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SMALL ENGINES

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine.htm
Internal Combustion
A cannon uses the basic
principles of internal
combustion engines. If
you take a small amount
of high energy fuel (like
gasoline) in a small,
enclosed space and
ignite it, an incredible
amount of energy is
released in the form of
expanding gas.
WHAT USES SMALL
ENGINES?
lawn mowers, tillers, cultivators,
trimmers, edgers, snowblowers, chain
saws, pumps, generators, air
compressors, and other useful home
tools
outboard boats, snowmobiles,
motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles,
ultralight aircraft
Types of Small Engine
2 stroke
http://www.carbibles.com/videos/twostrokeanimatio
n.mp4
4 stroke
http://www.carbibles.com/videos/fourstrokeanimatio
n.mp4
Strokes
Stroke-refers to the movement of the
piston in the engine

http://www.carbibles.com/fuel_engine_
bible.html
http://www.animatedengines.com
/otto.shtml
2 stroke strokes
Compression
Combustion

4 stroke strokes
Intake
Compression
Power
Exhaust


4 STROKE
The four-stroke cycle
The four stroke
combustion cycle
consists of:
1. Intake
2. Compression
3. Combustion
4. Exhaust
INTAKE Stroke
The Piston is going
down so the
volume of the
cylinder is
getting larger
The Intake valve is
open.
Fuel is mixed with
the air, and the
Cylinder is filled
with the mixture of
air and fuel.

Compression Stroke
The Piston is
going up so the
volume of the
cylinder is getting
smaller.
Both valves are
closed. Air/fuel
mixture is trapped
in the cylinder.
Pressure is
increasing.
Power Stroke
The Piston is going down.
Volume of the cylinder is
increasing.
Both valves closed. Spark
plug fires, causing
compressed air/fuel mixture
to burn.
The flame front travels
across the combustion
chamber.
The burning fuel creates
tremendous pressure which
forces the piston down.
turning the crankshaft and
producing power.
This is not an explosion, but
a smooth, controlled burn.
Exhaust Stroke
The Piston is going
up, so the volume
of the cylinder is
getting smaller.
The Piston pushes
the burned exhaust
gasses out past the
open exhaust
valve, and out
through the
exhaust system
and into the
atmosphere.
2 STROKE
The two stroke cycle
The two stroke engine ignites every
revolution of the crankshaft. These
engines overlap operations to reduce
parts while maintaining power.
Intake
The fuel/air
mixture is first
drawn into the
crankcase by the
vacuum created
during the upward
stroke of the
piston.

Intake
The fuel mixture is
then compressed
in the crankcase
during the
remainder of the
stroke.
Transfer/Exhaust
Toward the end of the
stroke, the piston
exposes the intake
port, allowing the
compressed fuel/air
mixture in the
crankcase to escape
around the piston into
the main cylinder.
This expels the
exhaust gasses out
the exhaust port,
usually located on the
opposite side of the
cylinder.
Compression
The piston then
rises and
compresses the
fuel mixture.
Power
At the top of the
stroke the spark
plug ignites the fuel
mixture.
The burning fuel
expands, driving
the piston
downward, to
complete the cycle.
Advantages
Disadvantages
Simpler
Power boost
Lighter weight
Cost Less
Can work in any position


don't live as long as four-
stroke engines
Two-stroke engines
require a mix of oil in with
the gas
do not use fuel efficiently
Produce more pollution.

Engine Systems
Compression system
Fuel system
Ignition system
Cooling system
Lubrication system

ACTIVITY! Break yourselves into groups of 2
Each group is responsible for 1 system in the
engine. You need to either make a descriptive
poster or power point describing your engine
system. YOUR group will be RESPONSIBLE
for TEACHING other groups about your
SYSTEM.

PARTS OF ENGINE
5 Main components of engine
Fuel
Ignition
Combustion
Cooling
Lubrication
Parts of an engine
Cylinder- where the piston moves up
and down. Most lawnmowers are 1
cylinder while automobiles are 4,6,8,
and 10.
Spark plug- supplies spark for the
fuel/air mixture.
Valves- let air in and exhaust out.
Note: both valves are closed during
the compression stroke.
Parts of an engine
Piston- cylindrical piece of metal that moves
up and down the cylinder.
Piston rings- rings provide a sliding seal
between the piston and cylinder.
Rings serve two purposes:
prevent fuel/air from leaking into the sump
prevent oil from entering the combustion
chamber
Parts of an engine
Combustion chamber- area where
combustion and compression takes place.
Connecting rod- connects the piston to the
crankshaft.
Crankshaft- the crankshaft turns the up and
down motion of the piston into circular
motion
Sump- (oil pan) contains and collects oil for
lubrication
Parts of an engine
FUEL and EXHAUST
Gasoline: Gasoline is a combustible liquid that burns
relatively slowly. However, when sprayed as a mist and mixed
with air, it is quite explosive. All it needs is a spark. Two-
stroke engines require that oil be mixed with the gasoline to
lubricate internal parts. Four-stroke engines use a fuel-air
mixture.

Fuel Tank: The fuel tank stores fuel in preparation for mixing
by the carburetor and use by the engine. Some fuel tanks are
pressurized with air to help deliver fuel to the carburetor.
Other tanks are non-pressurized and depend on a fuel pump
to deliver fuel to the carburetor.

Fuel Line: Fuel is moved from the tank to the pump and/or
carburetor through a fuel line. Pressurized fuel systems often
have a squeeze bulb in the fuel line for building pressure.


FUEL and EXHAUST
Filter: A carburetor jet has a small opening
that can easily become clogged. A fuel filter
traps dirt and sediment from the gas before it
is delivered to the carburetor.

Pump: A fuel pump produces a vacuum that
pulls the fuel from an unpressurized tank,
then delivers it to the carburetor.

Carburetor: The carburetor has one job: to
mix the correct proportion of gasoline and air
for the engine. Too much gasoline in the
mixture makes it rich; too little gas makes it
lean.

FUEL and EXHAUST
Throttle: The throttle controls the amount of fuel-air mixture that
enters the engine from the carburetor. The throttle thus controls the
speed of the engine.

Primer: A primer injects a small amount of gasoline into the
carburetor throat to make the initial fuel-air mixture rich. A primer is
used to help start a cold engine.

Choke: Some engines control the richness of the fuel-air mixture at
startup by controlling the air rather than the fuel. A choke reduces
the amount of air in the fuel-air mixture.

Governor: A governor is a device that automatically opens the
engine's throttle when more power is needed and closes it when the
load is light.

Muffler: Small gas engines, especially two-stroke engines, are noisy
when they operate. A muffler reduces the sound of the exhaust
gases by passing them through baffles.



INGITION SYSTEM TYPES
Magneto-Powered Ignition System: A magneto uses
magnetism to supply electricity in ignitions where there is no
battery. The magneto is turned by the crankshaft, which
rotates when the manual recoil starter is pulled. The three
types of magneto ignition systems are mechanical-breaker,
capacitor-discharge, and transistor-controlled.

Battery-Powered Ignition System: If your small engine
includes a battery for starting, the ignition coil will also use it
to supply spark to the spark plugs. A battery stores electrical
energy until needed. Battery ignition systems also use
mechanical-breaker, capacitor-discharge, and transistor-
controlled ignitions.

Mechanical-Breaker Ignitions: High-voltage electricity must
be sent to the spark plug at the appropriate time. In
mechanical-breaker ignitions, this job is performed through
the contact points and a condenser.
IGNITION

Coil: An ignition coil is simply two coils of wire wrapped
around an iron core.

Spark Plug: A spark plug is an insulated electrode that
is screwed into the top of the engine cylinder. High-
voltage timed electricity from the magneto travels by
wire to the spark plug. The base of the plug has an air
gap of about 0.030 inch (30 thousandths of an inch),
which the current must jump.

Wires: The primary wire from the coil to the breaker
point and secondary wire from the coil to the spark
plug(s) deliver electricity to the ignition components.



COMBUSTION
Cylinder Block: The largest single part in a small gas
engine is the cylinder block. It is a piece of metal in
which the cylinder hole is bored or placed.

Cylinder Head: The cylinder head is the top, or ceiling,
of the cylinder and is attached to the block with bolts.
Depending on the type of engine, the head may or may
not include valves.

Piston: A piston is the movable floor in the combustion
chamber. Its upward movement compresses the fuel-air
mixture. After combustion, its downward movement
rotates the crankshaft.



COMBUSTION
Crankshaft: An engine's crankshaft is a metal shaft with an
offset section onto which the connecting rod is attached.
Rotation of the crankshaft moves the piston up in the cylinder.
Movement of the piston down in the cylinder then rotates the
crankshaft.

Connecting Rod: Between the piston and the crankshaft is a
connecting rod. At the larger end of the connecting rod is a
bearing that allows rotation around the moving crankshaft.
The small end is attached to the piston pin.

Valves: Valves simply open and close passages. A reed
valve in a two-stroke engine is activated by changes in air
pressure.

Flywheel: At the end of the crankshaft is a circular weighted
wheel called a flywheel. The flywheel delivers the engine's
power to devices (wheels, blades, etc.) and helps keep the
crankshaft turning smoothly.
COOLING and
LUBRICATION
Air-Cooling Fins: For simplicity, most smaller gas engines
are cooled by air. Metal fins around the outside of the
combustion chamber help dissipate the internal heat.

Bearings: A bearing is a replaceable part that takes the brunt
of the friction. A friction bearing relies on lubricants to
minimize friction. A non-friction bearing uses hard steel rollers
or balls to prevent wear, though it too requires some
lubrication.

Lubricants: Lubricants such as oil and grease reduce
surface friction by coating parts with a film. Lubricants in two-
stroke engines are applied to surfaces by mixing oil with fuel.

Filters: Friction happens. Moving parts wear, even with the
best lubricants. The resulting metal as well as carbon from
the combustion process must be cleaned from the oil to
ensure long lubrication. Some small engines use oil filters to
remove contaminants from the circulating oil.

Flywheel Key
Holds the flywheel on
Flywheel Shroud
Protects flywheel
Engine Shroud
Covers engine for protection
Starter Rod
connects ignition and throttle kind of.
Gasoline
Combustible liquid burns relatively
slow.
Oil
Lubricants such as oil and grease
reduce surface friction by coating
parts with a film. Lubricants in two-
stroke engines are applied to surfaces
by mixing oil with fuel.
Water
Keeps engine cool
Fins
Cools engine
Crankshaft
Crankshaft: An engine's crankshaft is
a metal shaft with an offset section
onto which the connecting rod is
attached. Rotation of the crankshaft
moves the piston up in the cylinder.
Movement of the piston down in the
cylinder then rotates the crankshaft.
Head gasket
Seals engine to prevent fluid leaking
Head Bolt
Holds the head to engine block
Spark Plug
Creates spark
Armature
Converts the current
Spark plug wire
Connects spark plug
Carburetor
Carburetor: mix the correct proportion
of gasoline and air for the engine
Air Cleaner
Clean dirt and particles out of air to
keep engine running properly
Gas Tank
Hold gas
Throttle
controls the amount of fuel-air mixture
that enters the engine from the
carburetor. The throttle thus controls
the speed of the engine.
Horsepower
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eh7
uFumf-
vc&feature=results_main&playnext=1
&list=PL3EE86E23668789E1