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Notes

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Bulk Density Measurement
Bulk Density Measurement
Schlumberger 1999
Notes
It uses gamma ray interactions in the Compton Scattering energy range to measure the bulk density of the
formation.
This interaction is when the incident gamma ray reacts with an electron deflecting it from its path and losing
energy in the process.
The PEX TLD has three detectors and the LDT two.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Gamma Ray Physics -density -1
The Density Tools use a chemical gamma ray
source and two or three gamma ray detectors.
The number of gamma rays returning to the
detector depends on the number of electrons
present, the electron density, e.
The electron density can be related to the bulk
density of the minerals by a simple equation.
e = ( 2Z/A )
Where Z is the number
of electrons per atom
and A is the atomic
weight.
Notes
The LDT tool has two detectors measuring the same density. If there is no mudcake (an impermeable formation)
both will read the same. If there is mudcake there will be a slight difference which can be computed and hence the
measurement corrected.
The Spine and Ribs plot is the graphical representation of the method used.
In the case of the TLD, a forward modelling algorithm is used to compute the formation and mud cake densities
and the mud cake thickness.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Spine and Ribs
The spine represents the line of increasing
formation density on the plot of the long spacing
count rate versus short spacing count rate.
The presence of mud cake causes a deviation
from the line in a predictable manner. Thus a
correction can be made to obtain the true density.
.
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Mud cake
with barite
Mud cake
without
barite
Increasing
Mud cake
Thickness
Increasing
Mud cake
Thickness
A
B
C
L
o
n
g

S
p
a
c
i
n
g

C
o
u
n
t

R
a
t
e
Short spacing Count Rate
Notes
The presence of a lighter mudcake will make the short spacing read too low, moving the point from A to B. It is
corrected by following down the ribs to the spine.
In heavier mud cake the shift is in the opposite direction.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Spine and Ribs
Example:
The correct reading is at point A.
An increasing mud cake thickness moves
the point to B or C depending on whether
there is heavy material (barite) in the mud
or not.
.
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Mud cake
with barite
Mud cake
without
barite
Increasing
Mud cake
Thickness
Increasing
Mud cake
Thickness
A
B
C
L
o
n
g

S
p
a
c
i
n
g

C
o
u
n
t

R
a
t
e
Short spacing Count Rate
Notes
The standard log from the LDT tool shows both of these curves, the principal curve RHOB and DRHO. The latter
is a very good indication of poor hole condition. If the hole is rugous the algorithm will have applied a lot of
correction, hence the DRHO will be very active. In some cases the caliper will show a large hole but the DRHO
will be flat while in some small holes the opposite will be true.
The TLD tool has RHOZ as the principal density output, with DSOZ as the density standoff.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Density Outputs
The outputs are:
RHOZ/RHOB (b), the corrected bulk density.
DRHO (), the correction that has been
applied to b (LDT only).
RHOZ/RHOB is the main output;
DRHO is a quality control curve (LDT only).
HDRA is an equivalent in the TLD.
Notes
The measurement has a very little correction as the major perturbation to the reading ( mudcake ) is automatically
taken care of using the two detector system. The only problem affecting the reading is the bad hole conditions
which affect all pad tools.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Borehole Effects
The LDT is a pad tool with collimated source and
detectors. It experiences little or no
environmental effect.
In large holes, the curvature of the pad versus
that of the hole causes a minor error that needs to
be corrected.
Notes
Rugosity effects can usually be seen on the DRHO curve, the caliper may be irrelevant.
One major cause of problems are turbo-drilled holes, deviated or horizontal wells. The use of a turbine can cause a
hole to corkscrew. This shape looks to the tools as a very rugous hole, with, in extreme cases, the log being
useless.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Borehole Effects
Hole rugosity may affect the measurement.
The source and detectors "see" different
formations/borehole.
The effect is an erratic and incorrect log.
Notes
This method works better on this type of tool than on the neutron porosity devices as the detectors and sources are
collimated and smaller.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Alpha Processing
As the density tool also uses two detectors it can
be Alpha processed in exactly the same way as the
CNT.
The resulting log shows a great improvement
over the standard output.
Notes
The density of each mineral is unique. The tool is calibrated in limestone , sandstone has a lower density and
dolomite is higher; shale varies with the precise clay minerals present.
The vertical resolutions of the density measurements is better than the neutron tool. With alpha processing a very
high resolution can be obtained.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Density Parameters
Vertical resolution:
Standard 18"
Enhanced 6"
Depth of investigation 6"-9"
Readings in:
Limestone (0pu) 2.71
Sandstone (0pu) 2.65
Dolomite (0pu) 2.85
Anhydrite 2.98
Salt 2.03
Shale 2.2-2.7
Coal 1.5
Notes
The density is often used in a development situation as the porosity tool. This is possible if the matrix density is
known.
Combination with sonic measurements gives both rock mechanical properties and the acoustic impedance. The
latter is used in seismic applications.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Interpretation/Uses
The density tool is extremely useful as it has high
accuracy and exhibits small borehole effects.
Major uses include:
Porosity.
Lithology (in combination with the
neutron tool).
Mechanical properties (in combination
with the sonic tool).
Acoustic properties (in combination with
the sonic tool).
Gas identification (in combination with the
neutron tool).
Notes
The matrix density ma is known from core analysis or from the neutron density crossplot. The fluid density f ,
is the density of the mud filtrate. This can be measured on a sample or computed knowing the salinity. In the case
of oil base mud it has to be measured.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Density Porosity
There are two inputs into the porosity equation:
the matrix density and the fluid density.
The fluid density is that of the mud filtrate.
( ) + = 1
ma f b
f ma
b ma

=
Notes
The scales on a neutron - density log often reflect the use to which the log is to be put. In an exploration situation
or in a complex lithology the identification of the matrix and then the porosity is the major use. In a development
well in a simple ( ,or single ) lithology the porosity is the requirement.
The basic scale has the neutron having a total of 60 porosity ( % ) over two tracks encompassing the most common
values. In the limestone compatible scale the density is fixed to also cover 60 pu ( this is equivalent to
1.0g/cm3 ) and also to overlay the neutron in limestone. In a sandstone the density will be at a higher porosity (
lower density ) than the neutron, in dolomite it will be the opposite.
To change to a sandstone compatible scale the density log is shifted so that its matrix value for sandstone,
2,65g/cm3 coincides with the zero for the neutron porosity.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Scaling/Porosity
The density tool is usually run with the neutron.
To aid quicklook interpretation they are run on
"compatible scales".
This means that the scales are set such that for a
given lithology the curves overlay.
The standard scale is the "limestone compatible" where
the neutron porosity scale is:
To fit this the density log has to have its zero limestone point (2.7
g/cc) on the same position as the neutron porosity zero and the
range of the scale has to fit the neutrons 60 porosity units hence the
scale is:
Changing to a sandstone compatible scale would put the zero
sandstone density, 2.65, over the neutron porosity zero to give:
Notes
The major need for the Volumetric Photoelectric Absorption Index is in formation evaluation equations when a
link between the measurements and the formation components such as porosity are required.
The Pef alone gives an excellent indication of the lithology. Its major drawback is the effect of barite on the
measurement. As the measurement is of gamma rays the dense barite material reduces the amount seen by the tool.
However the major effect is the Pe of barite at 267 is far above the normal formation component figure of <6.
Hence a little of this material in the mud (and hence the mudcake) will make the reading completely incorrect.
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Bulk Density Measurement
Pef Theory
Pe can be easily computed for any lithology by
summing the elemental contributions.
Measurement is virtually porosity and fluid
independent.
Major use is Lithology identification.
Notes
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Bulk Density Measurement
Volumetrics
Another way of using it is express it in volumetric
terms as:
U = Pee
This is called the Volumetric photoelectric
absorption index.
This parameter can then be used in a formula for
computing the components of the reservoir.
U = Uf + (1 - ) Uma
Notes
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Bulk Density Measurement
Pef Parameters
Vertical resolution:
Standard 4"
Readings in:
Limestone 5.08
Sandstone 1.81
Dolomite 3.14
Shale 1.8-6
Anhydrite 5.05
Salt 4.65