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Distorted Input Conditions

Pengpai Dang*, Jrgen Petzoldt

*Department of power electronics and control, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, 98693 Ilmenau,Germany

*e-mail: peng-pai.dang @ tu-ilmenau.de

e-mail: Jrgen Petzoldt @ tu-ilmenau.de

Abstract-This paper presents circuit model and mathematical

model of power for three-phase four-wire PWM converter

under unbalanced and distorted input voltages. Based on the

system model, a new positive-negative-zero sequence current

reference control method is proposed to eliminate of harmonics

of DC link voltage to alleviate the stress of the DC-link capacitor

and to reduce the harmonics of input AC currents. The results

show that the proposed control method has better performances

than the conventional single positive sequence control under

unbalanced and distorted input voltages.

Index terms-unbalanced and distorted input voltages, high

harmonics, three-phase four-wire PWM converter, zero

sequence current

I. INTRODUCTION

Comparing with three-phase three -wire PWM converter,

three-phase four-wire PWM converters are more used in

uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and power distribution

systems [1]. In actual applications, the unbalanced voltage

conditions occur frequently in the input supply, particularly in

a weak AC system, and may occur because of reasons such as

phase load imbalance, unbalanced transmission impendence

per phase, and influences due to fault or damage in the

transmission network. This will result in the presence of

negative sequence and zero sequence voltage components so

that the performance of the PWM converter deteriorates.

Moreover, the distorted supply voltage conditions appear

frequently, which result in high harmonics in the AC line

currents. The high harmonics have the bad influence upon

performance of the system. Electrical power converters such

as variable speed drives, SCR drives, etc., are the largest

contributors to harmonic distortions.

Currently, various control methods of three-phase three-

wire PWM boost converter to improve the performance are

studied under unbalanced supply voltage conditions [2]-[12].

However model for three-phase four-wire PWM boost

converter under unbalanced and distorted operating

conditions is different from that for three-phase three-wire

PWM boost converter, Not only low-order (2nd) harmonic

but also high-order harmonics across the DC link appear

under unbalanced and distorted input voltages in the three-

phase four-wire PWM converter, the same case occurs for AC

input current. Therefore the control method of low-order

harmonic input currents can be realized based on the

instantaneous power regulation [4] for three-phase three -wire

PWM converter. In [4] four control laws are presented to

calculate the positive-negative sequence current references of

the fundamental component of input currents. Even though in

[4] ripple of DC link voltage is eliminated by nullifying the

instantaneous ripple component of active power at the

converter pole and input power factor keeps unity by

nullifying the instantaneous input reactive power, but a steady

state error appears by using the input average active power in

order to maintain the required output DC-link voltage of the

converter. In [6] the positive-negative sequence current

references calculation of the fundamental component based

on output power control strategy is proposed. Although the

harmonics of DC link voltage were completely eliminated,

the input power factor can not be controlled.

To avoid the disadvantages of both of the control methods

mentioned in [4] and [6], this paper proposed the new control

strategy for calculating the positive-negative sequence current

references of the fundamental component of input currents.

The control laws [4] are modified. First, average active power

at the converter pole instead of average input active power is

used to eliminate the steady state error of DC link voltage.

Second, the unity input power factor can be achieved by

nullifying the input average reactive power. Moreover, the

control of zero sequence input current should be also

considered.

Besides fundamental component of input currents, high-

order harmonic input currents should be controlled. The

complete control scheme for three-phase four-wire PWM

converter is little mentioned in the literatures. In this paper

the control approach for the three- phase four-wire PWM

boost converter will be studied and given not only under

unbalanced but also under distorted operating conditions.

In section 2 and 3 this paper will present the circuit model

and mathematical model of power for the converter under

unbalanced and distorted input voltages. In section 4 the

positive-negative-zero sequence current reference control

method is given. In section 5 the proposed control method is

simulated and compared with the conventional single positive

sequence control method. Finally in section 6 the conclusion

is given.

14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, EPE-PEMC 2010

978-1-4244-7855-2/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE T12-6

II. CIRCUIT MODEL OF THE CONVERTER UNDER

UNBALANCED AND DISTORTED INPUT VOLTAGES

Fig.1 shows a three-phase four-wire AC/DC PWM

converter, in which the input voltages are not balanced and

distorted. The differential equations describing the average

large-signal circuit model of the converter in the abc

stationary system are expressed as:

j

j

n

j j n n n

d i

d i

e v r i l l r i

d t d t

= + + (1)

j j d c

v d v = (2)

dc a a b b c c

i d i d i d i = + + (3)

.

dc dc

dc

dc l

l

v d v

i c i c v

r dt

= + = +

(4)

Where

j

e (j=a,b,c) ,

j

i (j=a,b,c)is voltage and current of

input supply,

j

v (j=a,b,c) is voltage of converter pole, r and

l is input resistor and inductance respectively,

n

r ,

n

l is

resistor and inductance of neutral wire respectively,

n

i is

current of neutral wire.

j

d (j=a, b, c) is switch function of

converter bridge,

dc

v is DC link voltage.

dc

i is current of DC

link,

l

r ,c is resistor and capacitance of DC load terminal

respectively.

When the system is under unbalanced input voltage, AC

line voltage can be decomposed into 3 balanced components

including positive-sequence, negative-sequence and zero-

sequence components. Also AC line current, voltage at the

converter pole and average switching function can be solved

in the same methods. If the system is under distorted input

voltage, AC line voltage includes high harmonics, e.g., 5th,

7th and so on.

According to the above description, Variable description in

the synchronous frame ( 0 dq coordinate system) is presented

as:

0

( ) ( ) ( ) 0

0 0

0

n n

x x

x d d

a

n n

x C R n x C R n x C R n

q q

b

nz

x x

c

+

+

= + +

(5)

Where ( , , , ) x e v i d = represents a 3-phase variable in the system,

n represents order of high harmonic, +n represents positive-

sequence component of n-order harmonic,-n represents

negative-sequence component of n-order harmonic, nz

represents zero-sequence component of n-order harmonic.

Subscripts d , q and 0 represent respectively the variable in

the rotating frame 0 dq . Transformation matrix c and

( ) R are shown as:

1 0 1

1 3

1 ,

2 2

1 3

1

2 2

cos sin 0

( ) sin cos 0

0 0 1

C R

=

=

Substituting (5) into (1)-(4), the circuit model of the

converter system in abc stationary coordinate system can be

l

r

C

r l

n

l

n

r

r

a

E

b

E

c

E

a

v

b

v

c

v

f

v

a

i

b

i

c

i

n

i

dc

i

dc

v

l

l

r

Fig. 1 Three-phase four-wire PWM AC/DC boost converter

transformed into in synchronic coordinate system 0 dq and

shown as follows.

Positive-sequence component equations in the positive

rotating synchronous frame are obtained as (6)-(7).

n

di

n n n n d

e v r i l l n i

q

d d d

dt

+

+ + + +

= + +

(6)

n

di

q

n n n n

e v r i l l n i

q q q

d

dt

+

+ + + +

= + + +

(7)

Negative-sequence component equations in the negative

rotating synchronous frame are obtained as (8)-(9).

n

di

n n n n d

e v r i l l n i

q

d d d

dt

= + + +

(8)

n

di

q

n n n n

e v r i l l n i

q q q

d

dt

= + +

(9)

Zero-sequence equation is solved as:

0

( 3 ) ( 3 )

0 0 0

nz

di

nz nz nz

e v l l r r i

n n

dt

= + + + +

(10)

DC side equation is obtained as

3

*

Re ( ) ( ) 3

0 0

2

jnwt jnwt n n

i e i e i d i

dc dq dq

n n

= +

= =

(11)

Where

dq

i

current,

*

dq

i

dq

i

.

The equivalent circuits of three-phase four-wire PWM

boost converter under unbalanced and distorted input voltages

are shown in Fig.2 according to (6)-(11).

According to above equations and equivalent circuits,

positive-sequence and negative-sequence components of

fundamental, high-order harmonic components from AC

input voltage can cause a series of even harmonics of DC link

current in the 0 dq rotating frame. At the same time, zero-

sequence component of AC input current can also cause even

harmonic of DC current (2

nd

harmonic). Due to the existence

of the above even harmonics DC-link voltage ripple appears.

This leads to increase the DC link capacitance to reduce the

DC link voltage ripple.

III. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER OF THE

CONVERTER SYSTEM

T12-7

+

( )

n

d

e t

dc

v

( )

dc

i t

+

( )

n

d

v t

C

+ n

d

i

+ n

q

n Li

l

r

+

( )

n

q

e t

+

( )

n

q

v t

+ n

q

i

l

+ n

d

n Li

r

( )

n

d

e t

( )

n

d

v t

n

d

i

l

n

q

n Li

r

( )

n

q

e t

( )

n

q

v t

n

q

i l

n

d

n Li r

0

( )

z

e t

0

( )

z

v t

0

nz

i

+ 3

n

l l + 3

n

r r

l r

Fig. 2 Circuit model of the converter in a d-q-0 rotating coordinate

system under unbalanced and distorted conditions

According to the definition of power [7], mathematical

model of power of three phase four-wire system can be

derived.

Instantaneous input active power of the converter system is

calculated as follows.

3

[ (( ) )

2

0 0

T

n m

e i

d d

n m

p e V n m i

q q

in

n m

= +

= =

0 0

( ) 0 0

1 1

0

0 0

T T

n

e

d

n

e V n

q

n m

j i

jz iz

e i

+

= =

= =

1 0 0

0 0

( ) 0 0 1 0 0 ]

1 1

0 0 2

0

0 0

T

m

i

d

m

V m i

q

i j

iz jz

e i

+

= =

(12)

Where

in

p is instantaneous input active power.

co s si n 0

( ) si n co s 0

0 0 2

V

=

Instantaneous input reactive power of the converter system

is obtained as follows.

3 3

(( ) )

2

0 0

T

n m

e i

d d

n m

q e W n m i

q q

in

n m

=

= =

(13)

Where

q

i n

is the instantaneous input reactive power.

sin cos 0

( ) cos sin 0

0 0 0

W

=

Similarly, Instantaneous active power of the converter

system at the converter pole is calculated and obtained as:

3

[ (( ) )

2

0 0

T

n m

v i

d d

n m

p v V n m i

q q out

n m

= +

= =

0 0

( ) 0 0

1 1

0

0 0

T T

n

v

d

n

v V n

q

n m

j i

jz iz

v i

+

= =

= =

1 0 0 0 0

( ) 0 0 1 0 0 ]

1 1

0 0 2

0

0 0

T

m

i

d

m

V m i

q

i j

iz jz

v i

+

= =

(14)

Where

out

p is instantaneous active power at the converter

pole.

According to the equations (12) and (14), it is clear that the

zero-sequence power can contribute to the instantaneous

active power. Namely

( ) ( )

( )

in out in out

in out org z

p p p = +

Where

( ) in out

org

p

is original instantaneous input active power

or original instantaneous active power at the converter pole,

( ) in out

z

p is zero-sequence input power or zero-sequence

power at the converter pole.

From the equation (13) it can be seen that the zero-

sequence power do not influence upon the instantaneous input

reactive power.

According to the equations (12)-(14), it can be concluded

that under unbalanced and distorted operating conditions,

combination of positive-sequence and negative-sequence of

fundamental, high-order harmonic input voltages and input

currents leads to a series of even and high harmonics of

power. Moreover, the combination of the zero-sequence of

fundamental input voltages and input currents causes also 2

nd

harmonic fluctuation of active power .The active power

fluctuations caused by the above harmonics are transferred to

the DC link and cause the ripple on the DC link voltage.

IV. POSITIVE-NEGATIVE-ZERO SEQUENCE CURRENT

REFERENCE CONTROL STRATEGY

Based on the circuit model and mathematical model of

power of three-phase four-wire PWM boost converter, it can

be concluded that in order to improve the performance of the

system under unbalanced and distorted operating conditions,

the ultimate goal of the control strategy is

to minimize and even to eliminate the high-order

harmonics in the DC link voltage

to minimize and even to eliminate the high-order

harmonics in input AC currents

to keep power factor of the input supply unity

In order to avoid the complexity of transformation among

different coordinate systems, the controllers are designed and

realized in the stationary frame. Therefore all of current

controllers are realized with resonant controllers.

Under the unbalanced and distorted operating conditions

positive-sequence and negative-sequence of fundamental

input currents, high-order harmonic input currents and zero

sequence input currents can lead to the ripple of DC link

voltage. Therefore, positive-sequence, the negative-sequence

T12-8

Fig. 3 positive-negative-zero sequence current reference control block diagram of the converter system

Fig. 4 Current reference calculation block diagram

, zero sequence and high-order harmonic input current need to

be controlled in the system.

The control part of the overall system consists of two

regulating loops including an outer DC voltage regulating

loop and an inner input current regulating loop.

The outer loop regulates the DC link voltage. The inner

input current control loop includes the fundamental

component current controller and the high-order harmonic

current controller. The fundamental component current

controller consists of the positive-negative sequence current

controller and zero-sequence current controller.

The current references of the positive-negative sequence of

fundamental component current controller are calculated on

the basis of the modified four control laws as (16).

For three-phase four-wire system, besides four control

laws, according to the analysis in section 3, the zero-sequence

voltage and current can contribute to the fluctuation in the

active power at the converter pole

out

p .Hence, the fifth

control law is added by setting

out

z

p to zero. Namely

0

z

out

p =

In order to implement the above condition, (15) is obtained.

0

0

z

i = (15)

Therefore, the fundamental positive and negative current

and zero sequence current reference values in stationary

frame are obtained as:

_

0_

_

_

_

1

2

3

0

0

0

1 1 1 1

1

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

ref

ref

ref

ref

ref

v

e e e e

i

in

p

i v v v

i v v v v

i

v v v v

=

(16)

0 _

0

z

ref

i = (17)

Where

1

_ ref

i

,

1

_ ref

i

,

1

_ ref

i

,

1

_ ref

i

,

0_

z

ref

i represents

respectively the fundamental positive , current reference

value, negative , current reference value and zero

sequence current reference value.

In order to eliminate the high-order harmonics of input AC

currents, the high-order harmonic current reference values

can be set by zero, namely,

_

0

n

ref

i

= (18)

Where

_

n

ref

i

current reference value of n-order high harmonic.

The AC line voltage angular frequency

e

is detected by a

phase locked loop (PLL) system that receives the measured

AC line voltage

abc

e .

The block diagram of the overall control system is shown

in Fig.3. The five control laws (16)-(17) are implemented in

the reference current generator block. The current reference

calculation block is given in Fig.4.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS AND COMPARISON

1

1 1 1 1

_

0

1 1 1 1

2

0

1 1 1 1 3

0

0

1 1 1 1

0

0_

e e e e

in

p

ref

v v v v

v v v v

v v v v

i

ref

=

1

_ref

i

1

_ref

i

1

_ref

i

1

_ref

i

1

e

1

e

1

e

1

e

1

v

1

v

1

v

_

in

o ref

p

1

v

0_ ref

i

Dc-link

voltage

PI

controller

Reference

current

generator

PR

current

control ler

Pwm

Sequence

separation

i

1

_ ref

i

ab c

i

a bc

e e

1

e

1

e

d c

v

_ d c ref

v

0 k

=

0 _ ref

in

p v

1

v

1

v

/ abc

t ransf ormer

a bc

v

0

v

1

_ ref

i

0/ abc

tr ansformer

Sequence

separation

/ 0 abc

t ransf ormer

0

i

converter

PLL

a bc

e

e

T12-9

Fig. 5 DC link voltage of the two control schemes (Vdc1- single positive

sequence control scheme, Vdc2-positive-negative-zero sequence current

reference control scheme)

Fig. 6 Ac input voltage and current waveforms of a-phase

The control scheme proposed in section 4 is simulated as

follows. The simulation results are compared with the

conventional single positive sequence control scheme. In the

conventional single positive sequence control scheme positive

and zero sequence are controlled. Negative sequence is not

regulated.

In order to simplify the analysis it is assumed that the AC

input voltages only include 5th order harmonic.

CASE1:33% UNBALANCE IN ONE-PHASE INPUT VOLTAGE

Assume that the parameters of the converter are listed in

the Table.1.

5th-order harmonic input voltage is given as:

5 5 5

15sin(5 ) , 15sin(5 120 ) , 15sin(5 120 )

a b c

e wt V e wt V e wt V

= = + =

Under this condition using the conventional single positive

sequence control scheme ripple appears in the waveform of

Table 1

Parameters of the converter

Parameter Value parameter value

a

l ,

b

l ,

c

l 1mH

a

r ,

b

r ,

c

r 0.1

a

e 280sin( ) wt V

_ dc ref

U 700V

b

e

180sin( 120 ) wt V

+

C 100 F

c

e 245sin( 230 ) wt V +

l

r 100

n

l 0.33mH

n

r 0.033

DC link voltage. The ripple is caused mainly by 2

nd

order

harmonic. The peak of 2

nd

ripple voltage is about 32.5v.

Similarly DC link voltage includes also 4

th

and 6

th

order

harmonics. But the values are smaller than 2

nd

order

harmonic. Using the positive-negative-zero sequence current

reference control scheme a little ripple appears in the

waveform of the DC link voltage. The peak of ripple voltage

is about 2.51v. The ripple is caused mainly by 4

th

order

harmonic and 6

th

order harmonic. Product of 5

th

order

harmonic voltage with negative sequence fundamental current

results in 6

th

order harmonic of DC link voltage. Similarly

product of 5

th

order harmonic voltage with positive sequence

fundamental current results in 4

th

order harmonic of DC link

voltage. Besides the ac line current is almost sinusoidal.

In order to compare the difference results of the two control

schemes, the DC link voltages are drawn in one figure as

Fig.5. AC input voltage and current waveforms of single

phase are shown in Fig.6.

AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the two

control schemes can be compared and shown in the Table 2.

CASE2: SINGLE-LINE-GROUND-FAULT

Assume that the parameters of the converter are listed in

the Table. 3.

5th-order harmonic voltage is given as

5 5 5

15sin(5 ) , 15sin(5 120 ) , 0

a b c

e wt V e wt V e V

= = + =

Under this condition using the conventional single positive

Table 2

AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the two control schemes

positive-negative-zero

sequence current

reference control

conventional single

positive sequence

control

AC current THD 0.00635 0.05

Main Ripple of

DC voltage

6

th

harmonic(2.51V) 2

nd

harmonic

(32..5V)

Table 3

Parameters of the converter

parameter value parameter value

a

l ,

b

l ,

c

l 1mH

a

r ,

b

r ,

c

r 0.1

a

e 280sin( ) wt V

_ dc ref

U

700V

b

e

180sin( 120 ) wt V

+

C 100 F

c

e 0V

l

r 100

n

l 0.33mH

n

r 0.033

0.6 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66

660

670

680

690

700

710

720

730

740

time(sec)

d

c

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

(

V

)

Vdc1

Vdc2

0.8 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88

-400

-200

0

200

400

time(s)

a

i

n

p

u

t

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

(

V

)

a

n

d

c

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

A

)

o

f

a

p

h

a

s

e

ea

ia

T12-10

sequence control scheme a large ripple appears in the

waveform of the DC link voltage. The ripple is caused mainly

by 2

nd

order harmonic. The peak of 2

nd

ripple voltage is about

86.4v. Similarly dc link voltage includes also 4

th

and 6

th

harmonics, e.g. 4

th

order harmonic voltage value is 6.6V.

Using the positive-negative-zero sequence current reference

control scheme a little ripple appears in the waveform of the

DC link voltage. The peak of voltage ripple is about 3.4v. The

ripple is caused mainly by 4

th

order harmonics and 6

th

order

harmonics. Besides the AC line current is fast sinusoidal.

DC link voltages of the two control schemes are drawn in

one figure as Fig. 7.

AC input voltage and current waveforms of single phase

are shown in Fig. 8.

AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the three

control schemes can be compared and shown in the Table 4.

Fig: 7 DC link voltages of the two control schemes (Vdc1-positive-

negative-zero sequence current reference control scheme, Vdc2-conventional

single positive sequence control scheme)

Fig. 8 AC input voltage and current waveforms of a-phase

Table 4

AC current THD and ripple of DC voltage of the two control schemes

positive-negative-zero

sequence current

reference control

conventional single

positive sequence

control

AC current THD 0.0065 0.032

Ripple of DC

voltage

6

th

harmonic (2.52V)

4

th

harmonic (1V)

2nd harmonic(86..4V)

VI. CONCLUSIONS

From the simulation waveforms and tables in section 5, it

can be seen that under 33% unbalance under one-phase input

voltage condition the THD value for the three line currents

using the positive-negative-zero sequence current reference

controller(0.635%)is smaller than using the conventional

positive sequence controller (2.6%). Under single-line-

ground-fault condition the THD value for the three line

currents using the proposed controller (0.65%) is smaller than

using the conventional positive sequence controller (3.2%).

under the two simulation conditions the voltage ripple across

the DC link using the positive-negative-zero sequence current

reference controller is smaller than that using the

conventional single positive sequence controller. Therefore

under unbalanced and distorted operating conditions the

control performance of the positive-negative-zero sequence

current reference controller is better than that of the

conventional single positive sequence controller. Moreover

the harmonics of AC input currents are almost eliminated and

the input power factor keeps unity using the positive-

negative-zero sequence control scheme. Therefore, the

control strategy proposed in the paper is more advantageous

than the control methods presented in [4] and [6].

REFERENCES

[1] Richard Zhang, Fred C.Lee Four-legged three-phase converter with

faut tolerant capability, IEEE trans 2000

[2] ] H.Song and K.Nam, "Dual current control scheme for PWM converter

under unbalanced input voltage conditions," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,

Vol. 46, No.5 pp. 953-959, Oct, 1999.

[3] A.V.Stankovic and T.A.Lipo ,A Novel Control Method for Input

Output Harmonic Emilination of the PWM Boost Type Converter under

Unbalanced Operating Conditions IEEE trans.power

elec.vol.16,no.5,sep,2001

[4] Y.S Suh, T.A.Lipo, " modelling and analysis of instantaneous active

and reactive power for pwm ac/dc converter under generalized

unbalanced network," IEEE Trans. Power.del, Vol. 21, No.3,July. 2006.

[5] Y.S Suh, T.A.Lipo, " Control Scheme in Hybrid Synchronous

stationary frame for pwm AC/DC converter under generalized

unbalanced operating conditions," IEEE Trans. Ind.appl, Vol. 42,

No.3,May/June. 2006

[6] Boyin,Ramesh Oruganti An output-power-control strategy for a three-

phase pwm converter under unbalanced supply conditions.,IEEE

trans. On industrial electronocs,vol 55,No 5 May,2008.

[7] A.V.Timbus,P.Rodriguez control strategies for distributed power

generation systems operating on the fault grid, Conf.Rec.IEEE ISIE

2006,vol 2,pp.1601-1607

[8] A.Yazdani,and R. Iravani,a unified dynamic model and control for the

voltage-sourced converter under unbalanced grid conditions, IEEE

trans.power del.,vol21,no.3,jul,2006

[9] A.V.Stankovic and T.A.Lipo, "A generalized control method for input

simultaneous unbalanced input voltages and input impedances," Proc.

IEEE Conf Rec. PESC 2001, Vol. 3, pp. 1309-1314, 2001.

0.88 0.89 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94

600

620

640

660

680

700

720

740

760

780

800

time (s)

d

c

l

i

n

k

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

(

V

)

Vdc1

Vdc2

0.8 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.9

-500

-400

-300

-200

-100

0

100

200

300

400

500

time(s)

a

c

i

n

p

u

t

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

(

V

)

a

n

d

c

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

A

)

o

f

a

p

h

a

s

e

ea

ia

T12-11

[10] Jiabing Hu, Yikang,He,modelling and control of grid-connected

voltage-sourced converters under generalized Unbalanced Operating

Conditions, IEEE trans. Energy conversion.Vol.23,N0.3 sep 2008

[11] X.H.Wu, S.K.Panda and J.X.Xu, "Development of a new mathematical

model of three phase PWM boost converter under unbalanced supply

voltage operating conditions," Proc. IEEE Conf: Rec. PESC 2006, Vol.

2, pp. 1391-1398, April. 2006

[12] Instantaneous power theory and applications to power conditioning,

Hirofumi Akagi, Edisn Hirokazu Watanabe, Mauricio Aredes, IEEE

Press.

T12-12

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