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# Lecture-23 (Shear force

## diagram & bending moment

diagram)
Solid Mechanics
(CE 251)
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 1
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 2
Trigonometric functions:
(1) Line function: y = mx + c

y = dependent variable
x = independent variables
m = slope of line
c = interceptor on y-axis

y = mx
c = 0
m = + ve
y = mx + c
m = +ve
c = +ve
y = mx + c
m = -ve
c = +ve
y = mx + c
m = +ve
c= -ve
y = mx + c
m = -ve
c= -ve
+ x
+y
-x
+y
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 3
(1) Standard Equations of a Parabola with Vertex at (0, 0)
y = dependent variable
x = independent variables

1.1 y
2
= 4ax

Vertex: (0, 0)
Focus: (a, 0)
Directrix: x = a
Symmetric with respect to the x axis
Axis the x axis

a < 0 (open left)
a > 0 (open right)
a < 0 (open down)
a > 0 (open up)
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 4
1.2 x
2
= 4ay

Vertex: (0, 0)
Focus: (0, a)
Directrix: y = a
Symmetric with respect to the y axis
Axis the y axis

CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 5
1.3 Convert quadratic equation to standard parabola

a
A
a
b
x X
a
c
a
b
y Y where
X AY
a
b
x
a
c
a
b
y
a
a
c
a
b
a
b
x a y
a
c
a
b
a
b
x
a
b
x a y
a
c
x
a
b
x a y
c bx ax y
1
4 ;
2
4
,
4
)
2
( )
4
(
1
4
)
2
(
)
4 4
(
) (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

a
c
a
b
y
a
c
a
b
y
Y
a
b
x
a
b
x
X

2
2
2
2
2
0
2
0 and
2
0
2
0
: are Parabola of Vertex
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 6

Vertex:

Symmetric with respect to the y axis
Axis the y axis

)
2
,
2
(
2
2
a
c
a
b
a
b

a > 0 (open up)
y
x
0
-x
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 7
1.4 y = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx +d

where a 0, and b, c and d (=0) are constants (can be
zero) and If a > 0 the graph of a cubic looks similar to
one of the following graphs:

y r x q x p x

) )( )( (
III Case
y p x

3
) (
II Case
y x

3
II Case
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 8
1.4 y = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx +d

where a 0, and b, c and d (=0) are constants (can be
zero) and If a < 0 the graph of a cubic looks similar to
one of the following graphs:

y r x q x p x

) )( )( (
III Case
y p x

3
) (
II Case
y x

3
II Case
Sign Conventions SF and BM:
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Sign Conventions of SF & BM
Sagging
Hogging
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Steps to Calculate SF and BM in Beams:
Step-1
Determine the reactions at the supports.
Step-2
Divide the beam span in different segments according
Step-3
Consider left side end of beam as origin.
Step-4
Choose a section corresponding to each segment which
will be at x distance from the left end of the beam
(origin).
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
11
Step-5
Take a left segment of the beam from section Y-Y.
Step-6
Convert all UDL, UVL in point loads.
Step-7
Choose the sign conventions and write the static
equilibrium equations for the beam segment.
Step-8
Solve static equilibrium equations for the each beam
segment separately according to boundary condition of
segments.
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Step-9
Consider a x and y axis below the beam such that length
of the x-axis will be equal to beam span.
Step-10
Mark the all points according to loading and supports
on the x-axis.
Step-11
Draw the curve separately according to SF and BM
equations for each segments with boundary values.
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Example 1:
Step-1
Determine the reactions at
the supports.
R
B
R
D
H
B
F
x
= 0 = H
B
= 0 ..........(1)

F
y
= 0 = -R
B
- R
D
+ 20 + 40= 0

R
D
+ R
B
= 60 kN .............(2)

M = 0 = M
B
= 0
= - (3 x 40) + (5 x R
D
) + R
B
x 0
+ H
A
x 0 + (2.5 x 20)= 0

R
D
= 70/5 = 14 kN ..............(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)
R
B
= 46 kN CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
14
Step-2
Divide the beam span in different segments according
Segment-1: AB
Segment-2: BC
Segment-3: CD
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Step-3
Consider left side end of beam as origin.
X

Y

0

Step-4
Choose a section y-y corresponding to each segment
which will be at x distance from the left end of the
beam (origin).
x

y

y

CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Step-5
Take a left segment of the beam from section Y-Y.
0

x

y

y

Step-6
Convert all UDL, UVL in point loads.
There is no UDL or UVL.
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Step-7 & 8
Choose the sign conventions and write the static
equilibrium equations for the beam segment & solve them.
0

x

y

y

Segment-1: AB (0 x 2.5)
F
x
= 0 ..........(1)

F
y
= 0
= 20 + V
x
= 0
V
x
= - 20 kN (constant).............(2)

M = 0
= (x * 20) + M
x
= 0

M
x
= -20x (line equation with ve
slop and zero intercept on y-axis)..(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)
At x = 0
V
A
= - 20 kN; M
A
= 0 kN-m

At x = 2.5 m
V
B
= - 20 kN; M
B
= - 50 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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y

y

x

R
B
= 46 kN

(x - 2.5)

0

Segment-2: BC (2.5 x 5.5)
F
x
= 0 ..........(1)

F
y
= 0
= 20 + V
x
46 = 0

V
x
= 26 kN (constant value).............(2)

M = 0
= (x * 20) - (x 2.5)*46 + M
x
= 0

M
x
= 26x - 115 (line equation with +ve
slope and ve intercept on y-axis)..........(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)

At x = 2.5 m
V
B
= 26.0 kN; M
B
= - 50.0 kN-m

At x = 5.5 m
V
C
= 26.0 kN; M
C
= 28.0 kN-m CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Segment-3: CD (5.5 x 7.5)
X

Y

0

x

y

y

(x-2.5-3)

R
B
= 46 kN

F
x
= 0 ..........(1)

F
y
= 0
= 20 46 + 40 + V
x
= 0

V
x
= -14.0 kN (constant value).............(2)

M = 0
= (x * 20) - (x 2.5)*46 + (x 2.5 3)*40
+ M
x
= 0

M
x
= -14x + 105 (line eq. with ve slop
and +ve intercept)................................(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)

At x = 5.5 m
V
C
= -14.0 kN; M
C
= 28.0 kN-m

At x = 7.5 m
V
D
= -14.0 kN; M
D
= 0 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Step-9
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
21
Consider a x and y axis below the beam such that length
of the x-axis will be equal to beam span.
x
y
Step-10
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Mark the all points according to loading and supports
on the x-axis.
x
y
B
A
C
D
Step-11
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
23
Draw the curve separately according to SF and BM
equations for each segments with boundary values.
Segment-1: AB (0 x 2.5)

V
x
= - 20 kN (constant)
M
x
= -20x (line equation with
ve slop and zero intercept on
y-axis)

At x = 0
V
A
= - 20 kN; M
A
= 0 kN-m

At x = 2.5 m
V
B
= - 20 kN; M
B
= - 50 kN-m

x
y
B
A
C
D
-20 kN
SFD
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Segment-1: AB (0 x 2.5)

V
x
= - 20 kN (constant)
M
x
= -20x (line equation with
ve slop and zero intercept on
y-axis)

At x = 0
V
A
= - 20 kN; M
A
= 0 kN-m

At x = 2.5 m
V
B
= - 20 kN; M
B
= - 50 kN-m

x
y
B
A
C
D
-20 kN
SFD
-50 kN-m
0.0 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Segment-2: BC (2.5 x 5.5)

V
x
= 26 kN (constant value)
M
x
= 26x - 115 (line equation
with +ve slope and ve
intercept on y-axis)

At x = 2.5 m
V
B
= 26.0 kN; M
B
= - 50.0 kN-m

At x = 5.5 m
V
C
= 26.0 kN; M
C
= 28.0 kN-m

M
x
= 0
26x 115 = 0

x = 4.42 m
x
y
B
A
C
D
-20 kN
SFD
-50 kN-m
0.0 kN-m
26 kN
E
x = 4.42 m
28 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Segment-2: CD (2.5 x 7.5)

V
x
= -14.0 kN (constant value)
M
x
= -14x + 105 (line eq. with
ve slop and +ve intercept)

At x = 5.5 m
V
C
= -14.0 kN; M
C
= 28.0 kN-m

At x = 7.5 m
V
D
= -14.0 kN; M
D
= 0 kN-m
x
y
B
A
C
D
-20 kN
SFD
0.0 kN-m
-50 kN-m
26 kN
E
x = 4.42 m
28 kN-m
-14 kN
BMD
Example:2
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
27
Step-1
Determine the reactions at the supports.
Couple: arm = 2 m and
force = 8 kN
M
o
= 2 x 8 = 16 kN-m
UDL: 2 Nos.
q
1
= q
2
= q = 4 kN/m on 2 m
Resultant point load = 4 x 2 = 8 kN
Will act at centroid of the UDL
= 2/2
= 1 m from A and B
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
28

1.0 m 3.0 m
1.0 m
8.0 kN 8.0 kN
3.0 m
H
A
R
A
R
B
F
x
= 0 = H
A
= 0 ..........(1)

F
y
= 0 = -R
A
- R
B
+ 8.0 + 8.0 = 0

R
A
+ R
B
= 16.0 kN .............(2)

M = 0 = M
B
= 0
= R
B
x 0 + (1 x 8) + - (M
o
= 16) + (7 x 8) - (8 x R
A
) + H
A
x 0 = 0

R
A
= 48/8 = 6.0 kN ..............(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)
R
B
= 10.0 kN

So Reactions are H
A
= 0; R
A
= 6.0 kN; R
B
= 10.0 kN
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
29
Step-2
Divide the beam span in different segments according
C E D
Segment-1: AC
Segment-2: CD
Segment-3: DE
Segment-4: EB
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 30
Step-3
Consider left side end of beam as origin.
C E D
Y
X
O
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
31
Step-4
Choose a section y-y corresponding to each segment
which will be at x distance from the left end of the
beam (origin). 1
st
choose for segment AC and so on.
C E D
Y
X
O
x
y
y
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
32
Step-5
Take a left segment of the beam from section y-y'.
C E D
Y
X
O
x
y
y

0 kN

6.0 kN

Step-6
Convert all UDL, UVL in point loads.
UDL: 1 Nos.; q = 4 kN/m & length = x m
Resultant load of UDL = 4x kN
Will act at centroid of UDL: x/2 m
4x kN

x/2 m

CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Step-7 & 8
Choose the sign conventions and write the static
equilibrium equations for the beam segment & solve them.
Segment-1: AC (0 x 2.0 m)
4x kN

x/2 m

F
x
= 0 ............................................(1)

F
y
= 0 = - 6.0 + 4x + V
x
= 0
V
x
= (6- 4x) kN ............................................(2)

M = 0
= - 6*x + (x/2 * 4x) + M
x
= 0
M
x
= - 2x
2
+ 6x ...........................................(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)

At x = 0 m
V
A
= 6.0 kN; M
A
= 0.0 kN-m

At x = 2.0 m
V
C
= -2.0 kN; M
C
= 4.0 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
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Segment-2: CD (2.0 x 4.0 m)
x
y
y
6.0 kN

x
y
y
6.0 kN

8.0 kN

1.0 m

F
x
= 0 ..........................(1)

F
y
= 0 = - 6.0 + 8 + V
x
= 0
V
x
= -2.0 kN .............................. (2)

M = 0
= - 6*x + (x 1) * 8 + M
x
= 0
M
x
= - 2x + 8 .............................(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)

At x = 2.0 m
V
C
= -2.0 kN; M
C
= 4.0 kN-m

At x = 4.0 m
V
D
= -2.0 kN; M
D
= 0.0 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Segment-3: DE (4.0 x 6.0 m)
x
C D
y
y
6.0 kN

2.0 m

8.0 kN

1.0 m

F
x
= 0 .....................................(1)

F
y
= 0 = - 6.0 + 8 + V
x
= 0
V
x
= -2.0 kN ....................................... (2)

M = 0
= - 6*x + (x 1) * 8 M
o
(= 16) + M
x
= 0
M
x
= - 2x + 24 ....................................(3)

From eq. (2) & (3)

At x = 4.0 m
V
D
= -2.0 kN; M
D
= 16.0 kN-m

At x = 6.0 m
V
E
= -2.0 kN; M
E
= 12.0 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
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Segment-4: EB (6.0 x 8.0 m)
2.0 m

x
C D
y
y
6.0 kN

2.0 m

8.0 kN

1.0 m

4.0 kN/m

E
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
37
F
x
= 0 .....................................(1)

F
y
= 0 = - 6.0 + 8 + 4*(x 6) + V
x
= 0
V
x
= 22 4x kN ................................ (2)

M = 0
= - 6*x + (x 1) * 8 M
o
(= 16) + 4*(x 6)*(x 6)/2 + M
x
= 0
M
x
= - 2x
2
+ 22x - 48 ....................................(3)

x
C D
y
y
6.0 kN

2.0 m

8.0 kN

1.0 m

4.0 kN/m

2.0 m

4*(x 6)

(x 6)/2 m

E
From eq. (2) & (3)

At x = 6.0 m
V
E
= -2.0 kN;
M
E
= 12.0 kN-m

At x = 8.0 m
V
B
= -10.0 kN;
M
E
= 0.0 kN-m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 38
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 39
C E D
x
x
y
y
A
A
B
D
E C
C
D E B
Consider a x and y axis below the beam such that length of the x-
axis will be equal to beam span and mark the all points according
to loading and supports on the x-axis.
Step-9
& 10
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 40
Draw the curve separately according to SF and BM equations for
each segments with boundary values.
Step-11
Segment-1: AC (0 x 2.0 m)
V
x
= (6- 4x) kN (line eq. with ve slop and +ve intercept on y-axis and SF =0 at
x = 1.5 m).

M
x
= - 2x
2
+ 6x (quadratic eq. of parabola with vertex (1.5, 4.5))

At x = 0 m
V
A
= 6.0 kN; M
A
= 0.0 kN-m

At x = 2.0 m
V
C
= -2.0 kN; M
C
= 4.0 kN-m

y
x
0
-x
Select this part
of parabola for
BMD according
to boundary
value
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 41
C E D
x
x
y
y
A
A
B
D E C
C
D E B
6 kN
-2 kN 1.5 m
4 kN-m
2 m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 42
Segment-2: CD (2.0 x 4.0 m)
V
x
= -2.0 kN (constant value, horizontal axis parallel to x-
axis)

M
x
= - 2x + 8 (line eq. with ve slop and +ve intercept on y-
axis)

At x = 2.0 m
V
C
= -2.0 kN; M
C
= 4.0 kN-m

At x = 4.0 m
V
D
= -2.0 kN; M
D
= 0.0 kN-m

CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 43
6 kN
-2 kN
1.5 m
2 m
C E D
x
x
y
y
A
A
B
D E C
C
D E B
4 kN-m
-2 kN
2 m
2 m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 44
Segment-3: DE (4.0 x 6.0 m)
V
x
= -2.0 kN (constant value, horizontal axis parallel to x-
axis)

M
x
= - 2x + 24 (line eq. with ve slop and +ve intercept on
y-axis)

At x = 4.0 m
V
C
= -2.0 kN; M
C
= 16.0 kN-m

At x = 6.0 m
V
D
= -2.0 kN; M
D
= 12.0 kN-m

CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 45
6 kN
-2 kN
1.5 m
2 m
C E D
x
x
y
y
A
A
B
D E C
C
D E B
4 kN-m
-2 kN
16 kN-m
12 kN-m
-2 kN
2 m 2 m 2 m
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 46
Segment-4: EB (6.0 x 8.0 m)
V
x
= 22 4x kN (line eq. with ve slop and +ve intercept
on y-axis)

M
x
= - 2x
2
+ 22x - 48 (quadratic eq. of parabola with vertex
(5.5, 36.5))

At x = 6.0 m
V
E
= -2.0 kN;
M
E
= 12.0 kN-m

At x = 8.0 m
V
B
= -10.0 kN;
M
E
= 0.0 kN-m

y
x
Select this part
of parabola for
BMD according
to boundary
value
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 47
6 kN
-2 kN
1.5 m
2 m
C E D
x
x
y
y
A
A
B
D E C
C
D E B
4 kN-m
-2 kN
16 kN-m
12 kN-m
-2 kN
2 m 2 m 2 m
-10 kN
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 48
SFD & BMD for different types of beam and
(1) Simply supported beam:

CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 49
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya 50
(2) Cantilever beam:

CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil Mandariya
51
BM will be maximum at:

1. At sections where a concentrated load acts and the
shear force changes its sign.

2. At sections where shear force = 0

3. At supports providing vertical reactions.

4. At sections where a couple are applied.

Point of contra flexure:

A point where BM changes its sign.
Anil Mandariya 52
Important points for BM:
The slop of the SFD at any section of the beam is equal
to the intensity of the distributed load over
corresponding section.

Presence of the concentrated loads are indicated by
abrupt changes in SFD. The abrupt change (change in
ordinate) of SF at a section is equal to the
concentrated load at the section.

The slop of the BMD at any section is equal to the SF
at the corresponding section.

At concentrated load point, the slop of BMD is abruptly
chnges.

Anil Mandariya 53
Properties of SFD & BMD:
Total load on a beam between two sections =
difference between the SF at these two sections

The area of SFD between two section = difference
between BM at these two sections.

Anil Mandariya 54
Thanks
CE 251 (Solid Mechanics) by Anil
Mandariya
55