% are sown in -igure T'.&7& In addition to caracters% it is
possi*le to represent commonly agreed/upon sym*ols in a *inary code& -or e+ample% te
plus sign ":$ is 33.3.3.. in ,SCII&
1i!ure TG1.1 Components of computer hardware. ' 23us4 is a connectin! channe-.
55pic6up 1i!ure TG1.1( p. w7212>>
T'./7
Communication
Devices
Communication
Devices
Input
Devices
Input
Devices
Output
Devices
Output
Devices
Secondary
Storage
Secondary
Storage
Mouse
Mouse
6us
6us 6us
6us
Central Processing #nit
E+ternal
;etwor)
Control #nit,ritmetic/<ogic
#nitPrimary Storage
Control #nit,ritmetic/<ogic
#nitPrimary Storage
1i!ure TG1.2 %nterna- computin! codin! schemes. 55pic6up 1i!ure TG1.2( p. 3 W-
213>>
Te 789 caracters and sym*ols tat are represented *y ,SCII and E6CDIC codes are
sufficient for Englis and =estern European languages *ut are not large enoug for
,sian and oter languages tat use different alpa*ets&
nicode is a .9/*it code tat as te capacity to represent more tan 98%333 caracters
and sym*ols& Te system employs te codes used *y ,SCII and also includes oter
T'./>
CaracterE6CDIC Code,SCII Code,
6
C
D
E
-
'
H
I
?
@
<
M
;
O
P
A
B
S
T
#
C
=
D
E
F
3
.
7
>
(
8
9
G
5
H
..33333.
..3333.3
..3333..
..333.33
..333.3.
..333..3
..333...
..33.333
..33.33.
..3.333.
..3.33.3
..3.33..
..3.3.33
..3.3.3.
..3.3..3
..3.3...
..3..333
..3..33.
...333.3
...333..
...33.33
...33.3.
...33..3
...33...
...3.333
...3.33.
....3333
....333.
....33.3
....33..
....3.33
....3.3.
....3..3
....3...
.....333
.....33.
.3.3333.
.3.333.3
.3.333..
.3.33.33
.3.33.3.
.3.33..3
.3.33...
.3.3.333
.3.3.33.
.3.3.3.3
.3.3.3..
.3.3..33
.3.3..3.
.3.3...3
.3.3....
.3..3333
.3..333.
.3..33.3
.3..33..
.3..3.33
.3..3.3.
.3..3..3
.3..3...
.3...333
.3...33.
.3...3.3
3.3.3333
3.3.333.
3.3.33.3
3.3.33..
3.3.3.33
3.3.3.3.
3.3.3..3
3.3.3...
3.3..333
3.3..33.
alpa*ets "suc as Cyrillic and He*rew$% special caracters "including religious sym*ols$%
and some of te 1word writing2 sym*ols used in various ,sian countries&
"epresentin! ima!es. Images are represented *y a grid overlay of te picture& Te
computer measures te color "or ligt level$ of eac cell of te grid& Te unit
measurement of tis is called a pi0e-. -igure T'.&> sows a pi+el representation
of te letter A and its conversion to an input code&
Time and Si8e of /ytes. Time is represented in fractions of a second% as follows!
9 )i--isecond I ./.333 second
9 )icrosecond I ./.%333%333 second
9 $anosecond I ./.%333%333%333 second
9 Picosecond I ./.%333%333%333%333 second
SiJe of a file or storage space is measured in *ytes& Measures of siJe are!
9 :i-o3yte I .%333 *ytes "actually .%37($
9 )e!a3yte I .%333 )ilo*ytes I .3
9
*ytes
9 Gi!a3yte I .3
H
*ytes
9 Tera3yte I .3
.7
*ytes
9 Peta3yte I .3
.8
*ytes
9 #0a3yte I .3
.5
*ytes
9 *etta3yte I .3
7.
*ytes
1i!ure TG1.3 Pi0e- representation of the -etter '. 55pic6up Ta3-e TG 1.3( p. w7
213>>
TG1.2 #vo-ution of Computer Hardware
Computer ardware as evolved troug four stages% or generations% of tecnology& Eac
generation as provided increased processing power and storage capacity% wile
simultaneously e+i*iting decreases in costs% as you see in Ta*le T'.&.& Te generations
are distinguised *y different tecnologies tat perform te processing functions&
T'./(
CaracterE6CDIC Code,SCII Code,
6
C
D
E
-
'
H
I
?
@
<
M
;
O
P
A
B
S
T
#
C
=
D
E
F
3
.
7
>
(
8
9
G
5
H
..33333.
..3333.3
..3333..
..333.33
..333.3.
..333..3
..333...
..33.333
..33.33.
..3.333.
..3.33.3
..3.33..
..3.3.33
..3.3.3.
..3.3..3
..3.3...
..3..333
..3..33.
...333.3
...333..
...33.33
...33.3.
...33..3
...33...
...3.333
...3.33.
....3333
....333.
....33.3
....33..
....3.33
....3.3.
....3..3
....3...
.....333
.....33.
.3.3333.
.3.333.3
.3.333..
.3.33.33
.3.33.3.
.3.33..3
.3.33...
.3.3.333
.3.3.33.
.3.3.3.3
.3.3.3..
.3.3..33
.3.3..3.
.3.3...3
.3.3....
.3..3333
.3..333.
.3..33.3
.3..33..
.3..3.33
.3..3.3.
.3..3..3
.3..3...
.3...333
.3...33.
.3...3.3
3.3.3333
3.3.333.
3.3.33.3
3.3.33..
3.3.3.33
3.3.3.3.
3.3.3..3
3.3.3...
3.3..333
3.3..33.
.'! Te first generation computers% from .H(9 to a*out .H89% used vacuum
tubes to store and process information& Cacuum tu*es consumed large
amounts of power% generated muc eat% and were sort/lived& Terefore%
first/generation computers ad limited memory and processing capa*ility&
7'! Te second generation computers% .H8GK.H9>% used transistors for
storing and processing information& Transistors consumed less power tan
vacuum tu*es% produced less eat% and were ceaper% and more relia*le& ,nd
7' computers% wit increased processing and storage capa*ilities% *egan to *e
more widely used for scientific and *usiness purposes&
>'! Third-generation computers% .H9(K.HGH% used inte!rated circuits for
storing and processing information& Integrated circuits are made *y printing
numerous small transistors on silicon cips& Tese devices are called
semiconductors& >' computers employed software tat could *e used *y
nontecnical people% tus enlarging te computerLs role in *usiness&
('! Early to middle fourth-generation computers% .H53K.HH8% used very
-ar!e7sca-e inte!rated ,;<S%. circuits to store and process information& Te
C<SI tecni0ue allows te installation of undreds of tousands of circuits
"transistors and oter components$ on a small cip& =it u-tra7-ar!e7sca-e
inte!ration ,<S%.( .33 million transistors could *e placed on a cip& Tese
computers are ine+pensive and widely used in *usiness and everyday life&
<ate ('! Computers from 733. to te present% use !rand7sca-e inte!rated
,GS%. circuits to store and process information& =it 'SI% .%333 million
transistors can *e placed on a cip&
Te first ('s of computer ardware were *ased on te Von Neumann architecture% wic
processed information se0uentially% one instruction at a time& Te fift generation "8'$ of
computers uses massive-y para--e- processin! to process multiple instructions
simultaneously& Massively parallel computers use fle+i*ly connected networ)s lin)ing
tousands of ine+pensive% commonly used cips to address large computing pro*lems%
attaining supercomputer speeds& =it enoug cips networ)ed togeter% massively
parallel macines can perform more tan a trillion floating point operations per second4
a teraflop& , floating point operation (flop) is a *asic computer aritmetic operation% suc
as addition or su*traction% on num*ers tat include a decimal point&
T'/<# TG1.1 Hardware Generations 55pic6up Ta3-e TG 1.1( p. w7214>>
Generations
1eature 1G 2G 3G 4G,ear-y. 4G ,1=>>. 4G ,2??1.
Circuitry Cacuum
tu*es
Transistors Integrated circuits <SI and C<SI #<SI 'SI
Primary storage 7 @6 9( @6 ( M6 .9 M6 9( M6 .75 M6
Cycle times .33 millisecs .3 microsecs 833 nanosecs 533 picosecs 7%333 picosecs >>> MHJ
,verage cost M7&8 million M783
tousand
M78 tousand M7&8 tousand M7&3 tousand M.&8 tousand
T'./8
CaracterE6CDIC Code,SCII Code,
6
C
D
E
-
'
H
I
?
@
<
M
;
O
P
A
B
S
T
#
C
=
D
E
F
3
.
7
>
(
8
9
G
5
H
..33333.
..3333.3
..3333..
..333.33
..333.3.
..333..3
..333...
..33.333
..33.33.
..3.333.
..3.33.3
..3.33..
..3.3.33
..3.3.3.
..3.3..3
..3.3...
..3..333
..3..33.
...333.3
...333..
...33.33
...33.3.
...33..3
...33...
...3.333
...3.33.
....3333
....333.
....33.3
....33..
....3.33
....3.3.
....3..3
....3...
.....333
.....33.
.3.3333.
.3.333.3
.3.333..
.3.33.33
.3.33.3.
.3.33..3
.3.33...
.3.3.333
.3.3.33.
.3.3.3.3
.3.3.3..
.3.3..33
.3.3..3.
.3.3...3
.3.3....
.3..3333
.3..333.
.3..33.3
.3..33..
.3..3.33
.3..3.3.
.3..3..3
.3..3...
.3...333
.3...33.
.3...3.3
3.3.3333
3.3.333.
3.3.33.3
3.3.33..
3.3.3.33
3.3.3.3.
3.3.3..3
3.3.3...
3.3..333
3.3..33.
TG1.3 Types of Computers
Computers are distinguised on te *asis of teir processing capa*ilities&
Supercomputers are te computers wit te most processing power& Te primary
application of supercomputers as *een in scientific and military wor)% *ut teir use is
growing rapidly in *usiness as teir prices decrease& Supercomputers are especially
valua*le for large simulation models of real/world penomena% were comple+
matematical representations and calculations are re0uired% or for image creation and
processing& Supercomputers are used to model te weater for *etter weater prediction%
to test weapons nondestructively% to design aircraft "e&g&% te 6oeing GGG$ for more
efficient and less costly production% and to ma)e se0uences in motion pictures "e&g&%
Jurassic Park$&
Supercomputers use te tecnology of para--e- processin!. However% in contrast to
neural computing% wic uses massively parallel processing% supercomputers use
noninterconnected CP#s& Te difference is sown in -igure T'.&(& Parallel processing is
also used in smaller computers were 7 to 9( processors are common&
Silicon 'rapics "S'I$ as added te e0uivalent of doJens of supercomputer nodes into a
single *lade *y leveraging te inerent parallelism of te -ield/Programma*le 'ate
,rray "-P',$ tecnology& ,ccording to S'I% te B,SC BC.33 computation *lade% *uilt
wit dual Dilin+ Cirte+ ( -P',s% can accelerate te performance of many HPC
applications *y orders of magnitude over conventional systems at a far lower cost and
muc smaller footprint& 6ased onN S'lLs B,SC "Beconfigura*le ,pplication/Specific
Computing$ tecnology% te new BC.33 *lade is designed for customers wose
applications spend most of teir time wor)ing on a set of specific routines or algoritms&
)'%$1"')#S
)ainframes are not as powerful and generally not as e+pensive as supercomputers&
<arge corporations% were data processing is centraliJed and large data*ases are
maintained% often use mainframe computers& ,pplications tat run on a mainframe can *e
large and comple+% allowing for data and information to *e sared trougout te
organiJation&
)%&"'$G# C+)PT#"S
)idran!e computers include minicomputers and servers&
)inicomputers. )inicomputers are smaller and less e+pensive tan mainframe
computers& Minicomputers are usually designed to accomplis specific tas)s suc
as process control% scientific researc% and engineering applications& <arger
companies gain greater corporate fle+i*ility *y distri*uting data processing wit
minicomputers in organiJational units instead of centraliJing computing at one
location& Tese minicomputers are connected to eac oter and often to a
mainframe troug telecommunication lin)s&
T'./9
1i!ure TG1.4 Supercomputers vs. neura- computin!. ,@ is a CP.. 5pic6up TG 1.4(
p. w7215>>
Servers. Servers typically support computer networ)s% ena*ling users to sare files%
software% periperal devices% and oter networ) resources& Servers ave large
amounts of primary and secondary storage and powerful CP#s& OrganiJations
wit eavy e/commerce re0uirements and very large =e* sites are running teir
=e* and e/commerce applications on multiple servers in server farms& Server
farms are large groups of servers maintained *y an organiJation or *y a
commercial vendor and made availa*le to customers& ,s companies pac) greater
num*ers of servers in teir server farms% tey are using piJJa/*o+/siJe servers
called rack servers tat can *e stac)ed in rac)s& Tese computers run cooler% and
terefore can *e pac)ed more closely% re0uiring less space& To furter increase
density% companies are using a server design called a *lade& , blade is a card
a*out te siJe of a paper*ac) *oo) on wic memory% processor% and ard drives
are mounted&
/-ade Server. , *lade is one component in a system& 6lades can *e individual servers
tat plug into a single ca*inet or individual port cards tat add connectivity to a switc& ,
*lade is typically a ot swappa*le ardware device&
, *lade server is a server arcitecture tat ouses multiple server modules "*lades$ in a
single cassis& It is widely used in datacenters to save space and improve system
management& Te cassis provides te power supply% and eac *lade as its own CP#%
memory% and ard dis)& 6lade servers generally provide teir own management systems
and may include a networ) or storage switc&
=it enterprise/class *lade servers% dis) storage is e+ternal% and te *lades are dis)less&
Tis approac allows for more efficient failover *ecause applications are not tied to
specific ardware and a particular instance of te operating system& Te *lades are
anonymous and intercangea*le&
;irtua- servers ma)e it possi*le to place multiple applications on a single pysical
server% yet run eac witin its own operating system environment% )nown as a virtual
macine& So% wen one virtual server crases or is re*ooted% te oters continue opera tin
witout interruption&
Aor6stations. Computer vendors originally developed wor)stations to provide te ig
levels of performance demanded *y tecnical users suc as designers& =or)stations are
typically *ased on BISC "reduced instruction set computing$ arcitecture and provide
*ot very/ig/speed calculations and ig/resolution grapic displays& Tese computers
T'./G
ave found widespread acceptance witin te scientific community and% more recently%
witin te *usiness community&
=or)station applications include electronic and mecanical design% medical imaging%
scientific visualiJation% >/D animation% and video editing& 6y te second alf of te
.HH3s% many wor)station features were commonplace in PCS% *lurring te distinction
*etween wor)stations and personal computers&
)%C"+C+)PT#"S
)icrocomputers( or personal computers (Ps)% are te smallest and least e+pensive
category of general/purpose computers& $ote3oo6 computers are small% easily
transporta*le% ligtweigt microcomputers tat fit easily into a *riefcase&
$et3oo6s are smaller% more porta*le% less e+pensive% and less powerful tan note*oo)sO
and are primarily for connecting to te Internet&
T'/<# TG1.2 Characteristics of $et3oo6s 55newBB
Most ;et*oo)s Oter Options
+peratin! System =indows G starter <inu+ or =indows DP
CP Single Core Intel ,tom ,MD ,tlon ;eo and dual
Core Intel ,tom
Screen si8e .3&. Inces G to .7&. Inces
)emory .'6 7'6
Hard drive .93'6 or 783'6 S,T,
8(33 BPM
Solid State Drive "SSD$ or
larger S,T, ard drives
Price M>33 to M(33 M733 to M833
;et*oo)s were inspired *y O<PC DO& Te first net*oo) designed for consumers was te
,sus EEE PC& It sipped wit an Intel Celeron CP#% 8.7M6 of B,M% a 7'6 or ('6
Solid State Hard drive% and a <inu+ OS& ;ow most ;et*oo)s ave an Intel ,tom CP#s%
.'6 of B,M% .93'6 or 783'6 S,T, 8(33 BPM ard drive% and =indows G Starter&
)+/%<# &#;%C#S
Platforms for computing and communications include suc mo3i-e devices as persona-
di!ita- assistants ,P&'s. or handheld personal computers& ,noter platform is mo*ile
pone andsets wit wireless and Internet access capa*ilities often called Smartpones&
#sually% suc devices would use a micro version of a des)top operating system% suc as
,ndroid% iPone OS% =indows Pone G% or =e* OS&
9 cost muc less tan PCs&
9 OSs are simpler tan tose on a des)top PC&
9 provide good performance at specific tas)s *ut do not replace te full functions of a PC&
9 provide *ot computer and/or communications features&
9 offer a =e* portal tat is viewa*le on a screen&
T'./5
, persona- di!ita- assistant ,P&'. is a palmtop computer tat com*ines a processor
wit a multitas)ing operating system using a pen "stylus$ for andwriting
recognition rater tan )ey*oard input& Some PD,s ena*le users to communicate
via fa+% electronic mail% and paging% or to access online services& , smartphone
as telcom and computing capa*ilities& Comparisons of smartpones are sown in
Ta*le T' .&>
Ta3-e TG1.3 Comparisons of Smartphone 55newBB
T'./H
T'./.3
Phones iPone
>'S
;e+us One @in 7 ;o)ia ;5 6lac)6erry
6old HG33
Palm pre/
plus
HTC ECO
+S shipped
with
iPone OS
>&3
,ndroid
7&.
=indows
Pone OS
for @I;
Sym*ianP
>
6lac)6erry
OS
8&3&3&>>3
=e*OS
.&>&8&.
,ndroid
7&.
Aire-ess
carrier in
the nited
States
,TQT T/Mo*ile%
,TQT%
unloc)ed
CeriJon #n)nown
may only
*e
availa*le
unloc)ed
T/Mo*ile%
,TQT
CeriJon%
,TQT
"original
Palm Pre
on Sprint$
Sprint
S re-ease
date
39/.G/733H 3./39/73.3 38/.>/73.3 #n)nown .3/733H 3./73/73.3 39/3(/.3
:ey3oard Cirtual Cirtual Pysical Cirtual Pysical Pysical Cirtual
Camera
features
> MP wit
no flas&
-irst
iPone to
record
video
8 MP wit
flas
5 MP wit
-las
G73P
video
.7 MP
sots
video in
G73P
>&7 MP
wit flas
> MP <ED
flas
5 MP and
.&>MP
front facing
we*cam
$ota3-e
facts
=ill get
full
version of
iPone OS
(&3 unli)e
iPone >'
or older
models&
Official
'oogle
pone
IsnNt
running
=indows
Pone G
-irst
pone to
use te
open/
source
Sym*ianP
> OS
Te
6lac)6erry
6old
continues
BIM focus
on
*usiness
users
Can *e
used as a
=i/-i
otspot
costs e+tra
montly
-irst ('
pone in
te #nited
States and
te worldNs
first ('
,ndroid
pone
GPS ,pps
availa*le
for real
-ree real
time
navigation
DoesnNt
come wit
real time
navigation
-ree real
time
navigation
DoesnNt
come wit
real time
navigation
Beal time
navigation
cost MH&HH
per mont
-ree real
time
navigation
&isp-ay <CD O<ED <CD O<ED <CD "not
touc
screen$
<CD <CD
Stora!e(
interna-
and
e0pansion
.9'6 or
>7'6
internal% no
memory
card
support
8.7M6
internal%
comes wit
('6
memory
card wit
support for
up to >7'6
5'6
internal% no
memory
card
support
.9'6
Internal%
supports
memory
cards up to
>7'6
789M6
internal%
comes wit
7'6
memory
card wit
support for
up to
>7'6
.9'6
internal% no
memory
card
support
.'6
internal%
comes wit
5'6
memory
cards wit
support for
up to >7'6
'pp-ication
processor
933MHJ
Samsung
S8PC.33
.'HJ
Snapdragon
Aualcomm
ASD 5783
933MHJ #n)nown 97(MHJ 933MHJ
,BM
Corte+ ,5
.'HJ
Aualcomm
Snapdragon
ASD5983
"') 789M6 8.7M6 789M6 #n)nown 789M6 8.7M6 8.7M6
Ta3-et PCsC#7"eaders
Ta*let PC tecnology runs touc/sensitive displays tat you can tap wit your fingers or
sometimes wit a stylus% forgoing a mouse or touc pad& , ta*let PC can put te full
power of =indows G Professional in a laptop computer tatLs as simple as a pad and pen&
Te iPad is a ta*let PC and e/reader from ,pple& It runs a modified version of te iPone
OS and is designed for all user input to *e done troug te touc screen& Tere are two
different versions of te iPad% te > and te =i/-i/only versions& Te >' iPad can use
,TQTNs >' networ) in te #&S& for data% *ut not for voice& It is important to note tat te
iPad is not a pone& Te >' model includes all of te features of te =i/-i only model
plus a *etter >' micro SIM card slot% >' antenna% and 'PS&
)emory. Te iPad as tree siJe options for internal storage% .9'6% >7'6% and 9('6&
Te amount of memory you will need is important to consider *ecause tere is no way to
add more& It as no memory card slots or #S6 ports to use #S6 flas drives& However%
tere are apps tat wor) wit =e* *ased storage&
'pps. Te iPad can run te iPoneNs 733%333: apps% wic can *e stretced to fit te
larger screen& Te iPad also as some apps tat ave *een made specifically for te iPad
wic cannot *e used on te iPone&
#7readers are devices used to read digital *oo)s% newspapers% and so fort& Most e/
readers come wit >'% wit no montly carge wic is used to connect to *oo)stores
and to download some *oo)s& Most e/readers do not ave a *ac) ligt% wic ma)es
tem easier on te eyes tan computer monitors& However% tis means an e+ternal ligt
source will *e needed Rust li)e wit a normal *oo)& Comparisons of e/readers are sown
in Ta*le T'.&(
Ta3-e TG1.4 Comparison of e7readers. 55newBB
#7/oo6 "eader Sony Beader Daily
Edition PBS/
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Pysical )ey*oard
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support
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Ai71i
Te spread of wireless fidelity% or =i/-i% as ad a uge impact on te a*ility to connect
to te Internet via laptops and mo*iles& =i/-i is te common name for te wireless
networ)ing standard 537&l.* "now 537&..n$ tat is a standard feature for most laptops
and PD,s&
=i/-i provides te convenience of finding a ot spot for Internet connectivity& HPLs
iP,A 8(83 is te first andeld tat as *ot wireless local area networ) "=<,;$ and
6luetoot connectivity& It also as a *uilt/in fingerprint security scanner4a small *ar Rust
*eneat te navigation *utton over wic te user swipes is finger to *e identified& IEEE
537&..n is te wireless standard tat was finaliJed in 733H&
TG1.4 )icroprocessor and Primary Stora!e
)%C"+P"+C#SS+"S
Te centra- processin! unit ,CP. performs all processing& Te CP# is were all
processing is controlled% data are manipulated% aritmetic computations are performed%
and logical comparisons are made& Te CP# consists of te control unit% te aritmetic/
logic unit ",<#$% and te primary storage "or main memory$& 6ecause of its small siJe%
te CP# is also referred to as a microprocessor&
T'./.7
1i!ure TG1.5 How the CP wor6s. 55pic6up 1i!ure TG 1.5( p. W-218>>
How a )icroprocessor Aor6s. Te CP# operates li)e a tiny factory& Inputs come in
and are stored until needed% at wic point tey are retrieved and processed and
te output is stored and ten delivered somewere& -igure T'.&8 illustrates tis
process% wic wor)s as follows!
9 Te inputs are data and *rief instructions a*out wat to do wit te data& Tese
instructions come from software in oter parts of te computer& Data migt *e entered *y
te user troug te )ey*oard% for e+ample% or read from a data file in anoter part of te
computer& Te inputs are stored in registers until tey are sent to te ne+t step in te
processing&
9 Data and instructions travel in te cip via electrical patways called buses& Te siJe of
te *us4analogous to te widt of a igway4determines ow muc information can
flow at any time&
9 Te control unit directs te flow of data and instruction witin te cip&
9 Te aritmetic/logic unit ",<#$ receives te data and instructions from te registers
and ma)es te desired computation& Tese data and instructions ave *een translated into
binar! form% tat is% only 3s and .s& Te CP# can process only *inary data&
9 Te data in teir original form and te instructions are sent to storage registers and are
ten sent *ac) to a storage place outside te cip% suc as te computerLs ard drive
"discussed *elow$& Meanwile% te transformed data go to anoter register and ten on to
oter parts of te computer "to te monitor for display% or to *e stored% for e+ample$&
9 Tis cycle processing% )nown as a machine instruction cyc-e( occurs millions of times
or more per second& Te speed of a cip% wic is an important *encmar)% depends on
four tings! te cloc) speed% te word lengt% te data *us widt% and te design of te
cip&
T'./.>
1. Te c-oc6( located witin te control unit% is te component tat provides te timing
for all processor operations& Te *eat fre0uency of te cloc) "measured in megaertJ
SMHJT or millions of cycles per second$ determines ow many times per second te
processor performs operations&
2. Te word -en!th( wic is te num*er of *its "3s and .s$ tat can *e processed *y te
CP# at any one time&
3. Te 3us width. Te wider te bus "te pysical pats down wic te data and
instructions travel as electrical impulses$% te more data can *e moved and te faster te
processing& , processLs bus band"idth is te product of te widt of its *us "measured in
*its$ times te fre0uency at wic te *us transfers data "measured in megaertJ$&
4. Te pysical design of te cip& Te distance *etween transistors is )nown as -ine
width. Historically% line widt as *een e+pressed in microns "millionts of a meter$% *ut
as tecnology as advanced% it as *ecome more convenient to e+press line widt in
nanometers "*illionts of a meter$&
1i!ure TG1.D "unnin! a pro!ram on a computer. 55pic6up 1i!ure TG 1.D( p. w-
219>>
"unnin! a Pro!ram on a Computer. To see ow a program is run on a computer% loo)
at -igure T'.&9& , computer program can *e stored on a dis) or on te ard drive
"drive 1C2$& To run tis program% te operating system will retrieve te program
from its location "step . in te figure$ and place it into te B,M "step 7$& Ten te
control unit 1fetces2 te first instruction in te program from te B,M "step >$
and acts upon it "e&g&% sends a message to te user% via an output device% to enter a
num*er% or say 1yes2 or 1no2O step ($& Once te message is answered "step 8$ "e&g&
via an input device$% it is stored in te B,M& Tis concludes te first instruction&
T'./.(
Ten te control unit 1fetces2 te second instruction "step 9$% and te process
continues on and on&
If one of te instructions calls for some computation% te control unit sends it%
togeter wit any relevant data stored in te B,M% to te aritmetic logic unit ",<#$
"step G$& Te ,<# e+ecutes te processing and returns te results to te B,M "step 5$&
Te control unit ten 1fetces2 one more instruction "step H$% wic tells wat to do wit
te result4for e+ample% display it "step .3$ or store it on te ard drive "step ..$&
=en instructions are 1fetced%2 tey are decoded& Te computer can process large
num*ers of instructions per second% usually millions& Terefore% we measure te speed of
computers *y 1millions of instructions per minute%2 or MIPS&
Para--e- Processin!. , computer system wit two or more processors is referred to as a
para--e- processin! system. Today% some PCs ave 7 to 9 processors wile
wor)stations ave 73 or more& Processing data in parallel speeds up processing&
<arger computers may ave a undred processors&
Computer 'rchitecture. Te arrangement of te components and teir interactions is
called computer architecture& Computer arcitecture includes te instruction set
and te num*er of te processors% te structure of te internal *uses% te use of
caces% and te types and arrangements of input/output "I/O$ device interfaces&
Every processor comes wit a uni0ue set of operational codes or commands tat
represent te computerLs instruction set& ,n instruction set is te set of macine
instructions tat a processor recogniJes and can e+ecute& Today% two instruction set
strategies% comp-e0 instruction set computer ,C%SC. and reduced instruction set
computer ,"%SC.( dominate te processor instruction sets of computer arcitectures&
Tese two strategies differ *y te num*er of operations availa*le and ow and wen
instructions are moved into memory&
, #$ processor contains more tan 733 uni0ue coded commands% one for virtually
every type of operation& Te CISC design goal is for its instruction set to loo) li)e a
sopisticated programming language& Ine+pensive ardware can ten *e used to replace
e+pensive software% tere*y reducing te cost of developing software& Te penalty for
tis ease of programming is tat CISC processorK*ased computers ave increased
arcitectural comple+ity and decreased overall system performance& In spite of tese
draw*ac)s% most computers still use CISC processors&
Te oter approac is %#$ processors% wic eliminate many of te little/used codes
found in te comple+ instruction set& #nderlying BISC design is te claim tat a very
small su*set of instructions accounts for a very large percentage of all instructions
e+ecuted& Te instruction set% terefore% sould *e designed around a few simple
1ardwired2 instructions tat can *e e+ecuted very 0uic)ly& Te rest of te needed
instructions can *e created in software&
'rithmetic7<o!ic nit. Te arithmetic7-o!ic unit ,'<. performs re0uired aritmetic
and comparisons% or logic% operations& Te ,<# adds% su*tracts% multiplies%
divides% compares% and determines weter a num*er is positive% negative% or
Jero& ,ll computer applications are acieved troug tese si+ operations& Te
,<# operations are performed se0uentially% *ased on instructions from te
T'./.8
control unit& -or tese operations to *e performed% te data must first *e moved
from te storage to te aritmetic registers in te ,<#& "e!isters are specialiJed%
ig/speed memory areas for storing temporary results of ,<# operations as well
as for storing certain control information&
P"%)'"E ST+"'G#.
Primary stora!e( or main memory( stores data and program statements for te CP#& It
as four *asic purposes!
1. To store data tat ave *een input until tey are transferred to te ,<# for processing
2. To store data and results during intermediate stages of processing
3. To old data after processing until tey are transferred to an output device
4. To old program statements or instructions received from input devices and from
secondary storage
Primary storage utiliJes inte!rated circuits. Tese circuits are interconnected layers
of etced semiconductor materials forming electrical transistor memory units wit 1on/
offN positions tat direct te electrical current passing troug tem& Te on/off states of
te transistors are used to esta*lis a *inary . or 3 for storing one *inary digit% or *it&
"o-e of /uses. Instructions and data move *etween computer su*systems and te
processor via communications cannels called *uses& , *us is a cannel troug
wic data are passed in electronic form& Tree types of *uses lin) te CP#%
primary storage% and te oter devices in te computer system& Te data *us
moves data to and from primary storage& Te address *us transmits signals for
locating a given address in primary storage& Te control *us transmits signals
specifying weter to 1read2 or 1write2 data to or from a given primary storage
address% input device% or output device& Te capacity of a *us% called 3us width( is
defined *y te num*er of *its it carries at one time&
Contro- nit. Te contro- unit reads instructions and directs te oter components of
te computer system to perform te functions re0uired *y te program& It
interprets and carries out instructions contained in computer programs% selecting
program statements from te primary storage% moving tem to te instruction
registers in te control unit% and ten carrying tem out& It controls input and
output devices and data/transfer processes from and to memory& Te control unit
does not actually cange or create dataO it merely directs te data flow witin te
CP#& Te control unit can process only one instruction at a time% *ut it can
e+ecute instructions so 0uic)ly "millions per second$ tat it can appear to do many
different tings simultaneously&
Te series of operations re0uired to process a single macine instruction is called a
machine cyc-e. Eac macine cycle consists of te instruction c!cle% wic sets up
circuitry to perform a re0uired operation% and te e&ecution c!cle% during wic te
operation is actually carried out&
Cate!ories of )emory. Tere are two categories of memory! te register% wic is part
of te CP# and is very fast% and te interna- memory chips( wic reside outside
T'./.9
te CP# and are slower& , register is circuitry in te CP# tat allows for te fast
storage and retrieval of data and instructions during te processing& Te control
unit% te CP#% and te primary storage all ave registers& Small amounts of data
reside in te register for very sort periods% prior to teir use&
Te interna- memory is used to store data Rust *efore tey are processed *y te CP#&
Immediately after te processing it comprises two types of storage space! B,M and
BOM&
"andom7access memory ,"'). is te place in wic te CP# stores te
instructions and data it is processing& Te larger te memory area% te larger te programs
tat can *e stored and e+ecuted&
More tan one program may *e operating at a time% eac occupying a portion of
B,M&
Te advantage of B,M is tat it is very fast in storing and retrieving any type of data%
weter te+tual% grapical% sound% or animation/*ased& Its disadvantages are tat it is
relatively e+pensive and volatile& Tis volatility means tat all data and programs stored
in B,M are lost wen te power is turned off& To lessen tis potential loss of data% many
of te newer application programs perform periodic automatic 1saves2 of te data&
Many software programs are larger tan te internal% primary storage "B,M$
availa*le to store tem& To get around tis limitation% some programs are divided into
smaller *loc)s% wit eac *loc) loaded into B,M only wen necessary& However%
depending on te program% continuously loading and unloading 3-oc6s can slow down
performance considera*ly% especially since secondary storage is so muc slower tan
B,M& ,s a compromise% some arcitectures use ig/speed cache memory as a
temporary storage for te most fre0uently used *loc)s& Ten te B,M is used to store te
ne+t most fre0uently used *loc)s% and secondary storage "descri*ed later$ for te least
used *loc)s&
Tere are two types of cace memory in te maRority of computer systems4<evel .
"<l$ cace is located in te processor% and <evel 7 "<7$ cace is located on te
moter*oard *ut not actually in te processor& <. cace is smaller and faster tan <7
cace& Cip manufacturers are now designing cips wit <. cace and <7 cace in te
processor and <evel > "<>$ cace on te moter*oard&
Since cace memory operates at a muc iger speed tan conventional memory "i&e&%
B,M$% tis tecni0ue greatly increases te speed of processing *ecause it reduces te
num*er of times te program as to fetc instructions and data from B,M and secondary
storage&
&ynamic random access memories ,&"')s. are te most widely used B,M cips&
Tese are )nown to *e volatile since tey need to *e recarged and refresed undreds of
times per second in order to retain te information stored in tem&
"ead7on-y memory ,"+). is tat portion of primary storage tat cannot *e canged
or erased& BOM is nonvolatileO tat is% te program instructions are continually retained
witin te BOM% weter power is supplied to te computer or not& BOM is necessary to
users wo need to *e a*le to restore a program or data after te computer as *een turned
off or% as a safeguard% to prevent a program or data from *eing canged& -or e+ample% te
instructions needed to start% or 1*oot%2 a computer must not *e lost wen it is turned off&
T'./.G
Pro!ramma3-e read7on-y memory ,P"+). is a memory cip on wic a program
can *e stored& 6ut once te PBOM as *een used% you cannot wipe it clean and use it to
store someting else& <i)e BOMs% PBOMs are nonvolatile&
TG1.5 %nputC+utput &evices
Te input/output "I/O$ devices of a computer are not part of te CP#% *ut are cannels for
communicating *etween te e+ternal environment and te CP#& Data and instructions are
entered into te computer troug input devices ,%C+.( and processing results are
provided troug output devices. =idely used I/O devices are te catode/ray tu*e
"CBT$ or visual display unit "CD#$% magnetic storage media% printers% )ey*oards%
1mice%2 and image/scanning devices&
I/O devices are controlled directly *y te CP# or indirectly troug special
processors dedicated to input and output processing& 'enerally spea)ing% I/O devices are
su*classified into secondar! storage devices "primarily dis) and tape drives$ and
peripheral devices "any input/output device tat is attaced to te computer$&
S#C+$&'"E ST+"'G#
Secondary stora!e is separate from primary storage and te CP#% *ut directly connected
to it& It stores te data in a format tat is compati*le wit data stored in primary storage%
*ut secondary storage provides te computer wit vastly increased space for storing and
processing large 0uantities of software and data& Primary storage is volatile% contained in
memory cips% and very fast in storing and retrieving data& In contrast% secondary storage
is nonvolatile% uses many different forms of media tat are less e+pensive tan primary
storage% and is relatively slower tan primary storage&
)a!netic tape is )ept on a large open reel or in a small cartridge or cassette& Today%
cartridges and cassettes are replacing reels *ecause tey are easier to use and
access& Te principal advantages of magnetic tape are tat it is ine+pensive%
relatively sta*le% and long lasting% and tat it can store very large volumes of data&
, magnetic tape is e+cellent for *ac)up or arcival storage of data and can *e
reused& Te main disadvantage of magnetic tape is tat it must *e searced from
te *eginning to find te desired data& Tis process is called se'uential access&
Te magnetic tape itself is fragile and must *e andled wit care& Magnetic tape is
also la*or intensive to mount and dismount in a mainframe computer& Magnetic
tape storage often is used for information tat an organiJation must maintain% *ut
uses rarely or does not need immediate access to& Industries wit uge num*ers of
files "e&g&% insurance companies$ use magnetic tape systems& Modern versions of
magnetic tape systems use cartridges and often a ro*otic system tat selects and
loads te appropriate cartridge automatically&
)a!netic dis6s( also called hard dis6s( alleviate some of te pro*lems associated wit
magnetic tape *y assigning specific address locations for data% so tat users can go
directly to te address witout aving to go troug intervening locations loo)ing
for te rigt data to retrieve& Tis process is called direct access&
, ard dis) is li)e a ponograp containing a stac) of metal/coated platters "usually
permanently mounted$ tat rotate rapidly& Magnetic read/write eads% attaced to arms%
T'./.5
over over te platters& To locate an address for storing or retrieving data% te ead moves
inward or outward to te correct position% ten waits for te correct location to spin
underneat&
Te speed of access to data on ard/dis) drives is a function of te rotational speed of te
dis) and te speed of te read/write eads& Te read/write eads must position
temselves% and te dis) pac) must rotate until te proper information is located&
,dvanced dis) drives ave access speeds of 5 to .7 milliseconds&
Magnetic dis)s provide storage for large amounts of data and instructions tat can *e
rapidly accessed& ,noter advantage of dis)s over reel is tat a ro*ot can cange tem&
Tis can drastically reduce te e+penses of a data center& Storage Tecnology is te
maRor vendor of suc ro*ots& Te dis)sL disadvantages are tat tey are more e+pensive
tan magnetic tape and tey are suscepti*le to 1dis) crases&2
In contrast to large% fi+ed dis) drives% one approac is to com*ine a large num*er of
small dis)s drives% eac wit .3/ to (3/giga*yte capacity% developed originally for
microcomputers& Tese devices are called redundant arrays of ine0pensive dis6s
,"'%&.. 6ecause data are stored redundantly across many drives% te overall impact on
system performance is lessened wen one drive malfunctions& ,lso% multiple drives
provide multiple data pats% improving performance& -inally% *ecause of manufacturing
efficiencies of small drives% te cost of B,ID devices is significantly lower tan te cost
of large dis) drives of te same capacity&
To ta)e advantage of faster tecnologies% disk-drive interfaces must also *e faster&
Most PCLs and wor)stations use one of two ig/performance dis)/interface standards!
#nhanced %nte!rated &rive #-ectronics ,#%&#. or Sma-- Computer Systems
%nterface ,SCS%.. EIDE offers good performance% is ine+pensive% and supports up to four
dis)s% tapes% or CD/BOM drives& Te latest version is called Serial ,T, "S,T,$& -or
details% refer to serialata&org& SCSI drives are more e+pensive tan EIDE drives% *ut tey
offer a faster interface and support more devices& SCSI interfaces are terefore used for
grapics wor)stations% server/*ased storage% and large data*ases&
+ptica- stora!e devices ave e+tremely ig storage density& Typically% muc more
information can *e stored on a standard 8&78/inc optical dis) tan on a
compara*ly siJed floppy "a*out (33 times more$& Since a igly focused laser
*eam is used to read/write information encoded on an optical dis)% te
information can *e igly condensed& In addition% te amount of pysical dis)
space needed to record an optical *it is muc smaller tan tat usually re0uired *y
magnetic media&
,noter advantage of optical storage is tat te medium itself is less suscepti*le to
contamination or deterioration& -irst% te recording surfaces "on *ot sides of te dis)$ are
protected *y two plastic plates% wic )eep dust and dirt from contaminating te surface&
Second% only a laser *eam of ligt% not a flying ead% comes in contact wit te recording
surfaceO te ead of an optical dis) drive comes no closer tan . mm from te dis)
surface& Optical drives are also less fragile% and te dis)s temselves may easily *e
loaded and removed& In addition% optical dis)s can store muc more information% *ot on
a routine *asis and also wen com*ined into storage systems&
T'./.H
Compact dis6 read7on-y memory ,C&7"+). dis)s ave ig capacity% low cost% and
ig dura*ility& CD/BOM tecnology is very effective and efficient for mass/
producing many copies of large amounts of information tat do not need to *e
canged! for e+ample% encyclopedias% directories% and online data*ases& However%
*ecause it is a read/only medium% te CD/BOM can *e only read and not written
on& Compact dis6( rewrita3-e ,C&7"A. adds rewrita*ility to te recorda*le
compact dis) mar)et&
&i!ita- ;ideo &is6 ,&;&. offers iger 0uality and denser storage capa*ilities&
/-u7ray. 6lu/ray discs offer iger 0uality and denser storage tan DCDs& ,lso% 6lu/ray
discs use ard coating tecnology to ma)e tem more scratc resistant tan CDs
or DCDs&
)emory PC Card. (emor! P cards "also )nown as memor! sticks$ e+pand te amount
of availa*le memory& Tey ave *een widely used% particularly in porta*le
devices suc as PD,s and smart pones&
Summary. Ta*le T'.&8 summariJes te maRor secondary storage devices% and teir
advantages% limitations% and applications&
P#"%PH#"'< %$PT &#;%C#S
#sers can command te computer and communicate wit it *y using one or more input
devices. Eac input device accepts a specific form of data& -or e+ample% )ey*oards
transmit typed caracters% and andwriting recogniJers 1read2 andwritten caracters&
#sers want communication wit computers to *e simple% fast% and error free& Terefore% a
variety of input devices fits te needs of different individuals and applications "see Ta*le
T'.&($& Some of tese devices are sown in -igure T'.&G togeter wit teir usage&
:ey3oards. Te most common input device is te )ey*oard& Te )ey*oard is designed
li)e a typewriter *ut wit many additional special )eys& Most computer users
utiliJe )ey*oards regularly& #nfortunately% a num*er of computer users ave
developed repetitive stress inRury% wic tey allege comes from e+cessive use of
poorly designed )ey*oards& ,s a result% new )ey*oards ave *een developed tat
are ergonomically designed& -or e+ample% some )ey*oards are now 1split2 in alf%
loosely appro+imating te natural angle of te arms and wrists&
T'/<# TG1.5 Comparison of Secondary Stora!e 55pic6up Ta3-e TG 1.3( p. w7224
Fwith #ditsB>
Type 'dvanta!es &isadvanta!es 'pp-ication
Magnetic Storage Devices
Magnetic
tape
<owest cost per unit stored& Se0uential access means slow
retrieval speeds&
Corporate data arciving&
Hard drive Belatively ig capacity and fast
retrieval speed&
-ragileO ig cost per unit
stored&
Personal computers troug
mainframes&
B,ID Hig capacityO designed for fault E+pensive% semi permanent Corporate data storage tat
T'./73
tolerance and reduced ris) of
data lossO low cost per unit
stored&
installation& re0uires fre0uent% rapid
access&
S,; Hig capacityO designed for large
amounts of enterprise data&
E+pensive& Corporate data storage tat
re0uires fre0uent% rapid
access&
;,S Hig capacityO designed for large
amounts of enterprise data&
E+pensive& Corporate data storage tat
re0uires fre0uent% rapid
access&
Magnetic
dis)ettes
<ow cost per dis)ette% porta*ility& <ow capacityO very ig cost
per unit storedO fragile&
Personal computers&
Memory
cards
Porta*leO easy to useO less failure/
prone tan ard drives&
E+pensive& Personal and laptop computers&
Memory
stic)s
E+tremely porta*le and easy to use& E+pensive& Consumer electronic devicesO
moving files from porta*le
devices to des)top
computers&
#S6 -las
drives
Porta*leO easy to useO fastO only
re0uires a #S6 port not a special
drive&
Personal computers&
SSD ard
drives
-aster tan HDD& Hig cost per unit stored& Personal computers troug
corporate data storage&
E+panda*le
storage
Porta*leO ig capacity& More e+pensive tan ard
drives&
6ac)up of internal ard drive&
Optical Storage Devices
CD/BOM Hig capacityO moderate cost per
unit storedO ig dura*ility&
Slower retrieval speeds tan
ard drivesO only certain
types can *e rewritten&
Personal computers troug
corporate data storage&
DCD Hig capacityO moderate cost per
unit stored&
Slower retrieval speeds tan
ard drives&
Personal computers troug
corporate data storage&
-MD/BOMCery ig capacityO moderate cost
per unit stored&
-aster retrieval speeds tan
DCD or CD/BOMO slower
retrieval speeds tan ard
drives&
Personal computers troug
corporate data storage&
6lu/ray Higer capacity ten DCDs up to
83'6 currently&
E+pensive& Personal computers troug
corporate data storage&
T'/<# TG1.D %nput &evices 55pic6up Ta3-e TG 1.4( p. w-225>>
Cate!ories #0amp-es
Keying devices 9 Punced card reader
9 @ey*oard
9 Point/of/sale "POS$ terminal
Pointing devices "devices that point to
ob)ects on the computer screen$
9 Mouse "including roller*alls and trac)*alls$
9 Touc screen
T'./7.
9 Toucpad "or trac)pad$
9 <igt pen
9 ?oy stic)
Optical character recognition "devices that
scan characters$
9 6ar code scanner "e&g&% at POS$
9 Optical caracter reader
9 =and reader
9 Cordless reader
9 Optical mar) reader
Handwriting recognizers Voice recognizers
"data entered b! voice$
9 Pen
9 Micropone
Other devices 9 Magnetic in) caracter readers
9 Digital cameras
9 ,utomated teller macines ",TMs$
9 Smart cards
9 DigitiJers "for maps% graps% etc&$
9 B-ID
)ice and Trac63a--s. Te Computer mouse is a andeld device used to point a cursor
at a desired place on te screen% suc as an icon% a cell in a ta*le% an item in a
menu% or any oter o*Rect& Once te arrow is placed on an o*Rect% te user clic)s a
*utton on te mouse% instructing te computer to ta)e some action& Te use of te
mouse reduces te need to type in information or use te slower arrow )eys&
, variant of te mouse is te trac63a--( wic is often used in grapic design& Te
user olds an o*Rect muc li)e a mouse% *ut rater tan moving te entire device to move
te cursor "as wit a mouse$% e or se rotates a *all tat is *uilt into te top of te device&
Porta*le computers ave some oter mouse li)e tecnologies% suc as te glide/and/tap
pad% used in lieu of a mouse& Many porta*les also allow a conventional mouse to *e
plugged in wen desired&
,noter variant of te mouse% te optica- mouse( replaces te *all% rollers% and
weels of te mecanical mouse wit a ligt% lens% and a camera cip& It replicates te
action of a *all and rollers *y ta)ing potograps of te surface it passes over% and
comparing eac successive image to determine were it is going&
Touch Screens. ,n alternative to te mouse or oter screen/related device is a touch
screen& Touch screens are a tecnology tat divides a computer screen into
different areas& #sers simply touc te desired area "often *uttons or s0uares$ to
trigger an action&
Sty-us. , sty-us is a pen/style device tat allows te user eiter to touc parts of te
predetermined menu of options "as wit a weara*le computer% discussed a*ove$ or
to andwrite information into te computer "as wit some PD,s$& Te tecnology
may respond to pressure of te stylus% or te stylus can *e a type of ligt pen tat
emits ligt tat is sensed *y computer&
T'./77
Goystic6s. Jo!sticks are used primarily at wor)stations tat can display dynamic grapics&
Tey are also used in playing video games& Te Roystic) moves and positions te
cursor at te desired o*Rect on te screen&
#-ectronics 1orms. #-ectronic forms provide a standardiJed format wose eadings
serve as prompts for te input& In form interaction( te user enters data or
commands into designated spaces "fields$ in forms& Te computer may produce
some output after input is made% and te user may *e re0uested to continue te
form interaction process& Electronic forms can alleviate many of te resource/
intensive steps of processing forms% ma)ing traditional typesetting and printing
T'./7>
unnecessary& -inally% processing centers do not need to re)ey data from paper/
*ased forms% since te data remain in electronic format trougout te process&
Ahite3oard. , white3oard is an area on a display screen tat multiple users can write
or draw on& =ite*oards are a principal component of teleconferencing
applications *ecause tey ena*le visual as well as audio communication&
Source &ata 'utomation. Source data automation captures data in computer reada*le
form at te moment te data are created& Point/of/sale systems% optical *ar codes
and code scanners% oter optical caracter recognition devices% andwriting
recogniJers% voice recogniJers% digitiJers% and cameras are e+amples of source
data automation& Source data automation devices eliminate errors arising from
umans )ey*oarding data and allow for data to *e captured directly and
immediately% wit *uilt/in error correction& Te maRor devices are descri*ed
*elow&
Point7of7Sa-e Termina-s. Many retail organiJations utiliJe point7of7sa-e ,P+S.
termina-s. Te POS terminal as a specialiJed )ey*oard& -or e+ample% te POS
terminals at fast/food restaurants include all of te items on te menu% sometimes
la*eled wit te picture of te item& POS terminals in a retail store are e0uipped
wit a *ar code scanner tat reads te *ar/coded sales tag& POS devices increase
te speed of data entry and reduce te cance of errors& POS terminals may
include many features suc as scanner% printer% voice syntesis "wic pronounces
te price *y voice$% and accounting software&
/arcode Scanner. /arcode scanners scan te one/dimensional ".D$ *lac)/and/wite
*ars written in te *niversal Product ode "#PC$& Tis code specifies te name
of te product and its manufacturer "product ID$& Ten a computer finds in te
data*ase te price e0uivalent to te productLs ID& 6arcodes are especially valua*le
in ig/volume processing were )ey*oard energy is too slow and/or inaccurate&
,pplications include supermar)et cec)out% airline *aggage stic)ers% and
transport companiesL pac)ages "-ederal E+press% #nited Parcel Service% and te
#&S& Postal Service$& Te wand reader is a special andeld *ar code reader tat
can read codes tat are also reada*le *y people&
"adio 1reHuency %dentification ,"1%&. Ta!. %adio fre'uenc! identification "B-ID$ is
a system of tecnologies tat use radio waves to automatically identify people or
o*Rects& Te uni0ue information "usually a serial num*er$ is stored on a microcip
"tag$ tat is attaced to an antenna% wic can transmit to a near*y reader& Te
reader ten converts te radio waves from te B-ID tag into digital information
for te computer to use&
+ptica- )ar6 "eader. ,n optica- mar6 reader is a special scanner for detecting te
presence of pencil mar)s on a predetermined grid% suc as multiple/coice test
answer seets&
T'./7(
Sensors. Sensors are e+tremely common tecnologies em*edded in oter tecnologies&
Tey collect data directly from te environment and input tem into a computer
system& E+amples migt include your carLs air*ag activation sensor or fuel
mi+ture/pollution control sensor% inventory control sensors in retail stores% and te
myriad types of sensors *uilt into a modern aircraft&
niversa- Seria- /us ,S/.. Tis is a low/cost interfacing port for computer periperals&
#S6 .&. as a ma+imum transfer rate of .7 M*ps tat cannot fulfill some speedy
periperals suc as e+ternal ard drives& #S6 7&3 as a ma+imum transfer rate of
(53 M*ps% wic is (3 times faster tan #S6 .&.& It is faster tan its competitor
IEEE .>H( tat as a ma+imum transfer rate of (53 m*ps& Te newest #S6
standard is #S6 >&3& It is a*out .3 times faster tan #S6 7&3 wit a ma+imum
transfer speed of 8'*ps&
)onitors. Te data entered into a computer can *e visi*le on te computer monitor(
wic is *asically a video screen tat displays *ot input and output& Monitors
come in different siJes% ranging from inces to several feet& Te maRor *enefit is
te interactive nature of te device&
T'./78