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A New Control Scheme of the Three-phase Four-

wire PWM Converter under Unbalanced and


Distorted Input Conditions
Pengpai Dang*, Jrgen Petzoldt
*Department of power electronics and control, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, 98693 Ilmenau,Germany
*e-mail: peng-pai.dang @ tu-ilmenau.de
e-mail: Jrgen Petzoldt @ tu-ilmenau.de


Abstract-This paper presents circuit model and mathematical
model of power for three-phase four-wire PWM converter
under unbalanced and distorted input voltages. Based on the
system model, a new positive-negative-zero sequence current
reference control method is proposed to eliminate of harmonics
of DC link voltage to alleviate the stress of the DC-link capacitor
and to reduce the harmonics of input AC currents. The results
show that the proposed control method has better performances
than the conventional single positive sequence control under
unbalanced and distorted input voltages.
Index terms-unbalanced and distorted input voltages, high
harmonics, three-phase four-wire PWM converter, zero
sequence current
I. INTRODUCTION
Comparing with three-phase three -wire PWM converter,
three-phase four-wire PWM converters are more used in
uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and power distribution
systems [1]. In actual applications, the unbalanced voltage
conditions occur frequently in the input supply, particularly in
a weak AC system, and may occur because of reasons such as
phase load imbalance, unbalanced transmission impendence
per phase, and influences due to fault or damage in the
transmission network. This will result in the presence of
negative sequence and zero sequence voltage components so
that the performance of the PWM converter deteriorates.
Moreover, the distorted supply voltage conditions appear
frequently, which result in high harmonics in the AC line
currents. The high harmonics have the bad influence upon
performance of the system. Electrical power converters such
as variable speed drives, SCR drives, etc., are the largest
contributors to harmonic distortions.
Currently, various control methods of three-phase three-
wire PWM boost converter to improve the performance are
studied under unbalanced supply voltage conditions [2]-[12].
However model for three-phase four-wire PWM boost
converter under unbalanced and distorted operating
conditions is different from that for three-phase three-wire
PWM boost converter, Not only low-order (2nd) harmonic
but also high-order harmonics across the DC link appear
under unbalanced and distorted input voltages in the three-
phase four-wire PWM converter, the same case occurs for AC
input current. Therefore the control method of low-order
harmonic input currents can be realized based on the
instantaneous power regulation [4] for three-phase three -wire
PWM converter. In [4] four control laws are presented to
calculate the positive-negative sequence current references of
the fundamental component of input currents. Even though in
[4] ripple of DC link voltage is eliminated by nullifying the
instantaneous ripple component of active power at the
converter pole and input power factor keeps unity by
nullifying the instantaneous input reactive power, but a steady
state error appears by using the input average active power in
order to maintain the required output DC-link voltage of the
converter. In [6] the positive-negative sequence current
references calculation of the fundamental component based
on output power control strategy is proposed. Although the
harmonics of DC link voltage were completely eliminated,
the input power factor can not be controlled.
To avoid the disadvantages of both of the control methods
mentioned in [4] and [6], this paper proposed the new control
strategy for calculating the positive-negative sequence current
references of the fundamental component of input currents.
The control laws [4] are modified. First, average active power
at the converter pole instead of average input active power is
used to eliminate the steady state error of DC link voltage.
Second, the unity input power factor can be achieved by
nullifying the input average reactive power. Moreover, the
control of zero sequence input current should be also
considered.
Besides fundamental component of input currents, high-
order harmonic input currents should be controlled. The
complete control scheme for three-phase four-wire PWM
converter is little mentioned in the literatures. In this paper
the control approach for the three- phase four-wire PWM
boost converter will be studied and given not only under
unbalanced but also under distorted operating conditions.
In section 2 and 3 this paper will present the circuit model
and mathematical model of power for the converter under
unbalanced and distorted input voltages. In section 4 the
positive-negative-zero sequence current reference control
method is given. In section 5 the proposed control method is
simulated and compared with the conventional single positive
sequence control method. Finally in section 6 the conclusion
is given.



14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, EPE-PEMC 2010
978-1-4244-7855-2/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE T12-6
II. CIRCUIT MODEL OF THE CONVERTER UNDER
UNBALANCED AND DISTORTED INPUT VOLTAGES
Fig.1 shows a three-phase four-wire AC/DC PWM
converter, in which the input voltages are not balanced and
distorted. The differential equations describing the average
large-signal circuit model of the converter in the abc
stationary system are expressed as:
j
j
n
j j n n n
d i
d i
e v r i l l r i
d t d t
= + + (1)
j j d c
v d v = (2)
dc a a b b c c
i d i d i d i = + + (3)
.
dc dc
dc
dc l
l
v d v
i c i c v
r dt
= + = +
(4)
Where
j
e (j=a,b,c) ,
j
i (j=a,b,c)is voltage and current of
input supply,
j
v (j=a,b,c) is voltage of converter pole, r and
l is input resistor and inductance respectively,
n
r ,
n
l is
resistor and inductance of neutral wire respectively,
n
i is
current of neutral wire.
j
d (j=a, b, c) is switch function of
converter bridge,
dc
v is DC link voltage.
dc
i is current of DC
link,
l
r ,c is resistor and capacitance of DC load terminal
respectively.
When the system is under unbalanced input voltage, AC
line voltage can be decomposed into 3 balanced components
including positive-sequence, negative-sequence and zero-
sequence components. Also AC line current, voltage at the
converter pole and average switching function can be solved
in the same methods. If the system is under distorted input
voltage, AC line voltage includes high harmonics, e.g., 5th,
7th and so on.
According to the above description, Variable description in
the synchronous frame ( 0 dq coordinate system) is presented
as:
0
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
0 0
0
n n
x x
x d d
a
n n
x C R n x C R n x C R n
q q
b
nz
x x
c

+
+
= + +









(5)
Where ( , , , ) x e v i d = represents a 3-phase variable in the system,
n represents order of high harmonic, +n represents positive-
sequence component of n-order harmonic,-n represents
negative-sequence component of n-order harmonic, nz
represents zero-sequence component of n-order harmonic.
Subscripts d , q and 0 represent respectively the variable in
the rotating frame 0 dq . Transformation matrix c and
( ) R are shown as:
1 0 1
1 3
1 ,
2 2
1 3
1
2 2
cos sin 0
( ) sin cos 0
0 0 1
C R






=






=

Substituting (5) into (1)-(4), the circuit model of the
converter system in abc stationary coordinate system can be
l
r
C
r l
n
l
n
r
r
a
E
b
E
c
E
a
v
b
v
c
v
f
v
a
i
b
i
c
i
n
i
dc
i
dc
v
l
l
r

Fig. 1 Three-phase four-wire PWM AC/DC boost converter

transformed into in synchronic coordinate system 0 dq and
shown as follows.
Positive-sequence component equations in the positive
rotating synchronous frame are obtained as (6)-(7).
n
di
n n n n d
e v r i l l n i
q
d d d
dt

+
+ + + +
= + +
(6)
n
di
q
n n n n
e v r i l l n i
q q q
d
dt

+
+ + + +
= + + +
(7)
Negative-sequence component equations in the negative
rotating synchronous frame are obtained as (8)-(9).
n
di
n n n n d
e v r i l l n i
q
d d d
dt


= + + +
(8)
n
di
q
n n n n
e v r i l l n i
q q q
d
dt


= + +
(9)
Zero-sequence equation is solved as:
0
( 3 ) ( 3 )
0 0 0
nz
di
nz nz nz
e v l l r r i
n n
dt
= + + + +
(10)
DC side equation is obtained as
3
*
Re ( ) ( ) 3
0 0
2
jnwt jnwt n n
i e i e i d i
dc dq dq
n n



= +
= =
(11)
Where
dq
i

( , , , ) e v i d = describes complex variable of DC link


current,
*
dq
i

describes conjunctive complex variable of


dq
i

.
The equivalent circuits of three-phase four-wire PWM
boost converter under unbalanced and distorted input voltages
are shown in Fig.2 according to (6)-(11).
According to above equations and equivalent circuits,
positive-sequence and negative-sequence components of
fundamental, high-order harmonic components from AC
input voltage can cause a series of even harmonics of DC link
current in the 0 dq rotating frame. At the same time, zero-
sequence component of AC input current can also cause even
harmonic of DC current (2
nd
harmonic). Due to the existence
of the above even harmonics DC-link voltage ripple appears.
This leads to increase the DC link capacitance to reduce the
DC link voltage ripple.

III. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER OF THE
CONVERTER SYSTEM
T12-7
+
( )
n
d
e t
dc
v
( )
dc
i t
+
( )
n
d
v t
C
+ n
d
i

+ n
q
n Li
l
r
+
( )
n
q
e t
+
( )
n
q
v t
+ n
q
i
l

+ n
d
n Li
r

( )
n
d
e t

( )
n
d
v t
n
d
i
l

n
q
n Li
r

( )
n
q
e t

( )
n
q
v t
n
q
i l

n
d
n Li r
0
( )
z
e t
0
( )
z
v t
0
nz
i
+ 3
n
l l + 3
n
r r
l r

Fig. 2 Circuit model of the converter in a d-q-0 rotating coordinate
system under unbalanced and distorted conditions

According to the definition of power [7], mathematical
model of power of three phase four-wire system can be
derived.
Instantaneous input active power of the converter system is
calculated as follows.
3
[ (( ) )
2
0 0
T
n m
e i
d d
n m
p e V n m i
q q
in
n m








= +
= =
0 0
( ) 0 0
1 1
0
0 0
T T
n
e
d
n
e V n
q
n m
j i
jz iz
e i









+
= =
= =

1 0 0
0 0
( ) 0 0 1 0 0 ]
1 1
0 0 2
0
0 0
T
m
i
d
m
V m i
q
i j
iz jz
e i













+
= =
(12)
Where
in
p is instantaneous input active power.
co s si n 0
( ) si n co s 0
0 0 2
V







=

Instantaneous input reactive power of the converter system
is obtained as follows.
3 3
(( ) )
2
0 0
T
n m
e i
d d
n m
q e W n m i
q q
in
n m








=
= =
(13)
Where
q
i n
is the instantaneous input reactive power.
sin cos 0
( ) cos sin 0
0 0 0
W






=

Similarly, Instantaneous active power of the converter
system at the converter pole is calculated and obtained as:
3
[ (( ) )
2
0 0
T
n m
v i
d d
n m
p v V n m i
q q out
n m








= +
= =

0 0
( ) 0 0
1 1
0
0 0
T T
n
v
d
n
v V n
q
n m
j i
jz iz
v i









+
= =
= =

1 0 0 0 0
( ) 0 0 1 0 0 ]
1 1
0 0 2
0
0 0
T
m
i
d
m
V m i
q
i j
iz jz
v i













+
= =
(14)
Where
out
p is instantaneous active power at the converter
pole.
According to the equations (12) and (14), it is clear that the
zero-sequence power can contribute to the instantaneous
active power. Namely
( ) ( )
( )
in out in out
in out org z
p p p = +
Where
( ) in out
org
p
is original instantaneous input active power
or original instantaneous active power at the converter pole,
( ) in out
z
p is zero-sequence input power or zero-sequence
power at the converter pole.
From the equation (13) it can be seen that the zero-
sequence power do not influence upon the instantaneous input
reactive power.
According to the equations (12)-(14), it can be concluded
that under unbalanced and distorted operating conditions,
combination of positive-sequence and negative-sequence of
fundamental, high-order harmonic input voltages and input
currents leads to a series of even and high harmonics of
power. Moreover, the combination of the zero-sequence of
fundamental input voltages and input currents causes also 2
nd

harmonic fluctuation of active power .The active power
fluctuations caused by the above harmonics are transferred to
the DC link and cause the ripple on the DC link voltage.
IV. POSITIVE-NEGATIVE-ZERO SEQUENCE CURRENT
REFERENCE CONTROL STRATEGY
Based on the circuit model and mathematical model of
power of three-phase four-wire PWM boost converter, it can
be concluded that in order to improve the performance of the
system under unbalanced and distorted operating conditions,
the ultimate goal of the control strategy is
to minimize and even to eliminate the high-order
harmonics in the DC link voltage
to minimize and even to eliminate the high-order
harmonics in input AC currents
to keep power factor of the input supply unity
In order to avoid the complexity of transformation among
different coordinate systems, the controllers are designed and
realized in the stationary frame. Therefore all of current
controllers are realized with resonant controllers.
Under the unbalanced and distorted operating conditions
positive-sequence and negative-sequence of fundamental
input currents, high-order harmonic input currents and zero
sequence input currents can lead to the ripple of DC link
voltage. Therefore, positive-sequence, the negative-sequence


T12-8

Fig. 3 positive-negative-zero sequence current reference control block diagram of the converter system

Fig. 4 Current reference calculation block diagram

, zero sequence and high-order harmonic input current need to
be controlled in the system.
The control part of the overall system consists of two
regulating loops including an outer DC voltage regulating
loop and an inner input current regulating loop.
The outer loop regulates the DC link voltage. The inner
input current control loop includes the fundamental
component current controller and the high-order harmonic
current controller. The fundamental component current
controller consists of the positive-negative sequence current
controller and zero-sequence current controller.
The current references of the positive-negative sequence of
fundamental component current controller are calculated on
the basis of the modified four control laws as (16).
For three-phase four-wire system, besides four control
laws, according to the analysis in section 3, the zero-sequence
voltage and current can contribute to the fluctuation in the
active power at the converter pole
out
p .Hence, the fifth
control law is added by setting
out
z
p to zero. Namely
0
z
out
p =
In order to implement the above condition, (15) is obtained.
0
0
z
i = (15)
Therefore, the fundamental positive and negative current
and zero sequence current reference values in stationary
frame are obtained as:
_
0_
_
_
_
1
2
3
0
0
0
1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
ref
ref
ref
ref
ref
v
e e e e
i
in
p
i v v v
i v v v v
i
v v v v




























=



(16)
0 _
0
z
ref
i = (17)
Where
1
_ ref
i

,
1
_ ref
i

,
1
_ ref
i

,
1
_ ref
i

,
0_
z
ref
i represents
respectively the fundamental positive , current reference
value, negative , current reference value and zero
sequence current reference value.
In order to eliminate the high-order harmonics of input AC
currents, the high-order harmonic current reference values
can be set by zero, namely,
_
0
n
ref
i

= (18)
Where
_
n
ref
i

represents positive or negative and


current reference value of n-order high harmonic.
The AC line voltage angular frequency
e
is detected by a
phase locked loop (PLL) system that receives the measured
AC line voltage
abc
e .
The block diagram of the overall control system is shown
in Fig.3. The five control laws (16)-(17) are implemented in
the reference current generator block. The current reference
calculation block is given in Fig.4.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS AND COMPARISON



1
1 1 1 1
_
0
1 1 1 1
2
0
1 1 1 1 3
0
0
1 1 1 1
0
0_
e e e e
in
p
ref
v v v v
v v v v
v v v v
i
ref

























=


1
_ref
i

1
_ref
i

1
_ref
i


1
_ref
i


1
e

1
e

1
e

1
e

1
v

1
v

1
v

_
in
o ref
p
1
v


0_ ref
i
Dc-link
voltage
PI
controller
Reference
current
generator
PR
current
control ler
Pwm
Sequence
separation
i

1
_ ref
i

ab c
i
a bc
e e

1
e

1
e

d c
v
_ d c ref
v
0 k

=
0 _ ref
in
p v

1
v

1
v

/ abc
t ransf ormer

a bc
v
0
v
1
_ ref
i

0/ abc
tr ansformer

Sequence
separation
/ 0 abc
t ransf ormer

0
i
converter
PLL
a bc
e
e

Phase Lock Loop


T12-9
Fig. 5 DC link voltage of the two control schemes (Vdc1- single positive
sequence control scheme, Vdc2-positive-negative-zero sequence current
reference control scheme)
Fig. 6 Ac input voltage and current waveforms of a-phase

The control scheme proposed in section 4 is simulated as
follows. The simulation results are compared with the
conventional single positive sequence control scheme. In the
conventional single positive sequence control scheme positive
and zero sequence are controlled. Negative sequence is not
regulated.
In order to simplify the analysis it is assumed that the AC
input voltages only include 5th order harmonic.
CASE1:33% UNBALANCE IN ONE-PHASE INPUT VOLTAGE
Assume that the parameters of the converter are listed in
the Table.1.
5th-order harmonic input voltage is given as:
5 5 5
15sin(5 ) , 15sin(5 120 ) , 15sin(5 120 )
a b c
e wt V e wt V e wt V

= = + =

Under this condition using the conventional single positive
sequence control scheme ripple appears in the waveform of




Table 1
Parameters of the converter
Parameter Value parameter value
a
l ,
b
l ,
c
l 1mH
a
r ,
b
r ,
c
r 0.1
a
e 280sin( ) wt V
_ dc ref
U 700V
b
e
180sin( 120 ) wt V

+
C 100 F
c
e 245sin( 230 ) wt V +
l
r 100
n
l 0.33mH
n
r 0.033
DC link voltage. The ripple is caused mainly by 2
nd
order
harmonic. The peak of 2
nd
ripple voltage is about 32.5v.
Similarly DC link voltage includes also 4
th
and 6
th
order
harmonics. But the values are smaller than 2
nd
order
harmonic. Using the positive-negative-zero sequence current
reference control scheme a little ripple appears in the
waveform of the DC link voltage. The peak of ripple voltage
is about 2.51v. The ripple is caused mainly by 4
th
order
harmonic and 6
th
order harmonic. Product of 5
th
order
harmonic voltage with negative sequence fundamental current
results in 6
th
order harmonic of DC link voltage. Similarly
product of 5
th
order harmonic voltage with positive sequence
fundamental current results in 4
th
order harmonic of DC link
voltage. Besides the ac line current is almost sinusoidal.
In order to compare the difference results of the two control
schemes, the DC link voltages are drawn in one figure as
Fig.5. AC input voltage and current waveforms of single
phase are shown in Fig.6.
AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the two
control schemes can be compared and shown in the Table 2.
CASE2: SINGLE-LINE-GROUND-FAULT
Assume that the parameters of the converter are listed in
the Table. 3.
5th-order harmonic voltage is given as
5 5 5
15sin(5 ) , 15sin(5 120 ) , 0
a b c
e wt V e wt V e V

= = + =

Under this condition using the conventional single positive

Table 2
AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the two control schemes
positive-negative-zero
sequence current
reference control
conventional single
positive sequence
control
AC current THD 0.00635 0.05
Main Ripple of
DC voltage
6
th
harmonic(2.51V) 2
nd
harmonic
(32..5V)

Table 3
Parameters of the converter
parameter value parameter value
a
l ,
b
l ,
c
l 1mH
a
r ,
b
r ,
c
r 0.1
a
e 280sin( ) wt V
_ dc ref
U
700V
b
e
180sin( 120 ) wt V

+
C 100 F
c
e 0V
l
r 100
n
l 0.33mH
n
r 0.033

0.6 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
time(sec)
d
c

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)


Vdc1
Vdc2
0.8 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88
-400
-200
0
200
400
time(s)
a

i
n
p
u
t

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
a
n
d

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)

o
f

a

p
h
a
s
e


ea
ia
T12-10
sequence control scheme a large ripple appears in the
waveform of the DC link voltage. The ripple is caused mainly
by 2
nd
order harmonic. The peak of 2
nd
ripple voltage is about
86.4v. Similarly dc link voltage includes also 4
th
and 6
th

harmonics, e.g. 4
th
order harmonic voltage value is 6.6V.
Using the positive-negative-zero sequence current reference
control scheme a little ripple appears in the waveform of the
DC link voltage. The peak of voltage ripple is about 3.4v. The
ripple is caused mainly by 4
th
order harmonics and 6
th
order
harmonics. Besides the AC line current is fast sinusoidal.
DC link voltages of the two control schemes are drawn in
one figure as Fig. 7.
AC input voltage and current waveforms of single phase
are shown in Fig. 8.
AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the three
control schemes can be compared and shown in the Table 4.
Fig: 7 DC link voltages of the two control schemes (Vdc1-positive-
negative-zero sequence current reference control scheme, Vdc2-conventional
single positive sequence control scheme)
Fig. 8 AC input voltage and current waveforms of a-phase



Table 4
AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the two control schemes

positive-negative-zero
sequence current
reference control
conventional single
positive sequence
control
AC current THD 0.0065 0.032
Ripple of DC
voltage
6
th
harmonic (2.52V)
4
th
harmonic (1V)
2nd harmonic(86..4V)
VI. CONCLUSIONS
From the simulation waveforms and tables in section 5, it
can be seen that under 33% unbalance under one-phase input
voltage condition the THD value for the three line currents
using the positive-negative-zero sequence current reference
controller(0.635%)is smaller than using the conventional
positive sequence controller (2.6%). Under single-line-
ground-fault condition the THD value for the three line
currents using the proposed controller (0.65%) is smaller than
using the conventional positive sequence controller (3.2%).
under the two simulation conditions the voltage ripple across
the DC link using the positive-negative-zero sequence current
reference controller is smaller than that using the
conventional single positive sequence controller. Therefore
under unbalanced and distorted operating conditions the
control performance of the positive-negative-zero sequence
current reference controller is better than that of the
conventional single positive sequence controller. Moreover
the harmonics of AC input currents are almost eliminated and
the input power factor keeps unity using the positive-
negative-zero sequence control scheme. Therefore, the
control strategy proposed in the paper is more advantageous
than the control methods presented in [4] and [6].

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0.88 0.89 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94
600
620
640
660
680
700
720
740
760
780
800
time (s)
d
c

l
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v
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(
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)


Vdc1
Vdc2
0.8 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.9
-500
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
time(s)
a
c

i
n
p
u
t

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)

a
n
d

c
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(
A
)

o
f

a

p
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ea
ia
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