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GSM Problems, Solutions and Real Case Studies

Coverage Problems
I. Solution Procedures
[Problem: the coverage is becoming smaller after the BS is enabled!
After a BTS has run for a period of time (for example, half years), the coverage of the BTS may
become smaller or even dead one may appear due to various causes! "n this case, the system
performance #ill be affected! The shrin$ of the coverage is not only related to the technical
indexes (such as the BTS sensitivity and po#er), but also related to the engineering %uality,
geographic factors, and the electromagnetic environment!
The factor concerning the BTS problems are as follo#s&
l Transmitter output po#er decrease
' (eceive sensitivity decrease
) Antenna aimuth angle change
* Antenna tilt change
+ Antenna gain change
, -eeder loss
. Coupler loss
/ 0or$ing band change
1 Propagation environment change
l2 3iversity effect change!
"ou can chec# the $roblem according to the follo%ing $rocedure:
4) Chec$ the conditions around the BTS antenna
5ou are re%uired to chec$ if there are other antennas (such as micro antenna), decorations,
billboard, trees, or glass #alls standing around the BTS antenna! These barriers may exert a
negative effect against the antenna reception and transmission, thus affecting the coverage of the
BTS! "n this case, you can tune the aimuth angel of the corresponding antenna or change the
antenna height!
') Chec$ the change of the propagation environment!
The change of the propagation environment of the electromagnetic #ave #ill #ea$en the signals
received by radio terminals! 6specially for mountains, the propagation of the electromagnetic
#aves depends on the reflection of mountains! -or example, the change in the vegetation of the
mountain #ill reduce the coverage of the BTS! "n addition, the climate and other natural factors
also have some effect against the electromagnetic #aves! The propagation loss varies #ith #ood
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intensity, season, and so on! The maximum loss can reach )2 dB! "f ne# buildings prevent the
propagation of the electromagnetic #aves and #ea$ens the signals, the areas in the remote
cannot be covered, so the subscribers cannot en7oy the service! 6specially the high buildings near
the BTS have a great effect against the propagation of electromagnetic #aves!
)) Chec$ if there is standing #ave alarm and main diversity reception alarm at the operation and
maintenance console!
This problem can be chec$ed according to the standing #ave alarm messages and the diversity
reception alarm messages! "f the alarms of this $ind occur, you should chec$ the corresponding
antennas and feeders!
*) Chec$ if the standing #ave ratio is smaller than 4!+8!
The tolerance of the standing #ave alarm threshold of the C39 or 639 is great! Therefore, after
chec$ing that the set:top po#er is normal, you can further chec$ if the standing #ave is smaller
than 4!+8! "f the standing #ave ratio is abnormal, you need to chec$ if the #ater has penetrated
into the antenna or feeder connector, or if it is lightening protector problem!
+) Chec$ if the to#er amplifier #or$s normally!
Chec$ if to#er amplifier alarm is present at the operation and maintenance console! ;enerally,
the problems are the lo# noise amplifier #as damaged or the #ater has penetrated into the
amplifier! The amplifier alarm al#ays comes together #ith the damage of the lo# noise
amplifier! "f the #ater has penetrated into the to#er amplifier, no alarm #ill be generated, but the
(- loss is great! "n this case, the receiver sensitivity #ill decrease dramatically!
,) Chec$ the engineering parameters (including antenna tilt and aimuth angle)
The increase of the antenna tilt or the deviation of the aimuth angle #ill reduce the coverage of
the BTS! Therefore, antennas must be firmly fixed so that they can stand strong #ind and storms!
.) Chec$ the set:top output po#er of the transceiver
-irst you should chec$ if the lines are #ell connected, and then chec$ if the set:top po#er is
normal! "f it not normal, you should replace the problem hard#are!
/) Chec$ if the receiver sensitivity is normal
Chec$ if the coverage distance is shortened by the lo# receiver sensitivity! "n addition, you can
monitor the messages at the Abis interface and find out the relationship bet#een level and bit
error rate! After that, you can get the value of the level #hen the bit error rate is '8! This means,
ho#ever, only applies to the situation that #hen the receiver sensitivity drops dramatically!
1) Chec$ if the parameters affecting the coverage are rationally set
42) Chec$ if the high bac$ noise in the coverage area is caused by interference and poor
electromagnetic environment!
[Coverage $roblem caused b& BS e'$ansion!
"f the coverage of the BTS shrin$s after expansion, in addition to ma$ing the previous chec$s,
you are supposed to chec$ the follo#ing items!
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4) Chec$ if the combiner $eeps the same before and after expansion!
The loss of different combiners varies greatly Therefore, the combiner configuration deserves
special attention during BTS expansion! "f different combiners are a must, you should fully
communicate #ith customers!
') Chec$ if the antennas are rationally selected
Suitable antennas must be selected for pro7ect installation and net#or$ planning so that the best
coverage can be achieved! "t must be pointed out that you should use ero:point filling antenna
or the electrical title antenna #hen the antenna height is great! "n addition, <mni antennas cannot
be #idely used for the large area coverage! "n this case, the coverage problem can be solved by
directional antennas!
)) Chec$ if the installations of the ne#ly:added antennas are %ualified!
5ou should first chec$ if the design of the antenna height, aimuth angle, and antenna tilt is
%ualified! ;enerally, the important coverage areas cannot be barred by to#er! =ean#hile, the
important coverage areas cannot be perpendicular to the diversity direction of the antenna! "n this
case, the antenna diversity effect can be excavated to the maximum! To reduce the coverage
shado# caused by the to#er, you should pay attention to the distance bet#een the antenna and
the to#er! =oreover, the pole of the <mni antenna and the (- part of the antenna cannot be
overlapped!
*) Chec$ the position of the BCC> transmitter antenna!
Since the to#er effect is present, the BCC> transmitter antenna must be installed at a side of the
important coverage area! "n this case, the coverage shado# can be avoided! To prevent the
assignment failure caused by the inconsistence of the BCC> coverage and TC> coverage, you
can use the concentric channel allocation algorithm! "n addition, the important coverage area
cannot be perpendicular to the diversity direction of the antenna!
+) Chec$ if the tilts and the aimuth angles of the directional dual transmitter antennas are
consistent #ith each other!
"f the tilts and aimuth angles of the directional dual transmitter antennas are inconsistent, call
drop, assignment failure, and handover failure #ill easily occur! "n this case, the coverage area of
the BTS #ill become small! "n addition, since the to#er effect is present, the BCC> transmitter
antenna must be installed at a side of the important coverage area! "n this case, the coverage
shado# can be avoided! =oreover, the important coverage area cannot be perpendicular to the
diversity direction of the antenna!
,) Chec$ the set:top output po#er of various T(?s if the scheme for the maximum coverage is
used!
0hen the maximum coverage is pursued, the T(?s are re%uired to be combined in various #ays!
"n this case, the coverage distance of the BCC> #ill be longer than that of the TC>! As a result,
the TC> assignment failure #ill be caused, so the concentric technology is needed! The channel
assignment failure caused by lo# transmit level in the inner circle and the channel congestion in
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the external circle can be avoided if the TA values of the inner circle and the external circle are
correctly set and allocated to the inner circle and external circle according to the right priority!
[Coverage $roblems caused b& BS s%a$ or construction!
4) Chec$ if the aimuth angle and the antenna height are the same before and after the BTS s#ap
"f all the antenna and feeder components are ne#ly constructed, the old BTS can only be
s#apped after the ne# antenna is installed! Therefore, the aimuth angle and the antenna height
may be different from that of the old antenna! "n this case, the coverage area may decrease! As a
result, you should chec$ if the aimuth angle and the antenna height are the same before and
after the base station s#ap!
') Chec$ antenna tilt problems caused by net#or$ s#ap!
;enerally, the tilt must $eep the same! "f you need to control the coverage area due to ne# BTSs
are added to urban areas, you can consider increasing the tilt!
)) Chec$ if the set:top po#er of the s#ap BTS is the same as that of the old BTS!
*) Chec$ if the receiver sensitivity of the BTS is normal!
+) Chec$ if it is the interference or the poor electromagnetic environment that ma$es the bac$
noise of the #hole area too high!
,) Chec$ if any standing #ave alarm message or diversity reception alarm message is generated
for antenna and feeder at the operation and maintenance console!
.) Chec$ the parameters that #ill affect coverage are rationally set!
/) Chec$ if the installation of the antennas is %ualified after the BTS has been enabled or
s#apped!
1) Chec$ if the right type of antenna is selected!
42) Chec$ the position of the BCC> T(? transmitter of the <mni dual transmitter antenna!
44) Chec$ if the tilts and the aimuth angles of the t#o directional antennas $eep the same after
the directional dual transmitter antenna is used!
4') Chec$ if the antennas and feeders of the cell are inversely connected!
4)) Chec$ if the to#er amplifier #or$s normally!
4*) Chec$ the set:top po#er for various T(?s #hen the configuration scheme for the maximum
coverage is pursued!
II. Problems (ffecting Coverage and Solutions
[(ntenna %ater $enetration!
"t is %uite accidental that the #ater penetrates into the antenna! 0ater penetration means that the
#ater enters the (- internal channel! "n this case, the voltage standing #ave ratio of the antenna
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#ill increase@ the antenna loss #ill increase, the coverage area #ill decrease@ or event the po#er
amplifier #ill be disabled!
[(ntenna $assive intermodulation!
The passive intermodulation of the antenna and various connectors #ill cause interference! The
exclusive method can be used for the chec$! That is, you can connect the antenna feeders of the
neighbor cells #here there is no interference to the test cell! "f any problem is found, you should
change the antenna!
[Im$ro$er antenna selection!
;enerally, if the antenna height exceeds +2m and if the first ero point under the main antenna
beam is not filled, the Ashado# under to#erA may occur! That is, the area under the to#er cannot
be covered by signals! "n this case, you should select the antenna #ith ero point filling function!
"f three:sector directional antennas are used for vast coverage, the antennas must have a high
gain and their half po#er angle must be greater than 12 degrees! "f the half po#er angle is small,
the gain of the t#o neighbor sectors #ill be lo#! "n this case, the coverage radius is small!
"f the antenna tilt is great, the all mechanical tilt antenna is not a suitable choice! "n this case, you
should select the fixed Aelectrical tilt B mechanical tiltA antenna or the Acontinuous ad7ustable
electrical tilt (2 to 42 degrees) B mechanical tiltA antenna!
As the fre%uency reuse becomes more aggressive, the front:to:bac$ ratio of the antenna may not
meet the re%uirement of a single BTS or several BTSs! Therefore, you should select the antennas
#ith greater front:to:bac$ ratio!
[o%er effect against )mni antenna radiation!
The to#er effect against <mni antenna radiation deserves enough attention! "t is hard to estimate
the damage of the <mni antenna directional diagram caused by the to#er! The damage varies
greatly #ith the distance bet#een the to#er and the antenna!
"f the antenna is installed on the to#er and metal tube, you should pay special attentions to the
follo#ing items&
: The metal tube and the effect radiation part of the antenna cannot be overlapped!
: Ta$e measures to avoid installing the #hole antenna on the metal tube!
: "f the antenna is installed on the to#er, ma$e sure that the distance bet#een the antenna and the
nearest end of the to#er is greater than , #avelengths!
: The <mni dual transmitter technology is not recommended!
: The antenna must be perpendicular to 4C/ of the half po#er beam #idth at least!
[*irectional antenna installation $roblem!
T#o problems may occur for directional antenna installation&
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: The antenna is inversely or #rongly connected!
: The aimuth angles and the tilts of the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna are
inconsistent and or the error is great!
6ngineering causes are the explanations of the t#o problems! ;enerally, the error scope of the
aimuth angle cannot exceed + degrees, and that of the tilt cannot exceed 2!+ degrees! "f the error
is too great, the coverage of the transit antenna and that of the receiver antenna #ill be different!
"n this case, it is hard to ma$e calls the coverage edges!
: Problems concerning the diversity distance bet#een the transit antenna and the receiver antenna
or the isolation bet#een the antennas and to#er!
The coverage of the antenna #ill be affected if the diversity distance bet#een the transmitter
antenna and the receiver antenna or the isolation bet#een the antennas and the to#er is not great
enough! -or ;S= 122=> system, the diversity distance bet#een the transmitter antenna and
the receiver antenna is re%uired to be greater than *m! -or ;S= 4/22=> system, it is re%uired
to be greater than 'm! The antenna mount must be at least 4!+m a#ay from the to#er!
=ean#hile, the antenna mount must be installed #ithin the *+:dregree protection areas of the
lightening protector!
l: There are shado#s in coverage areas!
0hen installing a directional antenna, you should ma$e sure that there is no shado# #ithin the
coverage area! ;enerally, if there are huge barrier, such as high buildings and mountains, around
the BTS, shado#s may appear! "f you intend install the BTS on the roof of a high building, you
should install it at the edges of the building so as to avoid the shado#! Since the environment
around the roof is %uite complex, the antenna height must be great enough! "n this case, ho#ever,
you should consider the ability of the antenna to stand the #ind and storm!
[)mni antenna installation $roblem!
: The radiator of the <mni antenna is barred by antenna pole!
The coverage #ill be affected if the radiator of the <mni antenna is barred by antenna pole!
;enerally, there is a 7ac$et installed at the bottom of the <mni antenna and the 7ac$et is used to
connect the <mni antenna and the antenna pole! -rom the perspective of installation, the top of
the 7ac$et must be at the same level #ith or higher than the top of the pole@ other#ise the
radiation #ill be affected!
: The problems concerning antenna diversity distance and isolation bet#een antenna and to#er!
"f the antenna diversity distance or the isolation bet#een antenna and to#er is not great enough,
the coverage #ill be poor! "f the antenna diversity distance is too small, it #ill reduce diversity
gain! "n this case, the receiver sensitivity #ill reduce! Though the to#er effect against the <mni
antenna radiation is unavoidable, you can increase the isolation bet#een the antenna and the
to#er to reduce the effect!
"t is suggested that the isolation bet#een the <mni antenna and the to#er is greater than 'm, the
horiontal diversity distance of the 122=> <mni antenna is greater than *m, and the horiontal
diversity distance of the 4/22=> antenna is greater than 'm!
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: The <mni antenna is not perpendicular to the horiontal plane!
"f the <mni antenna is not perpendicular to the horiontal plane, the antenna directional diagram
#ill be distorted in the coverage area! "n this case, the coverage of the antenna #ill be affected!
"t is suggested that installation plane of the antenna mount be perpendicular to the horiontal
plane! "f the mount extends beyond the to#er, ma$e sure that the mount is still in the protection
areas of the lightening protector! ;enerally, the areas *+:dregee under the lightening protector
top is the protection areas!
[Connection $roblems of antenna and feeder, combiner and s$litter, and C*+!
"f various connectors of the antenna and feeder system are not connected according to
re%uirement, the performance of the antenna and feeder system #ill be affected! "n this case, the
coverage area of the BTS #ill also be affected!
: 0ater penetration occurs at the various connectors of the antenna and feeder system!
"f #ater has penetrated into the connector and feeder, the standing #ave ratio #ill increase! "n
this case, the coverage area #ill be affected!
: Darious connectors are not tightened!
"f the connectors for set:top 7umpers, for the cables from T(? boards to combiner and splitter,
and for various (- cables are not tightened, both the reception performance and the transmit
performance of the system #ill decrease! "n this case, the coverage area and the conversation
%uality #ill be affected!
: The transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna are inversely connected due to inconsistent
configuration of the set:top 7umper and data!
: The connection bet#een the 7umper and feeder is not tight, #hich results in high loss and
standing #ave ratio! "n this case, the coverage #ill be affected and interference #ill be caused!
[o%er am$lifier $roblem!
: 0ater penetration #ill increase the loss, deteriorate the standing #ave ratio, and decrease the
receiver sensitivity!
: The damage of the EFA (it is in the to#er amplifier) #ill decrease the gain or even decrease
the gain to a negative value!
: The input end and the output end of the to#er amplifier are inversely connected! "n this case,
the to#er amplifier #ill be short:circuited! "f the short circuit lasts for a long time, the front
module #ill be damaged!
[BS front module $roblem!
: "solator problem
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: 3uplexer and other filter damage
: Standing #ave ratio error alarm
: EFA (lo# noise amplifier) damage
: Eo# T(? or amplifier output po#er
[Parameter configuration $roblem!
The parameters affecting coverage are listed belo#&
: T(? po#er class
: To#er amplifier attenuation coefficient
: =S maximum transmit po#er control po#er
: =S minimum (xlev
: (AC> minimum access threshold
III. Coverage Cases
Case 4& 9se do#n tilt <mni antenna to improve coverage
[Problem descri$tion!
"n a suburban area, the <mni antenna #ith a gain of 44dBi is used for the BTS! This coverage
distance can reach 1$m in plain environment! >o#ever, the coverage in the area near the BTS is
poor! The (xlev in the small to#n /22:4*22m a#ay from the BTS is about :12dBm!
[Problem anal&sis and solution!
<n:site survey sho#s that the antenna height is too great! The height of the to#er on #hich the
antenna is installed +2m! =oreover, the to#er is established on a small mountain, so the to#n is
4'2m belo# the antenna! The first 7udgment is that the phenomenon of Ashado# under to#erA
has been caused!
-urther analysis of the collected data finds that <mni antenna is used for the BTS! The antenna
gain is 44dBi, and the vertical half po#er angel is . degrees! "f the valid antenna height is 4'2m,
the half po#er points of the antenna ma7or lobe are scattered in the area about '222m a#ay from
the BTS! Therefore, this to#n is not in the coverage area of the BTS!
Through chec$ing the fluctuation of the (xlev according to the drive test map, engineers found
that this to#n locates #ithin the radiation area of a ero po#er point of the BTS! >o#ever, the
to#n is too far a#ay from the mountains around, so it cannot get the signals reflected by the
mountains! Therefore, the (xlev in this to#n is %uite slo#!
After having replaced the antenna #ith an <mni antenna #ith + degrees of the do#n tilt angle,
engineers retested the (xlev and found that it increased by 4+:'2 dB in the areas )$m #ithin the
BTS! "n some areas, the (xlev is increased by )2 dB! Therefore, the coverage has been improved
remar$ably!
Case '& "mproper installation of <mni antenna has effect against the coverage
[Problem descri$tion!
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A ne# BTS has been enabled for a local net#or$! 9sers complain that the coverage area become
smaller after that! -or the lo# narro# areas '$m a#ay from the BTS, the (xlev is already lo#er
than :12dBm!
[Problem anal&sis and solution!
Through surveying the environment around the BTS, engineers found that the ma7or transmitter
antenna and the diversity receiver antenna are installed in a plane parallel to the road!
Apparently, this $ind of installation does not meet the criteria!
The correct #ay is to install the ma7or transmitter antenna and the diversity receiver antenna in a
plane perpendicular to the road! "n addition, the ma7or transmitter antenna must be located at one
side of the road!
Case )& "mproper configuration of data causes poor coverage
[Problem descri$tion!
3uring the optimiation for a place@ engineers found that the signals at a section of the road in
the suburban area are %uite poor! The measured (xlev is :1+dBm!
[Cause anal&sis!
This section locates in the suburban area and is about )$m a#ay from the urban area! There is no
abrupt change in terms of landform #ithin this section! Theoretically, the (xlev here should be
about :/2dBm, so the difference bet#een the theoretical (xlev and the measured (xlev is great!
According to the fre%uency s#eep test, the strength of the -a signal is about :1+dBm, and the
strength of the -b signal is about :/2dBm! -or this section, it is covered by three cells of the BTS
A and BTS B that are installed in the urban area (the BCC> fre%uencies are -a and -b)! "n
addition, a cell of the BTS C installed at the remote suburban area also covers the section (the
BCC> fre%uency is -c)!
Through chec$ing data, engineers found that the -b is not included in the neighbor channel
numbers of the A:) cell in the BA4! 0hen the =S moves from the urban area to the suburban
area, it #ill choose A:) cell to camp on, because the -b is not configured in the neighbor channel
numbers! "n this case, the =S cannot reselect the B:) cell to camp on! "n the cell neighbor
relationship list, the A:) cell and B:) cell cannot #or$ as the neighbor cell for each other, and
the -b is not configured in the neighbor channel numbers of the A:) cell listed in BA'!
Therefore, in conversation mode, the =S cannot $eep the conversation in A:) cell! 0hen it
arrives at this section, it cannot hand over to the B:) cell! Therefore, the signals are poor, so is
the voice %uality!
[Solution!
6nable the A:) cell and B:) cell to #or$ as neighbor cell for each other!
Case *& "rrational BTS s#ap affects coverage
[Problem descri$tion!
"n an urban area, a BTS must be s#apped for the building on #hich the BTS #as installed #ere
to be moved! Considering that coverage for the scenic spot '$m a#ay (the scenic spot locates
behind a hill) is poor, so engineers intended to install the BTS on the top of the hill! <n the top of
the cell, the #hole city and the scenic spot can be seen! >o#ever, after the BTS s#ap, userGs
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complaint that there #ere no signals in the indoor environment of the cells nears the site #here
the old BTS #as installed!
[Cause anal&sis!
The buildings of the resident area are densely distributed and the average height is /m! Before
the BTS s#ap, the cell used for this area is only 422m a#ay, and the antenna height is 4+m!
Therefore, the indoor conversation %uality can be guaranteed! After the BTS s#ap, ho#ever, the
cell used this area is 4!/$m a#ay, and the antenna height is )2m! "n this case, the signals are
%uite #ea$ #hen arriving at the bottom of resident area, though the signals falling at the top of
the building is good! To solve this problem, you can only increase the output po#er of the
transmitter antenna or increase the antenna gain! >o#ever, the coverage is still not to usersH
satisfactory even increase the antenna height to )2m! Therefore, #hen s#apping or constructing
a BTS at the densely populated area, you should pay attention to the follo#ing items&
: "t is suggested that the distance bet#een the BTS and the resident area is e%ual to or smaller
than 4+2m, other#ise the coverage for this area #ill become #ea$ dramatically!
: The antenna of the s#apped BTS cannot be too great! "f the BTS is installed among resident
buildings, the antenna height is suggested to be .:42m! "f the BTS is installed beyond the
resident buildings and the buildings are high, you can increase the antenna height accordingly!
: 5ou can solve the problems concerning cross area coverage can through controlling the po#er
class of the BTS, tuning the aimuth angle of the antenna, or tuning the tilt angle of the antenna!
[Solution!
According to on:site survey, engineers found that the indoor signals of this area are too poor to
hold the conversation! This area can be seen clearly from the to#er on #hich the BTS is
installed! The distance bet#een the BTS and the area is only 4!/$m, and bet#een them are vast
farmlands! To solve this problem, you can attempt to tune the aimuth angle and the tilt angle of
the antenna! "f the coverage is not yet improved, you can use the follo#ing methods&
: (eplace the common antenna used for this cell (its gain is 4+dBi) #ith the high:gain antenna
used for the scenic spot (its gain is 4/dBi)
: There are * T(?s in this cell, all in SC9 mode, replace the SC9 mode #ith the dual:C39
mode!
After the above methods are done, the antenna gain for this area can be increased by ,dB! After
the antenna replacement, you need to tune the antenna tilt for the best coverage!
Through retesting the indoor signal level, engineers found that it increased by ,:4'dB! And even
the common =S can $eep normal conversation!
, Interference Problems
"nterference is a $ey factor affecting net#or$ performance, including conversation %uality, call
drop, handover, congestion, and so on!
I. Interference Sources
"n the mobile telecommunication system, #hen the BTS is receiving the signals from a remote
=S, it #ill not only be interfered by other telecommunication e%uipments, but also it #ill be
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interfered by the other BTSs and =Ss #ithin the system!
>ereunder introduces the interference sources affecting the ;S= system!
: "ntra:net#or$ interference!
"f the fre%uencies are improperly planned, or the fre%uency reuse is too aggressive, intra:
fre%uency interference or neighbor cell interference #ill be caused!
: (epeater interference!
At the early stage of net#or$ construction, repeaters are #idely used for extending the coverage
distance of the net#or$! >o#ever, if the repeaters are improperly planned, the net#or$ #ill be
interfered!
"f the repeaters are not installed according to re%uirement, that is, there is not enough isolation
left bet#een the donor antenna and the subscriber antenna, the BTS to #hich the repeaters attach
#ill interfered!
-or the repeaters enabling broadband non:linear amplifier, the intermodulation indexes are far
greater than that re%uired in the protocols! "n this case, the greater the po#er is, the greater the
intermodulation #ill be! Therefore, the BTS near the repeaters #ill be interfered!
: "nterference from other big:po#er telecommunication e%uipments!
These e%uipments include radar, analog BTS, and other telecommunication e%uipments using the
same band!
: >ard#are problems
T(? problem& "f the performance of the T(? decreases, the system may be interfered!
C39 problem or splitter problem& Active amplifier is used in the C39 splitter and splitter
module! 0hen any problem occurs, the system may also be interfered!
Stray and intermodulation& "f the out:band stray of the po#er amplifier or the T(? of the BTS
go beyond re%uirement, or the isolation of the transmission and the reception of the C39
duplexer is too small, the connection channel #ill be interfered! =ean#hile, the passive
e%uipments, such as the feeder and the antenna, #ill generate intermodulation!
II. Interference Positioning and -limination
[Positioning and elimination $rocedure!
4) -ind out the interference cell according to IP"
"f the call drop rate, handover success rate, traffic volume, congestion rate, and interference band
of a cell deteriorate to a bad level abruptly, it means that interference may exist in the cell!
"n this case, you can also chec$ the historical record of operations made in this cell! -or example,
chec$ if the hard#are and soft#are of the BTS has been added or increased and if the data of the
BTS has been modified! ;enerally, the appearance of interference is related to these operations!
"f these parameters are not ad7usted, the interference may be from the hard#are itself out outside
factors! "n this case, you are suggested to chec$ if it is hard#are problem! "f it is not, you should
chec$ outside factors!
') Chec$ <=C alarm!
Sometimes high call drop rate, lo# handover success rate, and high congestion rate may be
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related to e%uipment problems! "n this case, you can chec$ <=C alarm records! These records
are related to the deterioration of these indexes!
)) Chec$ fre%uency planning!
"f the interference is doubt in a cell, you can chec$ the fre%uency planning for the cell and the
neighbor cells of the cell! -or this chec$, you are re%uired to ma$e clear the distribution of the
antennas, find out the aimuth angle of each cell, dra# the topology, and mar$ the BCC>CTC>
channel numbers! =ean#hile, you are also re%uired to compare the planned channel numbers
#ith the configured channel numbers in the BSC!
According to the accurate fre%uency planning topology, you can ma$e sure if the intra:fre%uency
interference or neighbor fre%uency interference is present in the net#or$!
*) Chec$ cell parameter configuration!
The cell parameters, such as C(<, threshold, handover duration, neighbor cell relationship, and
so on, may have interference against the system!
"f the C(< is set to a great value, the =S may be guided to an idle cell #hose level is lo#er than
its surrounding cells! <nce the conversation is started but the CC" cannot meet the threshold
re%uirement (4'dB), interference #ill be caused!
"f neighbor cells are missing, the =S cannot hand over to a cell #ith better signal level and
%uality! "n this case, the interference #ill also be generated! "f the handover threshold and the
PCF are too great, the handovers bet#een cells are unavailable! "f the PCF is too small, ho#ever,
it #ill result in fre%uent handover! "n this case, both the call drop rate and the system load #ill be
increased!
+) 3rive test
3rive test is an effective method to position the interference! There are t#o drive test methods&
idle mode test and dedicated mode test!
-or idle mode test, the test e%uipment can test the signal level of both the signal level and the
neighbor cells! "n addition, the test e%uipment can also perform the fre%uency s#eep test for the
designate channel numbers or bands! "n this case, the interference caused by cross:cell coverage
signals can be discovered!
-or dedicated mode test, the test e%uipments can test the signal level of the service cell and
neighbor cells, the (x%ual, the TA, and so on! "f the (xlev is e%ual to or greater then :/2dBm
and the (x%ual is e%ual to or greater than , in an area, it can be confirmed that the interference
exists in the area! Some test e%uipment can display the -6( (frame error rate)! ;enerally, if the
-6( is greater or e%ual to '+8, the conversation #ill not be continuous! That is, the interference
exists!
,) "nterference elimination
5ou can eliminate the interference according to the above chec$ed results, and then evaluate the
elimination through IP" and drive test!
[.ard%are $roblem $ositioning and elimination!
0hen the interference is doubted in a cell, you should first chec$ if the BTS #here the cell
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locates #or$s normally! "n the remote end, you should chec$ if there is antenna alarm, T(?
alarm, or BTS cloc$ alarm generated! "n the near end, you should chec$ if there is antenna
problem, #ater penetration, feeder (7umper) damage, CP9 problem, T(? problem, #rong
7umper connection or cloc$ problem occurred!
: Antenna performance decline
Antenna a passive component and its damage probability is small! >o#ever, if the antenna is
damaged or its performance declines, the voice %uality #ill become poor!
: Antenna connector problem
;S= (- signals are micro #ave signals! "f the connections bet#een T(?, C39, feeder, and
antenna have any problem, both the standing #ave ratio and the intermodulation #ill increase! "n
this case, the interference #ill be resulted!
: "nverse antenna connection!
The inverse antenna connection is a commonly seen problem! "f the antenna is inversely
connected, the channel numbers used by the cell and the planned channel numbers are
completely inconsistent! "n this case, intra:fre%uency interference, inter:fre%uency interference,
and handover difficulty #ill be resulted! 6specially for the net#or$s that have inade%uate
fre%uency resource, the inverse antenna connection has great effect against net#or$ %uality!
: Jumper problem!
=any 7umpers locate bet#een antennas, so they are often #rongly connected! "n this case, high
call drop rate #ill be resulted!
: T(? problem!
"f T(? problems occur, the interference #ill increase, the coverage distance area #ill decrease,
and the access is difficult!
: Cloc$ failure!
"f the cloc$ deviation is too great, it is hard for the =S to loc$ the fre%uencies of the BTS, so the
handover failure al#ays occurs, or the =S cannot camp on any cell of the BTS! "n addition, if
the cloc$ deviation is too great, the BTS cannot understand the signals of the BTS, #hich #ill
result in bit errors! >o#ever, the cloc$ failure #ill not really introduce interference, but it is the
transmission errors that ma$e the voice %uality decrease!
: Conclusion
Any problem concerning the T(?, C39, feeder, antenna, 7umper, and connector may cause
interference or call drop! Therefore, if interference appears, you should chec$ the hard#are of
the BTS! "n addition, BTS cloc$ failure #ill also cause interference and call drop!
"t is easy to solve the hard#are problems through changing the boards or ad7usting traffic data! "f
there is spectrum analyer available, you can position the problem more efficiently! 6specially
#hen the interference appears #ithout any modification of net#or$ data, you should focus on
chec$ing the hard#are!
[Intra/0et%or# Interference!
The intra:net#or$ interference is mainly from intra:fre%uency interference and neighbor cell
interference! 0hen CC" is smaller than 4'dB or the CCA is smaller than :,dB, the interference is
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unavoidable! >o#ever, the aggressive fre%uency reuse technology #ill increase of the
occurrence probability of interference!
: Same:fre%uency and neighbor fre%uency interference
"n ;S= system, the fre%uency reuse is unavoidable! 0hen the fre%uency reuse distance of t#o
cells using the same fre%uency is smaller than cell radius, same:fre%uency interference #ill be
easily caused! Past experiences sho# that the fre%uency reuse must be avoided in many cases!
The interference against the uplin$ channel numbers can be 7udged by the interference band data
in the traffic statistics!
-or the interference against the do#nlin$ channel numbers, the existing drive test e%uipments
can be indirectly used to measure if the same:fre%uency interference is present! -irst you should
loc$ the test =S in the service cell and enable ma$e the =S #or$ in conversation mode during
drive test! "f you find that the (xlev in an area is high but the (x%ual is lo#, it is li$ely that the
same:fre%uency is present in this area!
: "nterference caused by cross coverage!
"n a properly designed net#or$, each cell covers the areas around the BTS only and the =S
camps on or holds conversation in the nearest cell! Cross coverage means that the coverage of a
cell is too large and the cell can cover the areas under the control of other BTSs! "f cross
coverage occurs, irrational traffic absorption, interference, call drop, congestion, and handover
failure may arise!
: "nterference caused by aggressive fre%uency reuse
Capacity and %uality al#ays contradicts to each other! "n urban areas, the aggressive fre%uency
reuse technology must be used for the number of subscribers in urban areas are great! "n this
case, the net#or$ %uality #ill surely decrease! "n the areas #here BTSs are irrationally
distributed, the aggressive fre%uency reuse technology may cause the collision of same
fre%uency and neighbor fre%uencies!
: "nterference caused by repeater
"t is convenient to use repeater for special coverage! >o#ever, if a repeater is not %ualified or it
is not properly installed, it #ill cause interference!
: "nterference caused by outside environment!
<utside environment, such as TD station, big:po#er radio station, micro #ave, radar, high
voltage #ire, analog BTS, and so on, #ill cause interference!
III. Interference Cases
Case 4& "nterference cause by antenna performance decline
[Problem descri$tion!
There are + BTSs in a county! The configuration type is S*C*C* or S,C,C,! The interference band
+ reaches 4+ according to the TC> performance measurement of the most cells! There is no
alarm found at the <=C!
[Problem $ositioning and solution!
4) Through monitoring and registering the interference band traffic statistics for the problem
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cells all day, engineers found that the interference band + mostly appeared at day time, and it
seldom appeared at early morning!
') Through sending the idle B9(STS of all the BTSs, engineers found that the interference
bands of these cells appeared in the early morning! "f the sending of these idle B9(STS stopped,
these interference bands disappeared! Therefore, it can be proved that the interference came from
the net#or$! "t is not related to other telecommunication e%uipments!
)) The fre%uencies and other data #ere not ad7usted before the interference appeared, so the
interference is not related to the fre%uency planning!
*) Through surveying the (?= test interface of the C39 using the spectrum analyer during the
traffic pea$ at day time, engineers found that the broadband interference #as strong and the bac$
noise #as rising!
+) There #as no interference in one cell, but the interference in another t#o cells #as strong!
Through replacing the antenna feeder of the cell #ith no interference #ith the antenna feeders of
the cells #ith interference and sending idle B9(STS, engineers found that the interference #ent
#ith the antenna feeder! Therefore, it can be decided that the problem occurred at the antenna
and feeder system!
,) Through changing the antenna, engineers found that the interference #ent #ith the antenna!
Therefore, the problem is li$ely present at the antenna!
.) Through replacing the antenna #ith dual polariation antenna, engineers found that the strong
interference disappeared immediately! Through replacing the old antenna of another BTS #ith a
ne# one, engineers found that the interference also disappeared!
Case ,: Call dro$ caused b& intra/net%or# interference
[Problem descri$tion!
Customers in a place complaint that call drop happen fre%uently!
[Problem anal&sis and solution!
4) Through a careful test, engineers found that there #ere 4' channel numbers gathering at the
call drop spot and (xlev reached :.)dBm! 0hen the =S seied channel number 44, the
interference from channel number 44' caused the call drop!
') Through testing the C;" of channel number 4' using test =S, engineers found that this
channel number #as one of the BCC> number of 3)!
)) Through surveying BTS 3, engineers found that the antenna of 3) is installed at the top of a
building! "n addition, a house made of glass #as found /m a#ay and *m under the antenna!
6ngineers tested that the signal strength near the antenna #as about :*+dBm, and the signal
strength at near the glass #as :)2dBm, #hich #as beyond the expectation of engineers! "n fact,
the cause #as that the signals reflected by the glass #ere reflected to the call drop spot!
*) "t is suggested to change the antenna installation place and channel number! 5ou should
interchange the channel number 444 and channel number 44* of BTS A and increase the do#n
tilt angle of A) cell! "n addition, to avoid the interference caused by channel number 444 after
the interchange, you should ad7ust the direction of channel number 44) of C4 cell!
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+) Test sho#s that everything is normal after the ad7ustment! The channel number 44) of BTS C
has no effect against channel number 44*! And the call drop disappears!
Case 1: Interference caused b& re$eater
[Problem descri$tion!
9sers in an area complaint that the =S cannot seie a channel to hold conversation, or the noise
is great after channel seiure and the channel and the =S signal is strong! T#o BTSs are
installed in this area! The antenna aimuth angle of cell4 rightly directs to the north! Before user
complaint, the BTS in this area ran normally and the net#or$ indexes met the re%uirement! After
the problem arisen, the traffic volume of the t#o BTSs dropped sharply from the perspective of
traffic statistics indexes! "n addition, the traffic volume of cell4 and cell) also dropped sharply!
Though the signals for the conversation #ere strong, the voice %uality #as %uite poor! According
to traffic statistics, the interference bands of the four cells #ere of level ), level *, and level +,
and 1+8 of the channels #ere interfered! "n addition, other channels #ere interfered to some
extent! >o#ever, no alarm messages #ere generated at the <=C!
[Problem anal&sis and solution!
4) According to user feedbac$s, the possible reasons include transmission problem, antenna
feeder problem, hard#are problem, intra:net#or$ interference, and outside interference!
') The uplin$ interference signals in the north#est direction might strong! Therefore, cell4, cell',
and cell) of the t#o BTSs #ere interfered, in #hich cell4 and the cell) #ere seriously interfered!
)) Through on:site dialing test, engineers found that it #as hard to ma$e calls in the areas
covered by cell4 and cell)! 6ven if a call #as put through, the voice %uality #as %uite poor! "n
addition, the voice #as discontinuous and the interference #as strong! Through using =S to call
a fixed phone, engineers found it #as hard to hear the voice clearly! <n the contrary, they could
hear the voice from the fixed phone clearly! This has proved the above analysis! That is, the
interference might be from the outside, or the standing #ave problem #as occurring at the
antenna (from this perspective, it can be 7udged that the interference existed on the uplin$ only)!
*) Through using antenna feeder analyer to perform on:site test, engineers found no problem
#as existing at any BTS! A ne# repeater #as found in this area, and it #as located t#o
$ilometers a#ay from the BTS in the north#est direction! =oreover, the interference appeared
7ust #hen the repeater #as enabled! <n:site test found that the BTS became normal state once
the repeater shut do#n, and the interference bands also became normal, so did the call! "f the
repeater #as enabled, ho#ever, it #as hard to ma$e calls and the interference #as strong! At last,
the agreement to shut do#n the repeater #as reached! After that, the conversation became
normal!
Case 2: Micro%ave interference
[Problem descri$tion!
3uring net#or$ maintenance, through analying BSC traffic statistics, engineers found that the
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call drop rate of the cell' and cell) of a S'C'C' BTS arisen abruptly, and the value even reached
'28 at some time!
KProblem analysis and solutionL
4) Through chec$ing BSC traffic statistics, engineers found that the number of idle TC>s #as
increasing at the interference bands ):+ around /&)2! Around 42&22, the idle TC>s #ere found at
the interference band * and interference band +! Around ''&22, the idle TC>s #ere found at the
interference band 4! Therefore, it could be 7udged that the interference existed!
') Because the BTS ran normally, the problems cannot be related to fre%uency planning!
)) According to the T(? management messages, engineers found that the interference existed at
the four boards of the cell' and cell) of the BTS! Because the probability for the four boards to
be damaged simultaneously is %uite small, the T(? problem can be excluded! >o#ever, one
board #as changed in case of abnormal conditions, but the interference #as not eliminated!
*) Through chec$ing all the BSC traffic statistics data, engineers found that cells of the BTSs
near the BTS and the cells of the cell' and cell) of the BTS #ere interfered to some extent! "n
addition, engineers also found that the S3CC>s (4, S3CC>s in total) of the seriously:affected
cells #ere seied at sometimes! >o#ever, the number of subscribers determined that the
probability for all the S3CC>s to be seied simultaneously is %uite small! Therefore, it could be
7udged that the uplin$ #as interfered by outside factors! >o#ever, the interference might be
related to direction only!
+) To further position the problem, engineers interchanged the 7umpers of cell4 and cell) at the
set top! "n this case, the interference #as found at cell4, but the interference #as disappearing
from cell)! Therefore, the interference #as not related to channel number!
,) Because the interference #as not related to channel number, it might be the big:po#er signals
that caused the interference!
.) Through using the spectrum analyer to perform the measurement at the output interface of
the BTS splitter, engineers found that the big:po#er signals existed at the 12*=> channel
number (it has an interval of += bet#een the used channel number! -or the BTS #here the
interference #as strong, the signal level can reach as high as about :'+dBm! -or other BTSs, the
signal level #as about :+2dBm! Therefore, it could be 7udged that it #as this signal that affected
the BTS!
/) Through using the spectrum analyer to scan the areas near the BTS, engineers found that
there #as a micro#ave antenna outputting big:po#er at the channel number 12*!
1) The interference disappeared after the micro#ave e%uipment #as shut do#n!
1 Call *ro$ Problems
-or the ;S= net#or$, call drop is usersH ma7or #orry and the call drop rate is an important index
evaluating net#or$ %uality!
I. Call *ro$ Reasons and Solutions
i3 Call dro$ due to coverage reasons
[Reason anal&sis!
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: 3iscontinuous coverage (dead one)
-or a single BTS, the %uality of the signals at the edge of the station is %uite poor, so the =S
cannot hand over to another cell! "n this case, the call drop occurs!
"f the landform of the coverage areas is complex or fluctuates greatly, or the radio transmission
environment is complex, the signals #ill be barred! "n this case, the coverage is discontinuous
and call drop #ill occur!
: Poor indoor coverage!
"f the buildings in an area are densely populated, the signal attenuation is great! And if the #alls
of the buildings are thic$, the penetration loss is great and the indoor signal level is lo#! "n this
case, the call drop may easily occur!
: "solated island effect
As sho#n in -igure /:4), the service cell forms an isolated island due to various reasons (for
example, the po#er is too great)! "n this case, the =S still seies the signals of the service cell A
after moving to cell C, but the cell A does not define the neighbor cell C! At this time, if the =S
still performs the handover according to the neighbor cell B provided by neighbor cell A, it
cannot find a suitable cell! "n this case, the call drop #ill occur!
: Small coverage!
"f the coverage is too small, the hard#are e%uipment of a cell may fail! -or example, the antenna
is barred or the T(? failure occurs (the po#er amplifier part)!
[4udgment methods!
-irst you should find out the areas #here the coverage is inade%uate according to user
complaints, and then you should perform the drive test in a larger scope to chec$ if the signal
level and the handover are normal and if the call drop exists! "n addition, you can employ the
traffic statistics recorded at the <=C to chec$ the BSC overall call drop rate and find out the cell
#ith great call drop rate! -urthermore, you can still ma$e the analysis and 7udgment by referring
to other traffic statistics items! >ereunder lists some ones&
: Po#er control performance measurement (to chec$ if the mean uplin$ and do#nlin$ signal
strength is too lo#)
: (xlev performance measurement (to chec$ if the ratio of the lo# (xlev is too great)
: Cell performance measurementCinter:cell handover performance measurement (to chec$ if the
level class and the mean (xlev are too lo#)
: Call drop performance measurement (to chec$ if the signal level is too lo# during call drop and
if the TA value is normal before call drop)
: 3efined neighbor cell performance measurement (to position the cell #ith lo# mean signal
level)
: 9ndefined neighbor cell performance measurement (to chec$ if the undefined neighbor cells
#ith high signal level exist)
: Po#er control performance measurement (to measure the greatest TA value bet#een the =S
and BTS)
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[Solutions!
4) Chec$ the areas #here the coverage is inade%uate
5ou can find out the area #here the coverage is inade%uate through drive test! -or an isolated
BTS or the BTSs installed in mountain areas that cannot form seamless coverage, you can add
BTSs to these areas for seamless coverage! <r you can improve the coverage through other
means! -or example, you can enhance the maximum transmit po#er of the BTS, change the
antenna aimuth angle, change the antenna tilt, change the antenna height, and so on! "n addition,
you should also analye if the call drop is caused by landforms! ;enerally, call drop can easily
occur at tunnels, big shopping mar$et, underground rail#ay entrance, underground par$ing lot,
and lo#:lying places! "n this case, you can use the micro cell to solve the coverage problem!
') 6nsure indoor call %uality!
To ensure indoor call %uality, you should ma$e sure that the outdoor signals are strong enough!
To strength the outdoor signals, you can increase the maximum BTS transmit po#er, change the
antenna aimuth angle, change the antenna tilt angle, and change the antenna height, and so on!
"f the indoor call %uality is still not improved remar$ably, you can consider adding BTSs! -or
improving the indoor coverage of office buildings and hotels, you can consider using the indoor
antenna distribution system!
)) -or the cells having no neighbor cells, you can configure the neighbor cells for the cell so as
to reduce the call drop rate! To eliminate the isolation island effect, you can reduce the tilt angle
of the BTS!
*) 6liminate hard#are problems!
5ou can chec$ if there are hard#are problems and if the coverage area is too small through drive
test! "f the call drop rate of a cell arises dramatically but all other indexes are normal, you should
chec$ if the neighbor cells of this cell #or$ normally! (;enerally, the do#nlin$ problems may
occur! -or example, T(? problem, diversity unit problem, and antenna problem are commonly
seen! "f the uplin$ fails, the outgoing handover failure rate of the old cell #ill be high!)
ii3 Call dro$ due to handover reasons
[Reason anal&sis!
: "rrational parameter configuration
"f the signal level at the cross:area of t#o cells is %uite lo#, the level of the handover candidate
cell is too lo#, and if the handover threshold is too lo#, some =Ss #ill hand over to the
neighbor cell #hen the signal level of the neighbor cell is higher than that of the service cell! "f
the signal level of the neighbor cell deteriorates dramatically 7ust after the handover, the call drop
#ill occur if no suitable cell is available for the handover!
: "ncomplete neighbor cell definition!
"f the neighbor cell definition is incomplete, the =S #ill hold the conversation in the existing
cells until it moves beyond the edges of the cell but cannot hand over to a stronger cell! "n this
case, the call drop #ill occur!
: Feighbor cells #ith same BCC> and same BS"C exist!
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: Traffic congestion!
"f the traffic is unbalance, no TC> #ill be available in the target cell! "n this case, the handover
failure #ill occur!
: BTS cloc$ lost synchroniation!
"f the BTS lost synchroniation, the fre%uency offset #ill go beyond the re%uirement! "n this
case, the call drop #ill occur if handover fails!
: T)42) expiry
The T)42) #ill be started #hen the net#or$ sends a handover command! 9pon the reception of
the message to complete the handover or the message to remove the command, the T)42) #ill
stop! T)42) is used to hold the channel long enough for the =S to return to the old channel! "f
the T)42) is set to a too small value, the =S cannot necessarily return to the old channel! "n this
case, call drop may occur during handover!
[4udgment methods!
5ou can 7udge if the cells #ith lo# handover success rate, fre%uent re:establishment failures, and
high call drop rate through analying traffic statistics indexes! After the 7udgment, you can find
out #hat causes the handover! -or example, the uplin$ and do#nlin$ (xlev can cause the
handover@ the uplin$ and do#nlin$ (x%ual can cause the handover@ po#er budget can cause
handover@ call direct retry can cause handover@ and also handover can be initiated by traffic
reasons!
To chec$ if the BTS cloc$ runs normally, you can chec$ if the any alarm is generated for the
BTS cloc$! "f necessary, you must correct the BTS cloc$ to eliminate cloc$ problem! 5ou can
chec$ if there is handover problem through drive test! "f there is a problem cell, you should
perform drive near the cell for several times! >ereunder lists the indexes concerning call drop&
: "nter:cell handover performance measurement (fre%uent handover failures, fre%uent re:
establishment failures)
: "nter:cell handover performance measurement (fre%uent handovers, high re:establishment rate)
: 9ndefined neighbor cell performance measurement (the undefined neighbor cell level and the
number of measurement report go beyond the standard)
: <utgoing cell handover performance measurement (find out the reasons for lo# outgoing cell
handover from the handover target cell)
: Eo# incoming cell handover success rate@ the cell handover parameters are improperly set@ the
target cell is congested!
: TC> performance measurement (the handover times are not proportional to the TC> call
seiure successes@ the handover happens too fre%uent)
[Solution!
4) Chec$ the parameters affecting the handover! -or example, you can chec$ the hierarchical and
level setting, each handover threshold, each handover hysteresis, handover time, handover
duration, the minimum access level of the handover candidate cell, and so on!
') "f the call drop is caused by unbalance traffic volume or if the call drop occurs due to no
handover channel is available at the target BTS, you can solve the problem by ad7usting the
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traffic volume! -or example, you can ad7ust the pro7ect parameters, such as antenna tilt and
antenna aimuth angle, to control the coverage scope of a cell! To balance the traffic volume,
you can use C(< to guide the =S to camp on other idle cells, or you can set the hierarchical and
level priority to guide the =S to hand over to the idle cell! "n addition, you can solve the problem
by expanding the T(? directly!
)) Calibrate the problem BTS cloc$ to enable the synchroniation of the cloc$!
iii3 Call dro$ due to interference reasons
[Reason anal&sis!
"f the =S receives strong same:fre%uency interference signals or strong neighbor fre%uency
interference signals in the service cell, the bit error rate #ill deteriorate! "n this case, the =S
cannot demodulate the BS"C code of the neighbor cells accurately, or it cannot receive the
measurement report from the =S correctly! As a result, the conversation #ill be interfered, the
call %uality #ill become poor, and call drop #ill occur!
[4udgment methods!
The interference may be from the net#or$ itself or the outside net#or$, or it may exist in the
uplin$ signals or do#nlin$ signals! The follo#ing methods can be used to position the
interference!
: -ind out the cells might be interfered through chec$ing traffic statistics!
: Perform the call drive test for the areas that might be interfered and chec$ the uplin$ and
do#nlin$ interference according to user complaint! 5ou can find out if there is a place #here the
signal is strong but the call %uality is poor through drive test tools! "n addition, you can use a test
=S to perform dialing test to chec$ if a channel number is interfered!
: Chec$ the fre%uency planning to see if same:fre%uency interference and neighbor fre%uency
interference occur in the area #here the fre%uency is improperly planned!
: Ad7ust the channel numbers that might be interfered to see if the interference can be avoided or
reduced!
: 6xclude the interference caused by e%uipment!
: "f the previous methods fail to eliminate the interference, you can use the spectrum analyer to
scan the fre%uencies to find out the interfered channel number and the interference source!
>ereunder lists several traffic statistics indexes used for interference analysis&
: "nterference band
5ou can chec$ the uplin$ interference through analying the interference band in the traffic
statistics! "f an idle channel appears at the interference bands ):+, the interference is present! "f it
is intra:net#or$ interference, it #ill increase as the traffic volume gro#s! ;enerally, if it is
outside interference, it is not related to traffic volume! "t must be pointed out that the interference
bands are reported to the BSC by the BTS T(? channel (#hen in idle mode) through (-
resource indication messages! "f the current channel is busy and cannot report (- resource
indication message, you must consider the traffic volume for the measuring the interference
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bands!
: (xlev performance measurement
The (xlev performance measurement provides the matrix relationship bet#een the signal level
and %uality! "f the signal level is high but the %uality is poor, it means that the interference (same:
fre%uency interference, intra:fre%uency interference, and outside interference) is present at the
channel numbers of the T(? board!
: Poor %uality handover ratio!
The cell performance measurement, inter:cell handover performance measurement, or the
outgoing cell handover performance measurement records the outgoing handover attempt times!
"f the fre%uent handover is caused by poor signal %uality, it means that the interference is present!
: (x%ual performance measurement!
"t is related to the mean (xlev and (x%ual during call drop!
: Call drop performance measurement!
"t records the mean (xlev and (x%ual during call drop!
: -re%uent handover failures and fre%uent re:establishment failures
"t means that the interference may be present in the target cell!
[Solutions!
4) Chec$ the interfered road and the distribution of signal %uality through dive test! As far as the
actual conditions are concerned, you can ad7ust the BTS transmit po#er and antenna tilt of the
related cells or ad7ust the channel number planning to avoid the interference!
') 9se 3T? technology, fre%uency hopping technology, po#er control, and diversity
technology! These technologies can be used to reduce the system noise and enhance anti:
interference capacity of the system! 3T? is divided into uplin$ 3T? and do#nlin$ 3T?! "n this
case, the transmit time can be reduced and the interference level of the system can also be
reduced! >o#ever, you should ad7ust the 3T? according to the actual radio environment and the
neighbor cell relationship! 0hen signals received by the =S are poor, the use of the 3T? #ill
result in call drop! "f the do#nlin$ 3T? is enabled, the BTS #ill increase itGs transmit po#er
after the call is established! 3uring the conversation, ho#ever, the BTS #ill reduce itGs transmit
po#er! "n this case, the interference against other BTSs #ill be reduced! "f the interference is
present near the BTS, the do#nlin$ 3T? #ill deteriorate the conversation %uality! 0hen the
BTS reduces itGs transmit po#er, the conversation %uality #ill decrease or the call drop may even
occur in the areas #here the (xlev is lo# but the interference signal is strong!
)) Solve the e%uipment problems, such as the self:excitation of T(? boards and the antenna
demodulation interference!
*) 6xclude the outside interference!
iv3 Call dro$ due to antenna feeder reasons
[Reason anal&sis!
: 6ngineering problem may be one of the reasons! -or example, if the transmit antennas bet#een
t#o cells are inversely connected, the level of the uplin$ signal #ill be far poorer than that of the
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do#nlin$ signal! "n this case, the call drop, one:#ay audio, and call difficulty #ill be found in
the areas far a#ay from the base station!
: "f polariation antennas are used, a cell had t#o sets of antennas! "f the tilt angles of the t#o
antennas are inconsistent #ith each other, the call drop #ill occur!
"f a directional cell has a master antenna and a diversity antenna, the BCC> and the S3CC> of
the cell may be transmitted through the t#o antennas respectively! "f the tilt angles of the t#o
antennas are different, the coverage scope of the t#o antennas #ill be different! "n this case, the
=S can receive BCC> signals but cannot seie the S3CC> #hen starting a call! Thus the call
drop is resulted!
: "f the aimuth angles of the t#o antennas are inconsistent #ith each other, call drop may also
occur! That is, the =S can receive the S3CC> signals, but it may be assigned #ith the TC>! "n
this case, the call drop #ill occur!
: The problems concerning antenna feeder #ill also cause call drop! -or example, if the antenna
is damaged, or #ater penetrates into the antenna, or connector problem is present, the transmitter
po#er and the receiver sensitivity #ill decrease! "n this case, the call drop #ill occur! To confirm
the problem, you can chec$ the standing #ave ratio!
[Problem $ositioning and solution!
4) Chec$ if any alarm concerning the combiner, C39, to#er amplifier, and standing #ave is
generated and chec$ if the BTS boards are normal in the <=C!
') Analye if the path balance is realied according to traffic statistics!
)) -urther analye if the path balance is realied through monitoring the messages sent across the
Abis interface!
*) Perform drive test and dialing test! 3uring drive test, you can chec$ if the BCC> numbers of
the service cell are consistent #ith the planned ones, namely, if the transmit antenna of the
antenna is correctly installed!
+) Chec$ and test the on:site BTSs! >ere the installation of the aimuth angle and the tilt angle of
the antenna must be chec$ed! "n addition, you should also chec$ if the feeder and 7umper are
correctly connected, if there is connector problem, and if the feeder is damaged! -urthermore,
you must still chec$ if the standing #ave is normal!
,) Judge if it is BTS hard#are that causes path unbalance and call drop! To solve hard#are
problem, you can either change the components that may have problems or disable other T(?s
in the cell! To find out the problem T(?, you can position the problem through dialing test!
<nce a problem hard#are component is found, you must replace it #ith a sound one! "f no sound
one is available, you must shut do#n the problem hard#are component to prevent it from
affecting net#or$ %uality!
>ereunder lists several traffic statistics items for path balance analysis&
: Path balance measurement (to analye if the path balance is realied)
: Call drop performance measurement (to analye the uplin$ and do#nlin$ level and %uality
during call drop)
: Po#er control performance measurement (to analye mean (xlev on the uplin$ and do#nlin$)
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v3 Call dro$ due to transmission reasons
"f the transmission %uality across the Abis interface and A:interface may be not good and stable,
call drop may occur! The follo#ing methods can be used to solve the problem&
4) Chec$ the transmission alarm and board alarm and analye if there is transmission intermittent
and board failure!
') Chec$ the transmission channel, test the bit error rate, chec$ '= connectors, and chec$ if the
e%uipment grounding is rational to ensure stable transmission %uality and reduce call drop rate!
)) Chec$ the traffic statistics to see if the fre%uent call drop is caused by transmission problems!
6specially you should chec$ TC> performance measurement, because it can indicate if the A:
interface failures during TC> seiure is normal, if the TC> utiliation is normal, and if the
ground lin$ call drop times are great!
vi3 Call dro$ due to $arameter reasons
>ere you should focus on chec$ing if the parameters related to call drop are irrationally set! "f
the follo#ing parameters are not irrationally set, the call drop may be resulted!
: (adio lin$ failure counter!
This parameter acts on the do#nlin$! 0hen the =S fails to decode the SACC>, it #ill use this
parameter to decide #hen to disconnect the call! "f this parameter is set to a too small value, the
radio lin$ failures #ill easily occur and cause call drop! -or dead ones or the areas #here the
call drop fre%uently happens, you are recommended to set this parameter to a greater value!
0hen changing the radio lin$ failure counter, you should change the corresponding T)421! The
T)421 must be set to a value great enough for the =S to detect a radio lin$ failure! -or example,
if the value of the radio lin$ failure counter is 4, (about / seconds), the value of T)421 must be
greater than / seconds (you can set T)421 to 1 seconds or 42 seconds)!
: SACC> multiframe number!
This parameter acts on the uplin$! The BTS uses this parameter to notify the radio lin$
connection failure message to BSS! The BSS side 7udges the radio lin$ failure according to the
bit error rate on the uplin$ SACC>! "f this parameter is set to a too small value, the radio lin$
failure #ill happen fre%uently and the call drop rate #ill be resulted!
: Access control parameters!
The access control parameters include the =inimum (AC> (xlev, (AC> busy threshold, and
so on! "f the access control parameters are irrationally set, the call drop #ill be easily resulted!
: T)424, T)42.
T)424 is started #hen the BSC sends a C>AFF6E ACT"DAT6 message to the BTS! "t stops
#hen an 6STABE"S> "F3"CAT"<F message is received! This timer monitors the immediate
assignment procedure! "f T)424 expires, the allocated channels #ill be removed!
T)42. is started #hen the BSC sends an ASS";F=6FT C<==AF3 message to the BTS!
<nce the BSC receives the ASS";F=6FT C<=PE6T6 message from the BTS, this timer #ill
reset! T)42. is used to hold the channels long enough so that the =S can return to the old
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channel! <r it can also be used by the =S to release a channel!
"f the t#o timers are set to a too small value, the system #ill not have enough time to send the
ASS";F=6FT C<=PE6T6 message to the BSC! "n this case, the call drop #ill occur if the
timer expires!
: T'22@ F'22
T'22 is an important timer used for the EAP3m (Ein$ Access Procedure on the 3m channel)! "t
prevents the deadloc$ from occurring #hen the data is transferred across the data lin$ layer! "n
;S= system, the messages transferred across radio interfaces can be divided into t#o types& the
messages needing opposite ac$no#ledgement and the messages not needing opposite
ac$no#ledgement!
-or the messages needing opposite ac$no#ledgement, a T'22 must be started once the message
is sent! "f the opposite ac$no#ledgement is not received after a period of time, the message
should be retransmitted! "n this case, the timer must be restarted! "f the retransmission times
exceed the maximum allo#ed times, the message #ill no longer be retransmitted and the lin$
#ill be released! That is, this call drops! F'22 is the maximum retransmission times allo#ed!
T'22 and F'22 have different types depending on channel types (TC> full rate, TC> half rate,
and S3CC>) and service types (signaling and messages)! The given channel type and service
type matches a pair of T'22 and F'22!
The call drop rate can be reduced if the message is retransmitted as early as possible before the
opposite ac$no#ledgement is received! That is, the value of T'22 must be set as small as
possible and the value of F'22 must be set as great as possible! >o#ever, the T'22 cannot be set
to a too small value and the F'22 cannot be set to a too large value! "f the opposite party has
ac$no#ledged that the lin$ had been removed, the retransmission #ill ma$e nonsense!
Therefore, to reduce the call drop rate, you can ad7ust the T'22 and F'22 according to actual
radio conditions!
II. Call *ro$ Cases
Case 5: Call dro$ caused b& fre6uenc& ho$$ing collision
[Problem anal&sis!
A BTS uses 4 x ) (- fre%uency hopping! After capacity expansion, the TC> allocation failure
rate is still high due to radio lin$ problems! "n addition, the TC> call drop rate and incoming
handover failure rate are high! The S3CC> call drop rate is normal!
[Problem $ositioning and solution!
Because high call drop rate and high incoming handover failure rate come together #ith the TC>
allocation rate, it can be 7udged that the problem may arise during TC> assignment or the
channel numbers or timeslots seied by the call are interfered or unstable! Because the S3CC>
call drop rate is normal, it can be 7udged that the probability for the BCC> carriers and BCC>
numbers to the interfered are small, but the non:BCC> carriers and non:BCC> numbers may be
greatly interfered!
Through chec$ing the hard#are, antenna feeder, and transmission, engineers found no problem!
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According to drive test, engineers found that the signal level #as high but the %uality #as poor!
Through on:site dialing test, engineers found that the conversation %uality #as poor! Through
chec$ing engineering parameters, engineers found that the =A"< of the ne# carrier #as the
same as that of the old carrier! Therefore, it can be 7udged that the call drop #as caused by the
fre%uency hopping collision! After modifying the =A"<, engineers found that call drop rate
became normal!
Case ,: Call dro$ caused b& isolated island effect
[Problem descri$tion!
9sers complained that call drop al#ays occurred above the fifth floor of a building!
[Problem anal&sis!
4) Through on:site test, engineers found that call drop and noise existed here! As far as the test
=S #as concerned, it #as al#ays in the service area of the other BTS (hereunder called BTS B)
other than the local BTS (hereunder called BTS C) before the call drop!
') "t is estimated that the service cell belongs to BTS B, #hich is ):* $ilometers a#ay from the
building! Therefore, it can be 7udged that the signals from the BTS B are reflected signals! As a
result, an area similar to an isolated island is formed!
)) Through chec$ing data configuration, engineers found that only the cell ' of BTS A has the
neighbor cell relationship #ith BTS B! Therefore, #hen the =S is using the signals in cell ' of
the BTS B, if the signals in cell ) of BTS A #ere strong, and if the cell ' of BTS B has no
neighbor cell relationship #ith the cell ) of the BTS A, the handover cannot be performed!
The signals from the cell ' of BTS B are reflected many times! Therefore, #hen signals (from
BTS B) received by the =S became poor dramatically, emergent handover may be initiated! "n
this case, ho#ever, either the cell ' or cell ) of the BTS A is not an ideal candidate cell for the
cell ' of BTS B! As a result, the =S may hand over to other BTS (hereunder called BTS C), but
the =S cannot receive the signals from BTS C! Therefore, call drop occurs!
[Solution!
5ou are recommended to change the data in the BA4 (BCC>) list, BA' (SACC>) list, and
neighbor cell relationship list! -or example, you can configure the cell ) of BTS A as the
neighbor cell of cell ' of BTS B! To eliminate the isolated island effect, you should also further
optimie the engineering parameters! After that, the call drop problem can be solved!
Case 1: Reduce call dro$ rate through o$timi7ing handover $arameters
[Problem descri$tion!
The drive test in an area found that the call drop rate at a cave near the BTS high because the
handover cannot be performed in due time!
[Problem anal&sis and solution!
The cave is near the BTS! The signal level of the target cell is about :/2dBm in the cave, but the
signal level of the old cell drops belo# :422dBm! The do#nlin$ po#er of the t#o cells outside
the cave is good, so the handover cannot be initiated! >o#ever, the signal level deteriorates
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dramatically in the cave, so the call drop occurs before the measurement time is arriving!
To reduce the call drop rate, you can optimie and ad7ust the handover parameters&
4) "f no ping:pong handover is present and the conversation is continuous, you can ma$e the
PB;T handover happen as easily as possible!
') Set the threshold to trigger the emergent handover rationally so that the emergent handover
can be triggered before call drop!
-or the parameter modification, see
>andover parameter optimiation
Parameter Fame Before =odification After =odification
PB;T handover measurement time + )
PB;T handover duration * '
PB;T handover threshold .' ,/
9plin$ %uality threshold for emergent handover .2 ,2
=inimum do#nlin$ po#er for handover candidate cell 42 4+
Case 2: Call dro$ caused b& cloc# $roblem
[Problem descri$tion!
The cell A of an 4/22=> net#or$ has been cutover! After the establishment of a cell at site B,
the calls made in the cell handing over to the ;S=122 => cell that shares the same BTS site
drops in the ;S=122 => cell! And the call drop rate is great!
[Problem anal&sis and solution!
6ngineers find that the cloc$ of the ;S=122 => BTS and that of the ;S=4/22 => BTS are
asynchronous! 0hen the calls established on the ;S=4/22 => cell intend to hand over to the
;S=122 => cell, the drive test data sho#s that the -6( arises dramatically first, and then
gradually disappears to none! "f the handover is from a ;S=122 => cell to a ;S=4/22 =>
cell, this phenomenon is also present! Through monitoring signaling, engineers find that the
conversation held several seconds before the call drop is 7ust process for call re:establishment!
>o#ever, the test =S sho#s that the call has been handed over to the ;S=122 => cell!
Therefore, it can be 7udged that the cloc$s are seriously asynchronous! To solve this problem, the
carrier concerned and the ;S=122 e%uipment provider cooperate #ith each other on cloc$
calibration! After that, the abnormal call drop disappears! Therefore, for dual:band handover, the
cloc$ of the ;S=122 => BTS and that of the ;S=4/22 => BTS must be synchronous!
2 .andover Problems
The =S is al#ays moving during conversation! To ensure channel %uality, the =S must measure
the %uality of the channels of the surrounding channels #ithout stop, and then send the
measurement report to the BSC through the service cell! The BSC #ill perform radio lin$ control
according to the signal level and %uality contained in the measurement report! "f the =S moves
to another cell, the ne# cell #ill replace the old cell to ensure the continuity of the service! The
handover enables each cell to form a seamless net#or$!
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I. .andover Problem Positioning Ste$s
4) -ind out if the problem occurs at an individual cell or all cells and find out the characteristics
of the problem cells! -or example, if the cells are the neighbors cell of a cell, or if they are co:
BSC cells, or if they are co:=SC cells!
"f the handover bet#een t#o cells fails, you should focus on chec$ing if the data of the t#o cells
is correctly configured! "n addition, you should also chec$ the hard#are of the t#o cells!
"f the problem is found in all the neighbor cells of a cell, you should focus on chec$ing of the
data of this cell is correctly configured! "n addition, you should also chec$ the hard#are of the
cell!
"f the problem is found in all the cells under the same BSC, you should focus on chec$ing the
data configuration bet#een the BSC and =SC!
"f the problem is found in all the cells under the same =SC, the cooperation bet#een the local
exchange and the opposite exchange may fail! -or example, the signaling is incompatible and the
timer setting is irrational!
') Chec$ if the data has been modified before handover problems occur!
"f the problem is found in an individual cell, you should focus on chec$ing if the data
configuration for this cell has been modified!
"f the problem is found in all the cells under the same BSC, you should focus on chec$ing the
data configuration for the local BSC and the opposite =SC has been modified!
"f the problem is found in the cells under the same =SC, you should chec$ if the data
configuration for the opposite =SC has been modified!
)) Chec$ if it is the hard#are failure that causes the handover problem!
*) (egister the related traffic statistics items, such as the handover performance measurement
and TC> performance measurement!
: Chec$ if the TC> seiure of the problem cell is normal! -or example, if the call drop rate is
high!
: Chec$ if the outgoing handover success rate is normal!
: -ind out the causes for the handover failure!
: Chec$ if the radio handover success rate is normal!
+) Perform drive test for the problem cell and analye the drive test signaling!
: Chec$ if the uplin$ and do#nlin$ of the problem cells are balanced, because unbalanced path
may cause handover problem (BTS problem may cause the unbalance)!
: Chec$ if the measurement report for the problem cell contains correct neighbor cell list!
: Chec$ if a call can hand over from a problem cell to a neighbor cell correctly and chec$ if it
can hand over from a neighbor cell to the problem cell!
: Analye if the signaling procedure for the handover is normal!
II. .andover Problem (nal&sis Methods
i) >andover cannot be initiated!
"f the =S is in a cell #here the signal is poor, it cannot hand over to another cell! "n this case,
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you should consider of the handover conditions are met and if there is an outgoing cell available!
>ereunder details the possible reasons&
: The handover threshold is set to a lo# value
-or edge handover, the handover triggering condition is that the (xlev must be smaller than the
handover threshold! "f the edge handover threshold is set to a too small value, the signal level of
the neighbor cells #ill be far higher than that of the service cell! "n this case, the handover cannot
be initiated! As a result, the conversation %uality #ill be affected, or even the call drop #ill be
resulted! The setting of the handover threshold depends on the coverage scope of the cell! 5ou
can change the sie of the service area of the cell through changing the handover threshold!
: Feighbor cell relationship is not set!
Though the signal level in the neighbor cells of the service cell is high, the =S #ill not report the
neighbor cells if the neighbor cell relationship is not set! "n this case, the =S cannot hand over to
a neighbor cell! Through performing cell reselection or dialing test, you can chec$ the neighbor
cell list reported by the =S! "f the =S has moved to the ma7or lobe of a cell but this cell is not
found in the neighbor cell list, you should chec$ if the correct neighbor cell relationship has been
correctly set! 3uring the drive test, you can use another =S to scan the BCC> numbers to chec$
if the strong BCC> numbers are in the service cell or in the neighbor cell list!
: >andover hysteresis is irrationally set!
"f the difference bet#een the signal level of the handover candidate cell and that of the service
cell is greater than handover hysteresis, the cell can #or$ as a target cell! "f the hysteresis is set
to a too great value, the handover is hard to be initiated!
: The best measurement time AFA and APA are irrationally set!
3uring normal handover, the =S uses F:P rules to list the handover candidate cells in a certain
order! "f a candidate cell is the best cell #ithin P seconds out of F seconds, it #ill be treated as
the best cell!
0hen there are t#o cells become the best cell alternately, the =S may find it hard to select a best
cell through F:P rule, #hich ma$es the handover difficult! "n this case, you can ad7ust the values
of F and P and reduce the measurement time to ma$e the handover decision more sensitive to
level change!
"f the landform and the ground ob7ects of the service cell are %uite complicated, the signals
received by the moving =S #ill fluctuate greatly! "n this case, the handover candidate cell
cannot meet F:P rule, #hich #ill ma$e the handover difficult!
ii3 .andover $roblem caused b& hard%are failure
"f the data configuration for the problem cell and the neighbor cells has not been modified
recently but the handover problems occur abruptly, you should first consider if the problems are
caused by BTS hard#are e%uipment!
"f the cells sharing the same base station #ith the cell have similar problem, you should consider
if the problem is caused by the common hard#are of the cells!
"f the problem is found in only one cell under the base station, you should consider if it is the
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hard#are of this cell that causes the problem! -or example, if some of the carriers are damaged!
To test the problems of this $ind, you can disable some of the carriers! "f the handover success
rate returns to normal state after a carrier is disabled, you can chec$ if the problem is present at
this carrier or if the C39 and antenna feeder part related to this carrier fails! "f signals of a cell
on the uplin$ and do#nlin$ are seriously unbalanced, fre%uent handover #ill be caused and the
handover success rate #ill decrease!
To chec$ if the signaling flo# of the cell is normal and if the uplin$ (x%ual and do#nlin$
(x%ual are good, you can monitor the messages sent across the Abis interface! "f the (x%ual is
poor, it means that the hard#are e%uipment of the fails or serious interference is present in the
cell! "n this case, the signaling exchange is unavailable and the handover problem #ill occur!
iii3 .andover $roblem caused b& irrational data configuration
: -or stand:alone net#or$ing mode, if the outgoing =SC or incoming =SC handover is
abnormal, you should chec$ if the signaling cooperation of the t#o =SCs is correct! "n addition,
you should also chec$ if the data configuration for the opposite =SC and the local =SC has
been modified recently!
: -or co:=SC net#or$ing mode, if the handover is performed #ithin the BSCs of different
providers and the inter:BSC handover is abnormal, you should first chec$ if the signaling
cooperation bet#een the BSCs is normal, and then chec$ if the data configuration for the BSCs
has been modified!
: "f the abnormal handover is found at a cell only, you need to analye the abnormal handover
according to actual conditions!
"f the incoming handover of a cell is abnormal, you need first chec$ if the incoming handovers to
this cell is abnormal! ;enerally, #hen the handover is abnormal, the handover success rate is
lo#, or even the handover does not occur!
"f all the incoming handovers to this cell is abnormal, you should chec$ if the data configuration
for this cell is correct! >ere the data configuration includes both the data configured for this cell
and the data configured for other cells but is related to this cell! -or example, the C;" of this cell
may be correctly configured, but it may be #rongly configured in other cells!
"f there is only one incoming handover to a cell is abnormal but other incoming handovers to this
cell are normal, in addition to chec$ing if the data configuration for this cell is correct, you
should also chec$ if the data configuration for the neighbor cells is correct! -urthermore, you
should also chec$ if the hard#are e%uipment of the cell is normal!
The methods to analye the abnormal outgoing handovers are similar to the methods to analye
the abnormal incoming handovers!
: Chec$ the timers (such as T)42+, Fy4, T)42), and T)4*') related to the handover!
T)42+ indicates the interval for continuous P>5S"CAE "F-<(=AT"<F to be sent to the =S!
The net#or$ #ill start T)42+ for the sending of the P>5S"CAE "F-<(=AT"<F! "f the timer
fails before receiving any correct frame from the =S, the net#or$ #ill resend the P>5S"CAE
"F-<(=AT"<F and restart the timer! A piece of P>5S"CAE "F-<(=AT"<F can be sent Fy4
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times to the maximum! >ere the product of Fy4 and T)42+ must be greater than the sum of
T)4'* and delta (AdeltaA indicates the interval bet#een the expiry of T)4'* and the reception of
the >andover -ailure message of the old BSC), other#ise the =S cannot perform successful
handover!
T)4'* is a timer #aiting for the P>5S"CAE "F-<(=AT"<F from the net#or$ side during
asynchronous handover! 0hen sending the >AF3<D6( ACC6SS message on the 3CC> for
the first time, the =S #ill start T)4'*! 9pon receiving a piece of P>5S"CAE "F-<(=AT"<F,
the =S #ill stop T)4'*! "f the channel type allocated in the >AF3<D6( C<==AF3 message
is S3CC> (BSACC>), the T)4'* is set to ,.+ms! -or other cases, the T)4'* is set to )'2ms!
III. .andover Cases
Case 5: 0o handover candidate cell is available due to CGI error
[Problem descri$tion!
The handover in an area is abnormal! 0hen the =S moves from cell A to cell B, the signals in
cell B are stronger than that of cell A, but the handover does not happen! After the =S moves
from cell B to cell C, the =S hands over from cell A to cell C!
[Cause anal&sis!
"f a cell can #or$ as a service cell and can hand over to other cells, but the incoming handover is
unavailable, you can chec$ if the C;", BS"C, BCC> number of the cell are correct!
[Problem solution!
4) 9se the test =S to loc$ the BCC> numbers of cell B! The call is normal! The =S can hand
over to any other cell by force!
') =a$e a call after loc$ing the BCC> umber of any neighbor cell of cell B, and then force the
=S to hand over to cell B, but the handover does not happen, because no handover command is
seen in the drive test soft#are!
)) The handover procedure re%uires the =S detecting the neighbor cell signals and reporting the
detected signals to BSC #ith a measurement report! 9pon receiving the measurement report, the
BSC must ma$e the handover decision! "f the handover conditions are met, the BSC should
activate the TC> of the service cell, and then send a handover command to the =S!
*) "f the signals of cell B are far stronger than that of cell A and the handover conditions are met
(the PB;T handover threshold is .2), but no handover command is sent, it means that errors
occur during the activation of the target cell TC>!
+) "f the cell B #or$s as the target cell but the TC> cannot be activated, the data may be
incorrectly configured for the cell! "n this case, the BSC that contains the cell cannot find the
target cell, so the TC> cannot be activated and no handover command can be found in the
service cell!
,) The C;" error is found in cell B through data chec$ing! The handover is normal after the C;"
is changed to correct value!
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Case ,: +nbalanced $ath causes lo% handover success rate
[Problem descri$tion!
The incoming BSC handover success rate is %uite lo# for the t#o cells under a BTS, ranging
from 428 to )28!
[Cause anal&sis!
;enerally, if the data problems, such as C;" error or intra:fre%uency interference, exists and if
there is dead ones in heavy:traffic areas, or if it is hard for the =S to access the cell due to poor
uplin$ signals, the incoming BSC handover success rate is lo#!
[Solution!
4) The cell data is found normal!
') Through chec$ing traffic statistics items, engineers found that all incoming cell handover
success rates #ere lo#!
)) Through drive test, engineers found that fre%uent handover attempts #ere made in the area
'$m a#ay from the BTS, but the handover al#ays failed! 6ven if a successful handover #as
made, call drop occurred immediately! 3uring the handover, engineers found that the do#nlin$
level #as about :/+dBm! 6ngineers made 42 dialing tests #ith fre%uency loc$ed, all the
originating calls failed! -or the ans#ering calls, they can be connected but cannot be called out!
*) "t is estimated that the C39 uplin$ channel loss is great, or the 7umpers are incorrectly
connected at the BTS top! "n this case, the uplin$ signals #ill be poor, #hich causes the problem!
+) After changing the C39, engineers found that the incoming handover success rate increased
to 1+8!
Case 1: Im$ro$er antenna $lanning causes lo% handover success rate
[Problem anal&sis!
The handover success rate among the three cells under a BTS is %uite lo# according to traffic
statistics! -or the handover from cell4 to cell) and the handover from cell' to cell), the success
rate is lo#er than )28!
[Cause anal&sis!
;enerally, lo# handover success rate is caused by board failure, handover data error, or
improper antenna planning!
[Solution!
4) The BTS hard#are is normal and no alarm concerning handover parameters is generated, so
the hard#are problem and parameter setting problem can be excluded!
') The BTS locates at the eastern side of a south:north road and is .22m a#ay from the road!
The aimuth angles of the three cells are 2M, /2Mand 4,2M! They three cells direct to the t#o
directions and the open resident areas lying under a hill in the east respectively! Among the three
cells, the do#n tilts of t#o cells are .M! To ma$e the coverage as specified as possible, engineers
concentrated the antenna aimuth angles of the three cells in design! "n this case, ho#ever, the
cells of the BTS are seriously overlapped in the east! -or the areas 7ust in the #est, the coverage
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is provided by the side lobes and bac$ lobes of the three cells! Therefore, #hen the =S is moving
on this road, first it is covered by cell4! 0hen it moves to the #est, the signals of the three cells
are poor and fluctuating greatly! "n addition, since the handover measurement time and the
handover duration is set to a small value, the handover is rather sensitive, and thatHs #hy the
fre%uent handover failure occurs!
)) After setting the aimuth angles of the three cells to ,2M, 4/2M, and )+2M, engineers found that
the handover success rate of among the three cells increased to 1+8!
Case 2: Problems concerning the coo$eration of different carriers8 e6ui$ment cause lo%
outgoing BSC handover success rate
[Problem descri$tion!
There is a dual:band net#or$ in #hich the ;S=122 => net#or$ and the ;S=4/22 =>
net#or$ are stand:alone! After the t#o net#or$s completed cell reselection and handover
parameter setting, engineers found that the dual:band handover success rate #as lo#@ especially
the success rate of the handover from the ;S=4/22 => net#or$ to the ;S=122 => net#or$
#as lo#, ranging from ,28 to /28! >o#ever, the success rate of the handover from the
;S=122 => net#or$ to the ;S=4/22 => net#or$ #as higher than 1'8!
[Cause anal&sis!
-or a dual:band net#or$, if the problems concerning the cooperation of different carriersH
e%uipment are found, you must $no# the data configuration of the e%uipment! -or example, if
the e%uipment supports Phase 'B and 6-(!
[Solution!
4) Through using signaling analyer to analye the message flo#ing across the A:interface and
6:interface, engineers found that the =SC of the ;S=4/22 => net#or$ #ould send bac$ a
>andover (e7ect message to the BSC of the ;S=4/22 => net#or$ #hen the BSC sent a
>andover (e%uired message to the =SC!
') The =SC of the ;S=4/22 => net#or$ sent a Prepare >andover message to the =SC of the
;S=122 => net#or$! 9pon receiving the message, the =SC of the ;S=122 => net#or$
sent bac$ an Abort message!
)) Because the success rate of the handover from ;S=122 => net#or$ to the ;S=4/22 =>
net#or$ #as high, engineers found that the voice version carried in the Prepare >andover
message (from the ;S=122 =SC to ;S=4/22 =SC) is half rate version 4, but the voice
versions carried in the Prepare >andover message (from ;S=4/22 =SC to ;S=122 =SC) are
full rate version 4, full rate version ', and half rate version 4, #hich belong to P>AS6 'B!
>o#ever, =SC of provider A does not support the P>AS6 'B, so the handover failure is caused!
*) Through modifying the =SC data of the circuit =SC data at the A:interface and selecting the
full rate version 4 only, engineers found that the voice versions carried in the Prepare >andover
message (from ;S=4/22 =SC to ;S=122 =SC) are full rate 4 and '! After that, the dual:band
handover success rate #as greatly increased!
+ Congestion Problems!
This section introduces the methods to handle S3CC> congestion and TC> congestion, in #hich
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TC> congestion indicates S3CC> seiure all busy! The TC> congestion has t#o cases! <ne is
TC> seiure all busy! -or this case, the real channels cannot be allocated to the =S, so the =S
#ill fail to re%uest the channels! The other one is that the TC> assignment fails after an
assignment is sent due to various reasons!
I. Congestion Problem Solutions
: Congestion caused by heavy traffic!
5ou can chec$ if the S3CC> traffic and TC> traffic are normal through vie#ing traffic
statistics! "f the congestion is caused by heavy traffic, the most efficient method to solve the
problem is to expand the capacity of the net#or$! "n addition, you can adopt traffic sharing
technologies to ease the congestion! -or example, you can modify the C(<, enable direct retry
or load handover function!
: S3CC> congestion caused by burst traffic
"f the S3CC> congestion rate is high and the traffic is heavy but the TC> traffic is normal, the
S3CC> congestion may be caused by burst traffic! The S3CC> congestion al#ays occurs at
BTSs along rail#ays and tunnel exits, because the BTSs are installed in remote places and the
capacity of a BTS is small! As a result, #hen the train moves fast along the rail#ays or stops at a
rail#ay station, most of =Ss failing to capture a net#or$ #ill perform location update, #hich
#ill result in S3CC> congestion! "n addition, #hen short messages are sent at a concentrated
time, the S3CC> congestion #ill also occur easily! S3CC> congestion cannot be completely
avoided, but some measures can be ta$en to ease the congestion! -or example, you can add the
number of S3CC>s, or enable the dynamic conversion bet#een S3CC> and TC>!
: Congestion caused by T(? problems!
0hen a carrier configured in a multi:T(? cell cannot provide services, the channel congestion
#ill also occur! To solve the problem, you should replace the problem T(? #ith a sound one! "f
the T(? problem cannot be positioned, you should chec$ if the antenna feeder connection is
correct and if the antenna standing #ave is normal! "f yes, rechec$ the T(? #here the problem
may be generated!
: Congestion caused by interference!
The interference present across the radio interfaces #ill also cause congestion! "n this case, you
should solve the interference problem first!
: Channel assignment failure caused by inconsistent coverage
"f the concentric technology is not used, the transmit po#er of the T(?s #ithin the same cell
#ill be inconsistent, #hich #ill result in inconsistent coverage! "n this case, the channel
assignment failure #ill easily occur! To position this problem, you can chec$ if the connection
bet#een the splitter and connector and if the connection bet#een C39 and SC9 are correct!
0hen a cell uses multiple transmitter antennas, inconsistent coverage #ill be inconsistent, #hich
#ill result in channel assignment failure! To solve this problem, you should ma$e the coverage
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of each transmitter antenna as consistent as possible through engineering ad7ustment!
"n addition, if the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna of a cell is not in the same plane
or the antenna tilt angles are inconsistent, the channel assignment failure #ill also be caused! "n
this case, you can calibrate the antennas to solve the problem!
: Congestion caused improper data configuration!
"f the congestion is caused by improper location area planning, you can reduce the S3CC>
congestion rate by planning the location area properly!
"f the congestion is caused by the problems concerning S3CC> dynamic allocation, you can
reduce the S3CC> congestion rate by enabling the S3CC> dynamic allocation function!
-or dual:band net#or$, you can properly set the parameters (such as C(<, CBA, and cell
reselection hysteresis) to reduce the S3CC> congestion rate!
"f the timers, such as T)424, T)42), T)42., T)4'', T)'4', and T)444, are not properly set,
S3CC> congestion #ill also be caused!
>ereunder are the solutions to the previous problems!
5ou can ease the congestion caused by S3CC> dual allocation through reducing the T)424 to a
smaller value! "f the T)424 is set to a large value, the radio resources #ill be seied for a long
period of time! To fully use the radio resources, therefore, you can reduce the T)424 value!
5ou can save the TC> resources through reducing the T)42) and T)42. to a rational value!
;enerally, T)42) and T)42. are set to about + seconds!
The T)4'' must be stopped once the =S receives an "==63"AT6 ASS";F (6J6CT message!
<nly after the T)4'' expires, the =S can send a ne# channel re%uest message! "f the =S sends
channel re%uest messages fre%uently, the (AC> load and CCC> load #ill increase! To solve this
problem, you can increase the T)4'' to a larger value!
T)'4' stands for the time limit value for periodical location update! 5ou can ease the S3CC>
load by increasing the T)'4' to a larger value!
T)444 is related to release latency! "t is used for the deactivation of the latency channels after the
ma7or signaling lin$ brea$s! T)444 can be initiated during either TC> release or S3CC> release!
The value of T)444 must be consistent #ith that of the T)442 at the =S side! ;enerally, it
should be ' seconds! "f the T)444 is set to a large value, great S3CC> congestion rate may be
caused!
II. Congestion Cases
Case 5: S*CC. congestion caused b& %rong 9(C configuration
[*escri$tion!
A BTS is configured as S4C4C4! "t is found that the S3CC> congestion rate for ' cells reaches as
high as /8!
[Problem anal&sis and solution!
4) Through chec$ing the measurement indexes for TC> and S3CC>, engineers found that the
TC> traffic #as not heavy! The traffic volume for each cell during busy hours is lo#er than
'!'6rl! >o#ever, the re%uests for S3CC> seiure are great, reaching )2)' times during busy
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hours! The S3CC> traffic reaches 4!/,6rl, and the congestion rate reaches /8!
') The main reasons for S3CC> seiure include the messages sent before call setup, the
messages sent during handover, the location update messages sent under the idle mode, and other
short messages!
)) The TC> traffic is normal, the re%uests for TC> seiure (including handover) are normal ()4/
times), and the handover re%uests are also normal (4*, times)! Therefore, the S3CC> congestion
may be caused by a large number of location update messages or short messages!
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