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ABSTRACT

Basic acid-base titration is commonly used to obtain the molarity of a solution given
the molarity of other solution that involves neutralization between acid and base. This
experiment is done to standardize the sodium hydroxide solution. Besides that this
experiment is conducted to determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of
acetic acid in vinegar by titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. In the first
experiment the volume of NaOH needed to achieve equivalence point is 16.1 mL for the first
titration, 17.9 mL for the second titration, and 12.8 mL for the third titration respectively. As
for the second experiment the volume of NaOH needed to achieve its equivalence point is
12.5 mL for the first titration, 11.9 mL for the second titration, and 13.0 mL for the third
titration respectively. The average molarity of NaOH needed to react with KHP to achieve
equivalence is 0.5 M and 0.62 M for the reaction with vinegar. The result obtained in this
experiment is 3.76 % for first titration, 3.57 % for second titration, and 3.90 % for the third
titration for the mass percent of CH
3
COOH in each titration and the average of mass percent
of CH
3
COOH is 3.74 %.

INTRODUCTION
The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute in the specific amount of
solvent. Thus, solutions with high concentration contain high amount of solute in a given
solvent and vice versa. There are two ways to express concentration which is molarity and
percent by mass. Molarity is the amount of moles of solute per litre of solution. Percent solute
is equal to the mass of solute per mass of solution times by 100%. Vinegar is a solution with
high concentrations of acetic acid, CH
3
COOH. The concentration of solution can be
determined by performing titration. By using the known amount of solution needed to titrate
the unknown solution and the stoichiometry for that reaction after completed, the
concentration of the unknown solution can be calculated.




(Equation 2-1)




(Equation 2-2)

There are two main experiment was done. First was the standardization of sodium
hydroxide solution and second was determination of molarity of acetic acid and mass percent
in vinegar. In the first experiment, 6 g solid sodium hydroxide, 0.6 M, and 250 ml of sodium
hydroxide solution is prepared. Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) solution is prepared by
dissolving 1.5 g of KHP with 30 mL distilled water. The titration is done by using this KHP
and sodium hydroxide solution. Based on the result the volume of sodium hydroxide solution
used to neutralized the KHP can be obtained and based from the volume, the molarity of
sodium hydroxide solution can be calculated. In the second experiment 10 mL of vinegar is
diluted with 100 mL of water in 250 mL beaker. The same step of titration with experiment
one is done. The vinegar is titrated with sodium hydroxide solution and based on the pH and
sodium hydroxide solution added, the volume of sodium hydroxide solution used to
neutralized vinegar can be obtained and next the molarity of acetic acid.

OBJECTIVES
Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution.
Determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar
by titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution.

THEORY
The equivalence points is said to be the point where the mole of acid in the solution is
equal to the mole of the base in the titration. In this experiment the stoichiometry is reach
when 1 mole of sodium hydroxide solution is used to neutralized 1 mole of acetic acid.
NaOH
(aq)
+CH
3
CO
2
H(aq) NaCH
3
CO
2(aq)
+H
2
O
(l)

The sudden change in pH of the solution when titrate indicate the titration has reach
the equivalence point. pH in a solution is related to its hydrogen ion concentration.
pH=-log
10
[H
3
O
+
]
pH scale indicate the acidity or basicity of a solution. Solutions with pH is higher than
7, the solution are basic solution. When the pH is equal to 7 means that the solution is neutral
and when the pH indicator is lower than 7, means that the solution is acidic.
The experiment is initiated by taking the pH of KHP before titrated with standardize
sodium hydroxide solution. Hydrogen ion are neutralized for every adding of sodium
hydroxide solution. As hydrogen ion concentration decrease, the pH reading increase. When
equivalence point is reach, further drop of sodium hydroxide solution into the KHP, sudden
increase in pH. The volume used to titrated until equivalence point is reach can be determined
based on the graph when the pH is equal to 7. For second experiment the same step is taken
to titrated. Instead of using KHP, vinegar is used.
KHC
8
H
4
O
4(aq)
+NaOH
(aq)
KNaC
8
H
4
O
4(aq)
+H
2
O
(l)
CH
3
COOH
(aq)
+NaOH
(aq)
NaCH
3
COO
(aq)
+H
2
O
(l)


METHODOLOGY
APPARATUS
Beaker, 250 ml
Balance
Retort stand
pH meter
Magnetic stirrer
Volumetric flask
Pipette
Burette
MATERIALS
NaOH, 0.15 M
KHP, 1.5 grams
Vinegar
Distilled water

PROCEDURE
Experiment 1 : Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution
1. 250 mL of approximately 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution was prepared from the
NaOH solid. The solution was prepared in a beaker. The calculation was check with
the laboratory instructor prior to prepare the solution. Calculations were tabulate.
2. A beaker was placed on the balance and tare it. 1.5 g of KHP was add to the beaker.
The mass of KHP was recorded to the nearest 0.001 g. 30 mL of distilled water was
added to the beaker. The solution was stir until the KHP has dissolve.
3. This solution was titrated with sodium hydroxide solution and the pH was recorded
for every 1 mL addition of sodium hydroxide solution.
4. Step 1-3 was repeated and two more solutions for sodium hydroxide standardization
was prepared.
5. Graph of pH versus sodium hydroxide was plotted and the volume of sodium
hydroxide required to neutralize the KHP solution in each titration was calculated.
6. The molarity of sodium hydroxide for titrations 1,2 and 3 was calculated.
7. The average molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution was calculated. The resulting
sodium hydroxide concentration was used in part B experiment.



Experiment 2 : Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar
1. 10 mL of vinegar was transfer to a clean, 250 mL beaker using a 10 mL volumetric
pipette. 100 mL of water was added to cover the pH electrode tip during the titration.
2. 1 mL of sodium hydroxide solution was added to the vinegar solution and the pH was
recorded.
3. The above steps was repeat twice more.
4. The graph of pH vs volume sodium hydroxide solution added was plotted and the
volume of sodium hydroxide solution used to neutralized vinegar in each titration was
determined.
5. The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1,2, and 3 was calculated.
6. The average molarity of acetic acid in each titration was calculated.
7. The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar for titrations 1,2, and 3 was calculated.
8. The percent by mass of acetic acids in vinegar was calculate.


















RESULT

Figure 1 : Titration of KHP solutions with NaOH


Figure 2 : Titration of Vinegar solutions with NaOH

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
pH
volume of NaOH
Graph pH versus volume of NaOH
titration 1
titration 2
titration 3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
pH
volume of NaOH
Graph pH versus volume of NaOH
titration 1
titration 2
titration 3
CALCULATIONS
Experiment 1 :
1)Calculations for preparing 250 mL of approximately 0.6 M sodium hydroxide
solution.
25 mL NaOH


= 0.25 L NaOH

Molarity, M =



0.6 M NaOH =



Moles of NaOH = 0.15 mol

Mass NaOH = moles of NaOH molar mass NaOh
=0.15 mol NaOH 40 g/mol
=6 g solid NaOH

Titration 1 Titration 2 Titration 3
Mass of KHP (g) 1.5058 1.5046 1.5075
Volume of NaOH to
neutralize the KHP
solution (mL)
16.1 17.9 12.8

3)Calculation of molarity of sodium hydroxide for each titration
Titration 1 :
Mol KHP =



=



= 0.00734 mol

1 mol KHP = 1 mol NaOH
Molarity NaOH =


=



= 0.46 M

Titration 2 :
Mol KHP =



=



= 0.00737 mol

1 mol KHP = 1 mol NaOH
Molarity NaOH =


=



= 0.461M

Titration 3 :
Mol KHP =



=



= 0.00738 mol

1 mol KHP = 1 mol NaOH
Molarity NaOH =


=



= 0.58 M
4)Calculation of the average molarity of sodium hydroxide for each titration.
Average molarity of NaOH =


=0.5 M

Experiment 2 :
Titration 1 Titration 2 Titration 3
Volume of NaOH to
neutralize the vinegar
solution (mL)
12.5 11.9 13.0

2)Calculation of molarity of acetic acid in each titration
Titration 1:
Volume of NaOH = 12.5 mL
Mol of NaOH = 0.0125 L 0.5 mol/L
= 0.00625 mol

From the equation :
CH
3
COOH
(aq)
+ NaOH
(aq)
NaCH
3
COOH
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
1 mol NaOH = 1 mol CH
3
COOH
Thus 0.00625 mol NaOH = 0.00625 mol CH
3
COOH

Molarity of CH
3
COOH =



=



= 0.625 M



Titration 2:
Volume of NaOH = 11.9 mL
Mol of NaOH = 0.0119 L 0.5 M
= 0.00595 mol
From the equation :
CH
3
COOH
(aq)
+ NaOH
(aq)
NaCH
3
COOH
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
1 mol NaOH = 1 mol CH
3
COOH
Thus 0.00595 mol NaOH = 0.00595 mol CH
3
COOH

Molarity of CH
3
COOH =



=



= 0.595 M
Titration 3:
Volume of NaOH = 13.0 mL
Mol of NaOH = 0.013 L 0.5 M
= 0.0065 mol

From the equation :
CH
3
COOH
(aq)
+ NaOH
(aq)
NaCH
3
COOH
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
1 mol NaOH = 1 mol CH
3
COOH
Thus 0.0065 mol NaOH = 0.0065 mol CH
3
COOH

Molarity of CH
3
COOH =



=



= 0.65 M
3)Calculation of average molarity of acetic acid
Average molarity of acetic acid =


= 0.62 M

4)Calculation of percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar
Titration 1 :
Mass of CH
3
COOH =0.01 L 0.625 M CH
3
COOH 60.06 g/mol CH
3
COOH
=0.375 g CH
3
COOH

Percentage by mass


x 100%



x 100%
= 3.76 %

Titration 2 :
Mass of CH
3
COOH = 0.01 L 0.595 M CH
3
COOH 60.06 g/mol CH
3
COOH
=0.357 g CH
3
COOH

Percentage by mass


x 100%



x 100%
= 3.57 %

Titration 3 :
Mass of CH
3
COOH = 0.01 L 0.65 M CH
3
COOH 60.06 g/mol CH
3
COOH
=0.39 g CH
3
COOH

Percentage by mass


x 100%



x 100%
= 3.9 %

5)Calculation of average percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar
average percent by mass =


= 3.74 %


DISCUSSION
This experiment is divided into two experiments. The objective for the first
experiment was to standardize sodium hydroxide solution. The main objective for the second
experiment was to determine the molarity of acetic acid in the vinegar solution and the
percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide
(NaOH) solution. For the first experiment, 250 mL, 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution is
prepared in the beaker. To know the exact mass of the solid NaOH used, calculation first
must be done and as a result from the calculations based on the information 250 mL, 0.6 M
sodium hydroxide solution to be prepared, the result shown that the mass solid NaOH used is
6 g. Next the solution to be titrate is prepared. 1.5 g of solid potassium hydrogen phthalate
(KHP) is prepared in a beaker and is diluted with 30 mL distilled water. Then the solution is
titrated. The pH is taken for every 1 mL of NaOH is titrated and the result is tabulated and
transfer into a graph form. From those result the molarity of sodium hydroxide solution for
each titration can be calculated and the result from those three titration, the average can be
calculated. The result for the molarity of NaOH for the three titration is 0.46 M, 0.461M, and
0.58 M respectively. The average that is calculated from the molarity is 0.5 M. In experiment
two, the same way is used to obtained the result. The pH is taken for every 1 mL of NaOH is
titrated. From the calculation the value of molarity of acetic acid contain in the vinegar is
0.62 M, 0.65 M, and 0.595 M respectively. The value of average molarity based on the
molarity from the three titration is 0.625 M. After calculate the molarity and the average
molarirty, the percentage by mass must also be calculate. The value of percent by mass for
experiment one is 3.76 %, 3.57 % for titration 2,and 3.9 %. The average of percent by mass
of acetic acid is 3.74 %.
A titration is a process which used burette to dispance a small increment of solution
with known concentration. Titration usually used to calculate a molarity of a solution of an
acid and base by using the stoichiometry of the reaction. When one of the molarity of the
solution is known. The calculation must be made when the reaction has reached its
equivalence point. Equivalence point occurs when the mole of the acid is equal to the mol of
the base in the titration. In this experiment, equivalence point reach when one mole of NaOH
is equal to one mole of acetic acid. This point will be known when there are a sudden change
in the pH. pH is related to the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution. pH is define as the
negative of the logarithm hydrogen concentration. pH is divided into 3 scales that indicates
the type of the solution. First, when the pH is smaller than 7 means that the solution is acidic,
ph is equal to 7 indicates that the solution is neutral and pH is larger than 7 means that
solution is basic. To detect the pH in this experiment, pH indicator can be used. In the
second experiment same procedure is used which is titration but instead of KHP, vinegar
solution is used.
The result tabulated from the experiment is transfer into graph. The pH of the solution
as the y-axis and the volume of NaOH used to titrate the KHP solution for the first
experiment and NaOH used to titrate the vinegar solution for the second experiment as the x-
axis. This acid-based graph indicates the pH of the solution at the certain time when certain
volume of NaOH is titrate. The volume of NaOH used to neutralized the KHP solution or the
vinegar solution must be obtained for further calculation. The result for that problem can be
solved using graph. As in this experiment, the volume of NaOH used to titrate the KHP or the
vinegar solution when it reach its equivalence point can easier to be determined. As the
result, in the first experiment the volume of NaOH needed to achieve equivalence point is
16.1 mL for the first titration, 17.9 mL for the second titration, and 12.8 mL for the third
titration respectively. As for the second experiment the volume of NaOH needed to achieve
its equivalence point is 12.5 mL for the first titration, 11.9 mL for the second titration, and
13.0 mL for the third titration respectively. This volume is all taken when the pH is 9. The
result is used to get the average volume of NaOH used to neutralized the KHP solution or the
vinegar solution. This average is further used to calculate the mol of NaOH and divided with
its correspondent volume to get its molarity. As the result the average molarity of NaOH
needed to react with KHP to achieve equivalence is 0.5 M and 0.62 M for the reaction with
vinegar. The percent by mass of acetic acid in the titration for experiment two can be
calculated based from the molarity of NaOH calculated before. One mol of NaOH is equal to
one mol of CH
3
COOH. Thus molarity of NaOH is equal to molarity of CH
3
COOH. Used the
molarity of CH
3
COOH and times with volume of CH
3
COOH used which is 0.01 L and
further times with molar mass of CH
3
COOH to get the mass of CH
3
COOH. The percent by
mass of acetic acid in vinegar can be obtained by divided the mass obtained before with 10.0
g CH
3
COOH and times with 100 %. The result obtained in this experiment is 3.76 % for first
titration, 3.57 % for second titration, and 3.90 % for the third titration for the mass percent of
CH
3
COOH in each titration. The average of mass percent of CH
3
COOH is 3.74 %.
During the experiment there are several precaution steps that can be taken to avoid
any damage to the apparatus or either wise the result. First, the calculation to get the mass of
solid NaOH must be perfectly calculate to get the exact amount of 250 mL, 0.6 M NaOH. To
get the mass of solid NaOH that is used to get the solution as in the procedure, first the
molarity must be times with volume of the solution that is want to be prepared. Make sure the
volume in litre, if the volume in mL make sure to convert the unit first. If not the calculation
will be wrong and the result will be affect. Next, when the mass of solid NaOH is known,
make sure to use the balance to weigh the solid NaOH. Turn the balance into 0.00 g after the
beaker is placed on the weigh. Make sure the mass of solid NaOH used is not included with
the mass of the beaker. When weighing make sure the mass of solid NaOH is measured to the
nearest 0.001 g. If the mass of solid NaOH is excess or redundant it might disturbed the result
also the graph. Hence, the exact volume of KHP used to naturalized the NaOH cannot be
obtained. Dissolved the solid NaOH completely to make sure maximum reaction. During
titration ensure the exact amount is titrated. Read the scale correctly. Make sure the eyes of
the observer is perpendicular to the scale to avoid any parallax error. Repeat the experiment
to get the average reading so that can reduce the percentage error. Clean the apparatus before
used with distilled water and rinse the apparatus with the solution so that the apparatus is
clean from any impurities. Cover the ph electrode tip to make sure the pH indicator can read
the pH in the solution completely.


CONCLUSION
As a conclusion the experiment is not perfectly done. This is because the result
obtained is not consistent. This can be seen on the graph. The line of pH versus volume of
NaOH used to neutralized KHP or vinegar for the first is not parallel with line of titration two
and titration three. But the method to calculate the molarity, mass percent, and the
stoichiometry equation can be used. If the experiment is done perfectly and the correct
calculation step is used the result obtained can be as followed. In the first experiment the
volume of NaOH needed to achieve equivalence point is 16.1 mL for the first titration, 17.9
mL for the second titration, and 12.8 mL for the third titration respectively. As for the second
experiment the volume of NaOH needed to achieve its equivalence point is 12.5 mL for the
first titration, 11.9 mL for the second titration, and 13.0 mL for the third titration respectively.
The average molarity of NaOH needed to react with KHP to achieve equivalence is 0.5 M
and 0.62 M for the reaction with vinegar. The result obtained in this experiment is 3.76 % for
first titration, 3.57 % for second titration, and 3.90 % for the third titration for the mass
percent of CH
3
COOH in each titration and the average of mass percent of CH
3
COOH is 3.74
%.

RECOMENDATION
In any experiment there are several steps can be taken to avoid any error or to get the
perfect result. First do not play in the laboratory while doing the experiment. This is to avoid
and careless mistake while doing the experiment such as weighing the materials or while
pouring any solutions in apparatus. This is to avoid any corrosion solution from contacting to
skin. Other than that to avoid any careless mistake while taking the reading. Clean the
apparatus before and after use. This is to make sure there are no other impurities in the
solution when the experiment is carried out. Use indicator solution so that any changes or
reaction in the solution can be seen.


REFERENCE

(2011), Acid-base titration, retrieved from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chemlab/
techniques/titration.html on 7 October 2011.


APPENDICES











Weighing pH indicator


Titration process