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The Psychological Aspect

of Buddhism
The Fifth Sir Baron Jayatilaka
Memorial Lecture
Delivered on the !th of Fe"ruary# $%&
at the 'olom"o (# M) B) A)
by
Piyadassi Thera
Buddhist Pu"lication Society
*andy + Sri Lanka
The ,heel Pu"lication -o) %$
Iirsl Ldilion, 1972
Socond Improssion, 1984
BIS OnIino Ldilion (2OO8)
DigilaI Transcriplion Sourco: BIS Transcriplion Irojocl
Ior froo dislribulion. Tlis vork may bo ropubIislod, roformallod, roprinlod and rodislribulod in
any modium. Hovovor, any sucl ropubIicalion and rodislribulion is lo bo mado avaiIabIo lo llo
pubIic on a froo and unroslriclod basis, and lransIalions and ollor dorivalivo vorks aro lo bo
cIoarIy markod as sucl.
The Psychological Aspect .f Buddhism
I am lappy lo bo loro in rosponso lo llo invilalion of llo CoIombo Young Mons Buddlisl
Associalion lo doIivor llo fifll Sir Baron }ayaliIaka MomoriaI Iocluro. Iol mo, al llo oulsol,
spoak a fov vords aboul Sir Baron }ayaliIaka vlo vas llo Irosidonl of llo Y. M. B. A. for forly-
six yoars, llal is, aImosl from ils incoplion unliI lis doall in 1944.
A soIf-viIIod individuaI vlo loiIod lis vay upvards from smaII boginnings, unaidod by
palronago and unsupporlod by llo infIuonco of frionds, Sir Baron }ayaliIaka is in ovory rospocl a
soIf-mado man. Tlo slory of lis Iifo riclIy iIIuslralos llo povor of llo luman mind. Il is
approprialo, lloroforo, on an occasion Iiko llis vlon vo rocaII llo fIiglls of lis many-sidod
caroor, lo dovolo an lour or so lo vlal llo Buddla, llo SupromoIy LnIigllonod Maslor, las said
aboul llo povor of llo luman mind. In ollor vords Iol us dvoII on llo psycloIogicaI aspocl of
Buddlism. A dispassionalo sludonl of Buddlism vlo carofuIIy roads llrougl llo books of
oarIy Buddlism is confronlod vill a dynamic porsonaIily, a roIigious loaclor, vlo lad allainod
supromo onIigllonmonl and socurily from bondago llrougl moraI, inloIIocluaI and spiriluaI
porfoclion, a loaclor vill an indofaligabIo zoaI and slooI dolorminalion for propagaling llo
lrull lo lad roaIisod. Tlal dynamic porsonaIily is nono ollor llan Siddlallla Golama (Sanskril,
Siddlarlla Gaulama) popuIarIy knovn as llo Buddla. Tlis loaclor, vlo did nol cIaim lo bo
ollor llan a luman boing, vas nol ono moro pliIosoplor among many ollors, bul a loaclor of a
vay of Iifo, vlo sol in molion llo malclIoss WlooI of Trull (dhammacakka) vlicl vas lo
rovoIulioniso llo llougll and Iifo of llo luman raco. His soIf-sacrificing zoaI, Iargo Iovo,
kindIinoss and loIoranco combinod vill lis romarkabIo porsonaIily, arousod llo Indians from
lloir sIumbor of ignoranco and inspirod llom.
Tlo Buddla spoko lo aII mon and for aII limo. His loacling, llo Dlamma, is for aII mon,
vlalovor Ianguago lloy spoak, vlalovor cIollos lloy voar, vlalovor counlry lloy caII
lomollo Buddlas Ianguago is lrull. Ho vas cIollod in lrull, and llo vloIo vorId vas lis
lomo, for lrull is ovoryvloro for aII limo lo bo roaIisod by oacl ono individuaIIy. Tlis is vlal is
moanl by llo univorsaIily of llo Dlamma.
Trull is nol concopluaI, and lloroforo, cannol bo passod on by moans of vords or ollor
symboIs. An LnIigllonod Ono couId guido us by sloving llo vay lo lrull, bul vo oursoIvos
slouId pursuo llo mollod of soIf-inquiry caIIod modilalion in Buddlism so llal llo liddon
vorkings of llo mind couId bo rovoaIod, lrull roaIisod, and povor villin conlaclod.
Wlal llo Buddla laugll during a poriod of forly-fivo yoars is so vasl, ils aspocls so variod
and fascinaling llal scloIars caIIod Buddlism a roIigion, a pliIosoply, an ollicaI codo, a roIigio-
pliIosoplicaI syslom, and ollicaI idoaIism. Bul ono las sliII lo find a roIigion vloro psycloIogy
Iooms so Iargo as in Buddlism. Tlo commonIy caIIod acadomicaI psycloIogyIiko ollor
acadomicaI scioncosdofinod mind in slalic lorms, vloroas Buddlisl psycloIogy dofinos
monlaI Iifo in dynamic lorms. Hovovor, aflor many slruggIos and porsislonl offorls modorn
psycloIogy las Iofl llo diIapidalod abodo of orllodox sclooIs, and is rodiscovoring llo oId
doclrino of a dynamic mind. Tloro aro somo varialions no doubl, bul llo basic principIo is ono.
Today many a psycloIogisl accopls llo dynamic naluro of llo luman mind, and modorn loxl
books of psycloIogy lavo abandonod llo concopl of a souI, and aro rogarding psycloIogy as llo
scionco of luman bolaviour. Iol us lopo llal il viII nol dovialo from ils voII-found lrack.
To llo Buddlisl ovon llo quoslion of roIigion and ils origin is nol a molaplysicaI ono, bul a
psycloIogicaI and inloIIocluaI ono. To lim roIigion is no moro crood or codo of rovoIalion or foar
of llo unknovn, foar of a supornaluraI boing vlo rovards and punislos llo good doods and iII
doods of lis croaluros. Il is nol a llooIogicaI concorn, bul rallor, a psycloIogicaI and inloIIocluaI
2
concorn rosuIling from llo oxporionco of dukkha, llal is, sufforing, confIicls, unsalisfaclorinoss of
llo ompiricaI oxislonco, of llo naluro of Iifo.
Wlon vo considor llo doclrinaI conlonls of Buddlism vo aro nocossariIy compoIIod lo
rogard llo Buddlas loacling as dislinguislod and difforonl from ollor sysloms of roIigion
vloro llo conlraI foaluro is llo concopl of a croalor God. Il is corrocl lo say llal lloro is mucl
roIigion in Buddlism, bul il cannol bo incIudod among llo many roIigions in oxislonco loday, al
Ioasl in llo sonso in vlicl anllropoIogisls undorsland llo vord roIigion. GonoraIIy llo concopl
of roIigion is associalod vill a syslom conlrod around God and supornaluraI forcos. Buddlism,
lovovor, doos nol advocalo any proscribod syslom of riluaI and vorslip and suppIicalion of
doilios, or gods. Tloro is no rocognilion, on llo parl of man, of somo liglor unsoon povor as
laving conlroI of lis dosliny. In Buddlism, man allribulos aII lis allainmonls and acliovomonls
lo luman offorl and luman undorslanding. Buddlism is anllropoconlric and nol llooconlric.
Tlus lo a Buddlisl, roIigion is a vay of Iifo, in llo sonso of a vay of moraI, spiriluaI and
inloIIocluaI lraining Ioading lo compIolo froodom of llo mind, liglosl allainmonl of Insigll
vlicl puls an ond lo aII sufforings and ropoalod oxislonco.
Iookod al from llo poinl of viov of pliIosoply, llo Buddla vas nol concornod vill llo
probIoms llal lavo vorriod pliIosoplors boll of llo Lasl and Wosl from llo boginning of
lislory. Ho vas nol concornod vill molaplysicaI probIoms vlicl onIy confusod man and upsol
lis monlaI oquiIibrium. Tloir soIulion, lo knov, viII nol froo mankind from sufforing, from llo
unsalisfaclory naluro of Iifo. Tlal vas vly llo Buddla losilalod lo ansvor sucl quoslions, and,
al limos, rofrainod from oxpIaining lloso vlicl voro oflon vrongIy formuIalod. Ho vas nol
roady lo ansvor sucl quoslions as: Is llo vorId olornaI or nol` Is il finilo or infinilo` Has llo
vorId an ond or nol` Wlal is llo origin of llo vorId` Al limos llo Buddla vas siIonl lo sucl,
soomingIy imporlanl bul fuliIo quoslions, bocauso siIonco vas llo bosl ansvor lo sucl
spocuIalions and moaningIoss quoslions. Tlo onIy vay lo rosoIvo lloso doubls and difficuIlios is
by oxpIoring llo innormosl rocossos of llo luman mind vlicl can onIy bo offoclod by doop soIf-
inlrospoclion basod on purily of conducl and consoquonl modilalion.
AII llo principaI lonols of Buddlism Iiko llo doclrino of kamma (Skl, karma), voIilionaI
aclivilios or moraI causalion, and robirll, modilalion and llo rosuIlanl monlaI allainmonls aro
bosl sludiod and invosligalod as vorkings of llo luman mind, and lloroforo, Buddlism can
mosl fillingIy bo doscribod as a sludy of llo liglosl psycloIogy.
Tlo Ablidlamma Iilaka of llo Buddlisl Canon givos a vory comprolonsivo accounl of llo
mind and llo monlaI faclors in a mannor so as lo loIp llo Buddlisl vay of Iifo. Hovovor, a
cIoso sludy of llo diaIoguos, or llo discoursos of llo Buddla, londs lo produco llo conviclion
llal psycloIogy pIays a significanl roIo in llo Sulla Iilaka, loo. Wlal llo Buddla lad lo say
vill rogard lo llo naluro of llo luman mind, llo mollod of cIoansing il and llo arl of bocoming
ils maslor and nol ils sIavo, is cIoarIy onuncialod in llo discoursos of llo Sulla Iilaka. In llis
rospocl llo Salipalllna Sulla,
1
llo discourso on llo Ioundalions of MindfuInoss, llo
Vilakkasanllna Sulla,
2
llo RomovaI of Dislracling Tlouglls, and sucl ollor cardinaI
discoursos aro gIaring oxampIos.
Buddlism is llo mosl psycloIogicaI of roIigions. Il is significanl llal llo inlricalo vorkings of
llo luman mind aro moro fuIIy doaIl vill in Buddlism rallor llan in any ollor roIigion, and
lloroforo, psycloIogy vorks land in land moro vill Buddlism llan vill any ollor roIigion.
1
TransIalod in Tlo WlooI sorios, No. 19. AIso road The Satipahna Sutta and Its Application to Modern
Life, V. I. Gunaralna, Tlo WlooI sorios, No. 6O.
2
Tlo WlooI sorios, No. 21.
3
Ono may ask, Is Buddlism roIalod lo modorn psycloIogy` Yos, bul vill somo difforonco.
Buddlism is moro concornod vill llo curalivo rallor llan anaIysis. Buddlism loIps us lo gol
boyond llo inloIIocl lo llo acluaI oxporionco of Iifo ilsoIf. Tlrougl modilalion llo Buddla lad
discovorod llo doopor univorsaI maIadios of llo luman loarl and mind. Tlo romarkabIo insigll
inlo llo vorkings of llo mind makos llo Buddla a psycloIogisl and scionlisl of llo liglosl
ominonco. AdmillodIy lis vay of arriving al lloso lrulls of monlaI Iifo is nol llal of an
oxporimonlaIisl, yol vlal llo Buddla lad discovorod romains lruo, and in facl las boon
corroboralod by llo oxporimonlaIisl. Bul llo purposo in ongaging in lloso inquirios is quilo
difforonl from llal of llo scionlisl. Tlo slalomonls of llo Buddla aboul llo naluro of llo mind
and mallor aro diroclod lovards spocific onds. Tloy aro simpIy llo doIivoranco of man, supromo
socurily from bondago. Tlo Buddla pIacos so mucl omplasis on mind and monlaI plonomona
bocauso of llo cruciaI roIo llal our innor Iifo occupios in llo gonosis of luman aclion. In lloislic
roIigions llo basis is God. In Buddlism, vlicl is non-lloislic, llo mind is llo basis.
Tlo Clrislian BibIo bogins by saying, In llo boginning God croalod loavon and oarll
vloroas in llo Dlammapada, vlicl may bo rogardod as llo Buddlisl BibIo, llo oponing Iinos
road: Manopubbaam dhamm manoseh manoma!, "Mind procodos llings, mind dominalos
llom, mind croalos llom, Tlo vords of llo Clrislian God, as a mallor of facl, llo vords of
Gods of aII lloislic roIigions, poinl llo vay lo God and loavon, lo llo Boyond. Tlo Buddla
givos llo groalosl imporlanco lo mind in llo sclomo of doIivoranco, dirocls man lo llo vays of
discriminalion and rosoarcl, and urgos lim lo gol busy vill llo roaI lask of dovoIoping llo
innor forcos and quaIilios of llo mind. Tlo Buddla says: You yoursoIvos slouId pul forll llo
nocossary offorl, and vork oul your doIivoranco, llo Buddlas onIy slov llo vay.
3
In ordor lo undorsland fuIIy llo idoaI of froodom of llo mind, il is nocossary lo approcialo llo
imporlanco of llo mind. If lloro is no propor undorslanding of llo imporlanco of llo luman
mind, vo cannol approcialo lo ils fuIIosl oxlonl llo roason vly il is so nocossary lo dovoIop and
safoguard llo froodom of llo mind.
Of aII forcos llo forco of llo mind is llo mosl polonl. Il prodominalos ovory ollor forco. Il is a
povor by ilsoIf and villin ilsoIf. Any allompl lo llvarl llo grovll of llis forco is a slop in llo
vrong diroclion. No ono las undorslood llo povor of llo mind so cIoarIy as llo Buddla.
Buddlism, vliIo nol donying llo vorId of mallor and llo groal offocl llal llo plysicaI vorId
las on monlaI Iifo, omplasisos llo vory groal imporlanco of llo luman mind. Onco a monk
askod llo Buddla: Iray, VonorabIo Sir, by vlal is llo vorId Iod` By vlal is llo vorId dravn
aIong` Indor llo svay of vlal ono dlamma lavo aII gono` Tlo Buddlas ansvor is
calogoricaI: #ell, monk, the $orld is led b! mind (thouht)% b! mind the $orld is dra$n alon% all ha&e
one under the s$a! of the mind, the one dhamma.
'
Tlo Buddlisl poinl of viov is llal llo mind or
consciousnoss is llo coro of our oxislonco. AII our psycloIogicaI oxporioncos, sucl as pain and
pIoasuro, sorrov and lappinoss, good and oviI, Iifo and doall aro nol allribulod lo any oxlornaI
agoncy. Tloy aro llo rosuIls of our ovn llouglls and lloir rosuIlanl aclions.
Tlo Buddlisl vay of Iifo is an inlonso procoss of cIoansing onos spoocl, aclion and llougll.
Il is soIf-dovoIopmonl and soIf-purificalion rosuIling in soIf-roaIisalion. Tlo omplasis is on
praclicaI rosuIls and nol on moro pliIosoplicaI spocuIalion, IogicaI abslraclion or ovon moro
cogilalion. Tlo Buddlisl ollos and psycloIogy is buiIl on llo olornaI lrull of dukkha, llo
unsalisfaclorinoss of aII sonlionl boings, aII ompiricaI oxislonco. Tlo Buddla said:
3
Dlammapada, v. 276.
4
Angullara Nikya II 177.
4
Ono lling onIy do I loacl
Sufforing and ils ond lo roacl.
5
To undorsland llis unoquivocaI saying is lo undorsland Buddlism, for llo onliro loacling of llo
Buddla is nolling oIso llan llo appIicalion of llis ono principIo. Il sooms lo mo llal vlal can
bo caIIod llo discovory of a Buddla, is jusl llo Iour NobIo Trulls: namoIy dukkha, llo arising or
llo causo of dukkha, llo cossalion of dukkha, and llo pall Ioading lo llo cossalion of dukkha. And
llo rosl aro IogicaI dovoIopmonls and moro dolaiIod oxpIanalions of llo four lrulls. Tlis is llo
lypicaI loacling of llo Buddlas of aII agos.
6
Tlo Buddla vas a praclicaI loaclor. Ho vas moro concornod vill boings llan vill inanimalo
naluro. His soIo objocl vas lo unravoI llo myslory of oxislonco, lo soIvo llo probIom of
bocoming. Tlis lo did by comprolonding in aII lloir fuIInoss llo four lrulls, llo olornaI vorilios
of Iifo. To lloso vlo Iislonod lo lim, lo oxpIainod in ils dolaiI llo probIom of dukkha, llo
univorsaI facl of Iifo, and lriod lo mako poopIo fooI ils fuII forco, and convinco llom of il. Ho lad
dofiniloIy loId us vlal lo oxpIains and vlal lo doos nol. To ono vlo viovs llo vorId, and aII il
loIds, in ils propor porspoclivo, llo primary concorn of Iifo is nol moro spocuIalion or vain
voyaging inlo llo imaginary rogions of ligl fanlasy, bul llo gaining of lruo lappinoss and
froodom from dukkla, unsalisfaclorinoss. To lim lruo knovIodgo doponds on llo conlraI
quoslion: Can llis Ioarning bo of uso lo us in llo conquosl of monlaI poaco and lranquiIIily, of
roaI lappinoss` Tlo Buddla says: "In this &er! bod!, a fathom lon, $ith its consciousness and
perception I declare are the $orld, its cessation and the path that leads to the cessation of the $orld.
Horo llo vord vorId donolos dukkha.
According lo lis loacling, sufforing cannol bo soparalod from llo fivo aggrogalos, from llis
fallom-Iong body vill a mind. Tlo fivo aggrogalos and sufforing aro samo, and nol lvo
difforonl llings. Wlal is sufforing` llo Buddla asks, and ansvors: Il slouId bo said llal il is
llo fivo aggrogalos of cIinging.
7
Nov il bocomos cIoar llal lo undorsland llo firsl lrull dukkha as voII as llo ollor llroo
lrulls, il is ossonliaI lo lavo a cIoar idoa of llo fivo aggrogalos llal compriso man. In ordinary
parIanco vo spoak of a boing, bul in llo uIlimalo sonso lloro is no sucl boing, lloro is onIy
a manifoslalion of ovor-clanging psyclo-plysicaI forcos or onorgios. Tloso forcos or onorgios
form llo aggrogalos, and vlal vo caII a boing is nolling bul a combinalion of lloso ovor-
clanging fivo aggrogalos. Nov, vlal aro llo fivo aggrogalos`
According lo Buddlism man is a psyclo-plysicaI combinalion of mind and body (nma(
r)pa). Tlo compononls of llo mind aro cIassifiod inlo four groups, namoIy: fooIing (&edan)%
porcoplions, llal is sonso-improssions, imagos or idoas and concopls (sa**)% monlaI formalions
or conalivo idoas and lloir concomilanls (sakhra)% and consciousnoss, (&i**+a). Tloso four
monlaI groups vlicl aro llo non-plysicaI faclors in man aro coIIoclivoIy rogardod as mind
(nma). Will llo plysicaI faclor body (r)pa), llo so-caIIod man comos lo bo knovn as llo fivo
aggrogalos (pa*cakkhandha) composing an individuaIily.
In our sludy of psycloIogy, Buddlisl or ollorviso, vo fooI obIigod lo ask vlollor llo mind
and llo brain aro difforonl from oacl ollor. Il is lruo llal lloro is a cIoso connoclion bolvoon
mind and brain. MonlaI aclions aro roIalod lo brain clargos. Mind is nol somolling llal can bo
landIod, llal can bo submillod lo any clomicaI losl. Il is invisibIo, inlangibIo and as sucl cannol
bo discornod by llo fivo sonsos. Il Iios oulsido llo roaIm of llo plysicaI vorId, vo can lovovor
5
Majjlima Nikya I 22.
6
Vinaya Malvagga I 16, II. 136, Dgla Nikya I 11O, Majjlima Nikya I 38O, Angullara Nikya IV 186.
7
Samyulla Nikya III 138.
5
form somo idoa of ils naluro and slrucluro and lov il vorks as a vloIo. Bul llo brain is
ollorviso. Wo can spoak of ils acluaI posilion, ils slrucluro and aIso ils funclion.
Tlo mind, vliIsl nol imporvious lo oxlornaI infIuoncos, is nol undor llo conlroI of ollor
faclors, bul il is llo maslor of llom. Il is vill a mans mind llal lo sooks lrull, llal lo probos
inlo llo innor moaning of llings, by vlicl lo Ioarns lloir socrol and significanco.
In llis laIk I do nol inlond lo go inlo dolaiIs rogarding llo aggrogalo of maloriaI form or body
as llo subjocl is Tlo IsycloIogicaI Aspocl of Buddlism. In briof, mallor, llo plysicaI body of
man, conlains and comprisos llo Iour Groal Irimarios (cattri mahbh)tni) vlicl aro
lradilionaIIy knovn as soIidily, fIuidily, loal or lomporaluro and molion or vibralion (paha&,,
po, te-o, &!o). In llis conloxl, lloy aro nol simpIy oarll, valor, firo and vind, llougl
convonlionaIIy lloy may bo so caIIod. In Buddlisl llougll, ospociaIIy in llo Ablidlamma
loacling, lloy aro moro llan llal. Vory briofIy, paha&, or soIidily is llo oIomonl of oxpansion.
.po or fIuidily is llo oIomonl of colosion. Te-o is llo oIomonl of loal or lomporaluro. /a!o is llo
oIomonl of molion, il is dispIacomonl. Lvory maloriaI objocl is mado up of llo four Groal
Irimarios llougl ono or ollor sooms lo propondoralo.
As discussod oarIior, llo four non-plysicaI faclors of man, aII lis monlaI and omolionaI
procossos, aro incIudod in llo vord mind. Sludonls of Buddlism aro famiIiar vill llo llroo IaIi
lorms: mano, citta, and &i**+a. Tloso lorms aro oflon lransIalod as mind in somo conloxl or
ollor, aIllougl a moro discriminaling sludonl viII lransIalo &i**+a as consciousnoss or
cognilivo consciousnoss. Tlo LngIisl vord mind doos nol adoqualoIy convoy llo moaning of
llo IaIi vords mano or citta. Tloso llroo lorms, mano, citta and &i**+a, lovovor, aro synonyms
(!a*(ca kho bhikkha&e &uccati citta0 itipi mano, itipi &i**+a0),
1
bul lloy lavo lloir dislincl and
spociaI usos in corlain conloxls and vill aII lloir difforonl slados of moaning lloy indicalo llo
psycloIogicaI aspocls of Buddlism.
Tlo lorm &i**+a, las a doopor connolalion in Buddlisl psycloIogy. In voslorn psycloIogy
mind is gonoraIIy dofinod as: Tlo organisod lolaIily of psyclicaI slrucluros and procossos,
conscious, unconscious and ondopsyclic, pliIosoplicaIIy, rallor llan psycloIogicaIIy, llo
onlily or subslralum undorIying lloso slrucluros and procossos.
9
According lo pliIosoply:
Mind is usod in lvo principaI sonsos: (a) llo individuaI mind is llo soIf or subjocl vlicl
porcoivos, romombors, imaginos, fooIs, concoivos, roasons, viIIs, olc. and vlicl is funclionaIIy
roIalod lo an individuaI bodiIy organism. (b) Mind, gonoricaIIy considorod, is a molaplysicaI
subslanco vlicl porvados aII individuaI mind and vlicl is conlraslod vill mallor or maloriaI
subslanco.
1O
Iol us nov discuss llo four aggrogalos &edan
,
sa**, sakhra and &i**+a vlicl form llo
psyclicaI parls of llo mind.
Vodan is llo aggrogalo of fooIing vlicl accompanios our improssions and idoas. IooIings
aro llroofoId: pIoasanl, unpIoasanl and noulraI. Tloy aro dopondonl on conlacl. Sooing a form or
visibIo objocl, loaring a sound, smoIIing an odour, lasling a fIavour, loucling somo langibIo
lling, cognizing a monlaI objocl (an idoa or llougll), man oxporioncos fooIing. Tloso six kinds
of fooIings aro oxporioncod llrougl llo oyo, oar, noso, longuo, body and llo mind, rospoclivoIy
(llo facuIly of mind, manindri!a, is rogardod as llo sixll facuIly in Buddlisl psycloIogy). Wlon
for inslanco, oyo, form, and visuaI consciousnoss (cakkhu &i**+a) como logollor, il is lloir
coincidonco llal is caIIod conlacl. Conlacl moans llo combinalion of llo organ of sonso, llo
8
Samyulla Nikya II 94.
9
A 2ictionar! of 3s!cholo!, }amos Drovor, Ionguin Books.
1O
2ictionar! of 3hilosoph!, odilod by Dagoborl D. Runos, IillIofioId, Adams & Co. Nov }orsoy.
6
objocl of sonso, and sonso consciousnoss. Wlon lloso aro aII prosonl logollor lloro is no povor
or forco llal can provonl llo arising of fooIing.
Noxl comos llo aggrogalo of porcoplion (sa**kkhandha). Tlo funclion of porcoplion in
Buddlisl psycloIogy is rocognilion (sa*-nana) of objocls, boll plysicaI and monlaI. Iorcoplion,
Iiko fooIing, aIso is six-foId: porcoplion of forms, sounds, smoIIs, laslos, bodiIy conlacls and
monlaI objocls. Iorcoplion in Buddlism is nol usod in llo sonso of Woslorn pliIosoplors Iiko
Bacon and Doscarlos.
Spinoza and Iiobnilz usod llo lorm, bul as a moro sonso porcoplion. Lxlra-sonsory forms of
porcoplion sucl as loIopally and cIairvoyanco aro aIso incIudod in llo aggrogalo of porcoplion.
Tloro is a corlain affinit! bolvoon avaronoss (&i-nana), vlicl is llo funclion of
consciousnoss, and rocognilion (sa*-nana), llo funclion of porcoplion. WliIo consciousnoss
bocomos avaro of an objocl, simuIlanoousIy porcoplion lakos llo dislinclivo mark of llo objocl
and llus dislinguislos il from ollor objocls. Tlis dislinclivo mark is inslrumonlaI in cognizing
llo objocl a socond and a llird limo, and in facl, ovory limo vo bocomo avaro of llo objocl. Tlus
il is porcoplion, sa**, llal brings aboul momory.
Il is imporlanl lo nolo llal porcoplions oflon docoivo us. Tlon lloy bocomo knovn as iIIusion
or porvorsily of porcoplions (sa**&ipallsa), Il is aIvays vlon vo faiI lo soo llo lruo naluro of
llings llal our viovs bocomo cIoudod, bocauso of our proconcoivod nolions, our allaclmonl
and avorsion, our Iikos and disIikos (anurodha, &irodha,
44
) vo faiI lo soo llo sonso organs and
sonso objocls in lloir rospoclivo and objoclivo naluros, and go aflor miragos and docoplions. Tlo
sonso organs doIudo and misIoad us, and llon vo faiI lo soo llings in lloir lruo Iigll, in lloir
propor porspoclivo, so our vay of sooing llings bocomos porvorlod (&iparita dassana). Rigll
undorslanding aIono romovos lloso iIIusions and loIps man lo cognizo llo roaI naluro llal
undorIios aII appoarancos. Il is onIy vlon man comos oul of llis cIoud of iIIusions and
porvorsions llal lo slinos vill lruo visdom Iiko llo fuII moon llal omorgos briIIianl from
bolind a bIack cIoud.
Wlon a parlicuIar porcoplion, porvorlod or nol, occurs froquonlIy, il grovs slrongor and grips
our mind. Tlon il bocomos difficuIl lo gol rid of llal porcoplion, and llo rosuIl is voII oxpIainod
in llis vorso of llo Suttanipta (vorso 841):
Wlo is froo from sonso porcoplions
In lim no moro bonds oxisl,
Wlo by insigll froodom gains
AII doIusions coaso in lim,
Bul vlo cIings lo sonso porcoplions
And lo viovpoinls vrong and faIso
Ho Iivos vrangIing in llis vorId.
Iorcoplion is foIIovod by llo aggrogalo of monlaI (voIilionaI) formalions (sakhrakkhandha). Il is
good lo koop in mind llal voIilionaI formalions is llo popuIar lorm for llo vord sakhra in llo
Iisl of llo fivo aggrogalos. In ollor conloxls sakhr doos signify anylling condilionod and
compoundod. In llo slalomonl sabbe sakhr anicc or anicc &ata sakhr (aII compoundod
llings aro impormanonl), llo lorm sakhr appIios lo aII compoundod and condilionod llings,
i.o. aII llings llal como inlo boing as llo offocl of causos and condilions and vlicl llomsoIvos
acl as causos and condilions in lurn again lo givo riso lo ollor offocls.
In llis group of monlaI formalions (sakhra) aro incIudod aII monlaI faclors oxcopl fooIing
(&edan) and porcoplion (sa**) monlionod oarIior. Tlo Ablidlamma spoaks of fifly-lvo monlaI
11
Majjlima Nikya I 266.
7
concomilanls or faclors (cetasika). IooIing and porcoplions aro lvo of llom, bul lloy aro nol
voIilionaI formalions. Tlo romaining fifly aro coIIoclivoIy knovn as sakhra, monlaI or
voIilionaI formalions. VoIilion pIays a vilaI roIo in llo monlaI roaIm, and vo slaII discuss llis
vlon vo doaI vill llo psycloIogy of karma.
Tlo aggrogalo of consciousnoss (&i**+akkhandha) is llo mosl imporlanl of llo fivo aggrogalos
vlicl compriso man. Nov vlal is llo funclion of consciousnoss` Iiko fooIing, porcoplion and
voIilionaI formalions, consciousnoss aIso las six lypos and ils funclion is variod. Il las ils basis
and objocls.
AII our fooIings aro oxporioncod llrougl llo conlacl of sonso facuIlios vill llo oxlornaI
vorId. Tlo facuIly of mind vlicl cognizos monlaI objocls is nol somolling langibIo and
porcoplibIo Iiko llo ollor fivo facuIlios vlicl cognizo llo oxlornaI vorId. Tlo oyo cognizos llo
vorId of coIours (&a++a) or visibIo objocls, llo oar audibIo sounds, and so forll. Tlo mind,
lovovor, cognizos llo vorId of idoas and llouglls. Wlon il comos lo llo vorId of llouglls and
idoas, llo facuIly of llo mind is Iord ovor llo monlaI roaIm. Tlo oyo cannol llink llouglls, and
coIIocl idoas, bul il is inslrumonlaI in sooing visibIo forms, llo vorId of coIours.
Il is vory imporlanl lo undorsland llo funclion of consciousnoss. AIllougl lloro is llis
funclionaI roIalionslip bolvoon llo facuIlios and lloir objocls, for inslanco, oyo vill forms, oar
vill sounds, and so forll, avaronoss como llrougl consciousnoss. In ollor vords, sonso objocls
cannol bo oxporioncod vill llo parlicuIar sonsilivily villoul llo approprialo kind of
consciousnoss. Wlon llo llroo llings: oyo, form and visuaI consciousnoss como logollor, il is
lloir coincidonco llal is caIIod conlacl. Irom conlacl comos fooIing and so on as oxpIainod in llo
dopondonl originalion or condilionod gonosis (paicca samuppda).
45
Wlon il is said llal consciousnoss arisos llrougl llo inloraclion of llo sonso organs and
objocls (indri!a and ramma+a), il doos nol moan llal consciousnoss is somo lling croalod by llo
sonso organ and objocl vlicl aro puroIy plysicaI. Ollorviso vo viII bo subscribing lo llo
lloory of llo maloriaIislic sclooIs vlicl boIiovod llal consciousnoss is a moro by-producl of
mallor. Tlo funclion of &i**+a, consciousnoss, is lo bocomo avaro of objocls (&i-nana). Tlo
luman oyo may como in conlacl vill llo visibIo objocl, bul unIoss lloro is avaronoss vo aro nol
conscious of llo objocl. Consciousnoss aIso is condilionod and subjocl lo clango, and so il is nol
a spiril or souI opposod lo mallor, nor a projoclion, an offspring of mallor.
Tlo concopl of vina occupios a vory ligl pIaco in llo loaclings of llo Buddla, bul il is nol
sludiod or undorslood by many in aII ils aspocls, il is llo Ioasl undorslood. To many, vina is
jusl ono of llo fivo aggrogalos, vlicl bocomos avaro of sonso objocls. Ils doopor inlorprolalion,
llo broador aspocls invoIvod aro ignorod. Wlon vo discuss llo concopl of vina in roIalion lo
llo doclrino of survivaI or llo robirll procoss of boings, il bocomos cIoar llal consciousnoss
pIays an imporlanl roIo in llo procoss of bocoming (punabbha&a).
Tlis facl is cIoarIy brougll oul in llo paicca samuppda6 sakhra(pacca!a &i**+a0, dopondonl
on llo kamma or good and oviI aclions (sakhra) of llo pasl birlls is condilionod llo conscious
Iifo in llis prosonl birll. Consciousnoss, lloroforo, is llo firsl faclor (nidna) or firsl of llo
condilioning Iinks boIonging lo llo prosonl oxislonco. As llis, consciousnoss or vina is llo
firsl of llo slroam of consciousnoss (&i**+a(sota) boIonging lo ono singIo oxislonco (bha&a), il is
aIso knovn as paisandhi&i**+a, roIinking or robirll consciousnoss. Sanklra, in llo form of
kamma, is llo molivo forco llal causos robirll. Wo musl undorsland llo dynamic imporlanco
of llo lvo psyclic faclors, sakhra and &i**+a. Sakhra moans karma, good and oviI aclions, aII
aclions, plysicaI, vorbaI and monlaI (k!a(sakhra, &ac,(sakhra, citta(sakhra) vlicl viII bring
12
Soo 2ependent 7riination, Iiyadassi Tlora, Tlo WlooI No. 15.
8
oul roaclions giving riso lo robirll. Tlus sanklra dolorminos llal parl of consciousnoss in llo
noxl Iifo infIuoncing llo nov porsonaIily.
Wlal vo caII Iifo loro is llo funclioning of llo fivo aggrogalos vlicl vo lavo aIroady
discussod, or llo funclioning of mind and body (nmar)pa) vlicl aro onIy onorgios or forcos.
Tloy aro novor llo samo for lvo consoculivo momonls, and in llis confIux of mind and body vo
do nol soo anylling pormanonl. Tlo grovn-up man is noillor llo cliId nor quilo a difforonl
porson, lloro is onIy a roIalionslip of conlinuily. Tlo confIux of mind and body or monlaI and
plysicaI onorgy, is nol Iosl al doall, for no forco or onorgy is ovor Iosl. Il undorgoos clango. Il
rosols, roforms in nov condilions. Tlis is caIIod robirll, ro-oxislonco or ro-bocoming
(punabbha&a). Karmic procoss (kammabha&a) is llo onorgy llal oul of a prosonl Iifo condilions a
fuluro Iifo in unonding soquonco. In llis procoss lloro is nolling llal passos or lransmigralos
from ono Iifo lo anollor. Il is onIy a movomonl llal conlinuos unbrokon. Tlo boing vlo passos
avay loro and lakos birll oIsovloro is noillor llo samo porson, nor a lolaIIy difforonl ono (na ca
so, na ca a**o).
48
Tloro is llo Iasl momonl of consciousnoss (cuti(&i**+a or cuti(citta) boIonging lo llo
immodialoIy provious Iifo, immodialoIy noxl, upon llo cossalion of llal consciousnoss, bul
condilionod by il, lloro arisos llo firsl momonl of consciousnoss of llo prosonl birll vlicl is
caIIod (pati(sandhi &i**+a) roIinking- or robirll-consciousnoss, llo firsl slirring of monlaI Iifo in
llo novIy bogun individuaI. SimiIarIy llo Iasl llougll momonl in llis Iifo condilions llo firsl
llougll momonl in llo noxl Iifo. In llis vay consciousnoss comos inlo boing and passos avay
yioIding pIaco lo nov consciousnoss. Tlus llo porpoluaI slroam of consciousnoss (&i**+a sota)
goos on unliI oxislonco coasos llrougl llo oradicalion of llo rool causos Ioading lo bocoming or
oxislonco (bha&a). Tlo rool causos aro: Iusl, lalo and doIusion (raa, dosa, moha).
4'
Lxislonco, in a
vay, is consciousnoss, llo viII lo Iivo.
Tlo IaIi vord pati(sandhi &i**+a is a lorm found onIy in llo Ablidlamma Iiloraluro, and a
dolaiIod accounl of llo lorm is found in llo commonlarios and lroalisos on llo Ablidlamma.
3aisandhi or Sanskril praisandhi IiloraIIy moans ro-Iinking, ro-uniling, ro-joining. Il is caIIod ro-
uniling llrougl ils boing llo lling vlicl Iinks ono oxislonco lo anollor (llo succooding ono).
3aisandhi&i**+a is llo rosuIlanl consciousnoss (&ipka(&i**+a) prosonl al robirll, or oving lo
llo prosonco of vlicl al llo momonl of robirll llo nov oxislonco is connoclod vill llo
immodialoIy procoding oxislonco, and llrougl llal vill llo onliro pasl of llo individuaI roborn.
Tlis rosuIlanl consciousnoss is duo lo provious ro-birll producing monlaI faclors sakhra,
voIilionaI formalions, or kamma.
49
Il is inlorosling lo nolo llal llo counlorparl of llo Ablidlamma lorm paisandhi &i**+a is
found in llo Sulla Iilaka. In llo Anojasappya Sulla of llo Majjlima Nikya (No. 1O6), llis
&ipka &i**+a is roforrod lo as llo sa0&aanika0 &i**+a0, llo consciousnoss llal goos on, llal
procoods from ono Iifo lo anollor as vipka. Tlo consciousnoss llal ovoIvos inlo llo noxl Iifo.
Bul bo il nolod llal llis consciousnoss, is nol an unclanging onlily. Dopondonl on
consciousnoss arisos monlaIily-maloriaIily (nma(r)pa), llo psyclo-plysicaI porsonaIily.
Consciousnoss, on llo ollor land, is condilionod by monlaIily-maloriaIily (nma(r)pa(pacca!
&i**+a0 &i**+a(pacca! nma(r)pam).
4:
Tloy aro muluaIIy dopondonl and llo lvo logollor
form a nov boing. In llo Mal Nidna Sulla of llo Dgla Nikya llo quoslion vas raisod by llo
Buddla in llo courso of a discussion vill lis allondanl discipIo Ananda Tlora as lo vlollor
llo nma(r)pa viII dovoIop, and grov inlo malurily if &i**+a voro nol lo doscond inlo llo
13
Milindapa*h, I.T.S,. p. 4O.
14
Soo boIov.
15
Vido /ibh&ini, M-a.
16
Sa0!utta ;ik!a II 1O4.
9
mollors vomb (mtukucchimhi na okkamissatha), or boing onlorod inlo llo mollors vomb voro
lo Ioavo (okkamit& &okkamissatha). Ananda Tloras ropIy vas in llo nogalivo: Iord, llo
dovoIopmonl of llo ombryo viII nol bo succossfuI. Tlo ansvor vas approvod by llo Buddla.
According lo modorn bioIogy, A nov luman Iifo bogins in llal miracuIous inslanl vlon a
sporm coII from llo fallor morgos vill llo ogg sloII or ovum villin llo mollor. Tlis is llo
momonl of birll. Scionco spoaks of onIy lloso lvo plysicaI common faclors. Buddlism,
lovovor, spoaks of a llird faclor vlicl is puroIy psyclic.
As llo Mallanlsanklaya Sulla of llo Majjlima Nikya poinls oul, a concoplion (abbhassa
a&akkanti) of a boing lakos pIaco by llo conjunclion of llroo faclors. If llo mollor and fallor
como logollor (lloro slouId bo coilus of paronls), and il is llo mollors propor soason (llo
mollor slouId nol lavo lor poriod), and llo andhabba is aIso prosonl (paccupahito hoti) llon a
gorm of Iifo is pIanlod lloro.
Tlo llird faclor andhabba is simpIy a lorm for llo &i**+a, or paisandhi&i**+a, or llo
sa0&aanika &i**+a, robirll consciousnoss. According lo Acariya Buddlaglosa, llo
commonlalor, andhabba moans llo boing aboul lo onlor llo vomb (paccupahito hoti). Wlal is
moanl is llal a satta, a boing, aboul lo bo born in llal silualion, is boing drivon on by llo
moclanism of kamma. Il slouId bo cIoarIy undorslood llal llis andhabba is noillor a somi-god
vlo prosidos ovor cliId-concoplion
17
nor a discarnalo spiril as impIiod by llo Vodic andhar&a.
Il is quilo cIoar from llo oarIy Buddlisl loxls llal lloro is no spiril or souI, or ogo-onlily going
from birll lo birll. Il is llo &i**+a condilionod by sakhras or kamma formalions, llal brings
aboul llo robirll of an individuaI aflor lis doall.
Consciousnoss, vlicl is llo psyclic faclor llal dolorminos llo robirll of an individuaI or
boing, is nol somolling pormanonl in llo form of a soIf or souI or an ogo-onlily. Lvon
consciousnoss is condilionod and subjocl lo clango. Tloro voro many during llo limo of llo
Buddla vlo llougll, and lloro aro many vlo conlinuo lo llink, llal consciousnoss in llo form
of a pormanonl, onduring soIf or souI oxisls in man, conlinuos llrougl Iifo, and al doall
lransmigralos from ono Iifo lo anollor, and binds Iifo logollor. During llo Buddlas limo somo
molaplysicians loId llo viov: vlalovor lloro is lo bo caIIod citta or mano or &i**+a, llal is llo
souI, pormanonl, conslanl, olornaI, unclanging
18
Wo aIso soo a gIaring inslanco of llis in llo llirly-oiglll discourso of llo Majjlima Nikya.
Ono of llo Buddlas ovn discipIos, Sali by namo, loId llo foIIoving viov: In so far as I
undorsland llo Dlamma laugll by llo Buddla, il is llo samo consciousnoss, &i**+a llal faros
on and conlinuos (sandha&ati sa0sarati), llal lransmigralos and vandors aboul (in robirll).
Wlon Sali inlimalod lis poinl of viov lo llo Buddla, llo Maslor quoslionod lim: Wlal is llis
consciousnoss, Sali` Il is llal vlicl oxprossos, vlicl fooIs and oxporioncos (&do &ede!!o) llo
rosuIl of good and oviI doods nov loro nov lloro. Tlo Buddla, lovovor, dispoIIod lis
orronoous boIiof by oxpIaining lo lim llal aparl from condilions lloro is no arising of
consciousnoss, llal consciousnoss arisos doponding on condilions.
Sali orrod vlon lo said llal llo samo consciousnoss conlinuos as spoakor and oxporioncor
llus rogarding consciousnoss as an agonl bolind aII monlaI aclivilios.
Nov llis consciousnoss roforrod lo as llo slroam of consciousnoss (&i**+a sota)
4<
is nol a
unily llal abidos unclangod, and conlinuos in llo samo slalo villoul porisling llrougloul llo
cycIo of oxislonco. Consciousnoss aIso is condilionod, and lloroforo, is nol pormanonl. Il doos
17
IaIi Toxl Socioly's 3ali(=nlish 2ictionar!, undor llo vord andhabba.
18
Samyulla Nikya II 94.
19
Dgla Nikya III 1O5, cp. Sullanipla, 1O55. AIso slroam of bocoming (bha&a(sota), Samyulla Nikya, IV
291.
1O
nol, as Sali llougll, lransmigralo from ono Iifo lo anollor. Tlo ominonl Amorican psycloIogisl,
WiIIiam }amos, onIy ocloos llo vords of llo Buddla vlon lo vrilos roforring lo consciousnoss:
Il is nolling joinlod. Il fIovs. A rivor or slroam aro llo molaplors by vlicl il is mosl
naluraIIy doscribod Let us call it the stream of thouhts, the stream of consciousness or of sub-ecti&e
life.
5>
(llo ilaIics aro lis)
If I do nol ovon mako a passing roforonco lo llo Blavanga aspocl of Buddlisl psycloIogy I
slaII nol bo doing juslico lo llo subjocl. ?ha&aa citta or ?ha&aa sota pIays an imporlanl roIo in
llo monlaI Iifo of man.
Modorn psycloIogy posluIalos llroo IovoIs of llo mind: llo conscious, llo sub-conscious, llo
unconscious. Tlo conscious IovoI is ono of avaronoss. During our vaking Iifo llo conscious
mind vorks llrougl llo fivo clannoIs knovn as llo fivo sonso facuIlios.
Tlo sub-conscious slralum of llo mind is llo aroa vlicl loIds lloso momorios llal vo can
rocaII al viII. Il is said llal llo subconscious IovoI of monlaI Iifo vlicl Iios immodialoIy boIov
llal of llo conscious is a roposilory of momorios vlicl can bo brougll back inlo consciousnoss
al viII. Tlo IovoI of llo unconscious is a sloro-louso for aII pasl oxporioncos llal cannol bo
rocaIIod al viII, bul can, al limos, on ils ovn, manifosl ilsoIf in llo conscious IovoI villoul any
oxlornaI slimuIalion, or undor sucl spociaI mollods as lypnosis.
Sigmund Iroud vlo, vas cliofIy concornod vill llo unconscious mind as llo sloro-louso of
monlaI causos for a norvous broakdovn, givos in 3s!chopatholo! of =&er! 2a! Life numorous
oxampIos of llo facl of unconscious aclivily. Tlougl somo IocaI scloIars idonlify llo Blavanga
cilla vill llo sub-conscious or unconscious mind, I do nol soo a compIolo paraIIoI. In Buddlisl
psycloIogy lloro aro no sucl IovoIs of consciousnoss. Ablidlamma spoaks of lvo lypos of
mind, llo /,thi(citta and ?ha&aa(citta. /,thi(citta is a llougll procoss vlicl occurs aIvays al
conscious IovoI, llal is during vaking Iifo. Il vorks llrougl llo fivo sonso facuIlios. Tlo
Blavanga-cilla oporalos during vaking Iifo as voII as in llo droamIoss slalo of doop sIoop, and,
lloroforo, il may bo said llal il funclions boIov llo IovoI of consciousnoss. Il can aIso bo caIIod a
sub-conscious or an unconscious monlaI procoss nol idonlicaI vill llo fuII rango of llo Woslorn
concopl of llo sub-conscious or unconscious mind. Il doos nol covor llo onliro ground of llo
Woslorn concoplion of llo sub-conscious or unconscious mind.
Tlo Blavanga, vlicl is mado up of bha&a (bocoming or oxislonco) and aa (causo or
inslrumonlaI, rallor llan faclor) is an ossonliaI condilion for conlinuod oxislonco. Iifo
conlinuum is llo cIososl LngIisl oquivaIonl for llo IaIi vord Blavanga. By roason of llo
oxislonco of llo Blavanga cilla, llo slroam of consciousnoss is kopl going villoul inlorruplion.
If our prosonl birll loro is llo boginning, and our doall is llo ond of llis Iifo, lloro is lardIy
any nood lo vorry, and lry lo undorsland from a psycloIogicaI poinl of viov llo probIom of
dukkha, llo unsalisfaclorinoss of aII ompiricaI oxislonco. A moraI ordor in llo univorso, llo
roaIily of rigll and vrong, may nol bo of any praclicaI significanco lo us. To onjoy and gralify
llo sonsos al any cosl may soom lo bo llo sonsibIo lling lo do during llis briof span of Iifo. Tlis
viov, lovovor, doos nol oxpIain llo inoquaIily of mankind. An inquiring mind viII aIvays
slrivo lo sook llo causo of llis inoquaIily.
Tloro aro lvo principaI loaclings of llo Buddla vlicl slouId bo sludiod from a
psycloIogicaI poinl of viov. Tloy aro kamma and rebirth. Kamma is llo Iav of moraI causalion
llal slapos llo dosliny of boings and brings aboul robirll. BasicaIIy il is voIilion (cetana), aclion
promplod by viII. Tlo Buddla says: VoIilion, O monks, I docIaro is kamma, laving viIIod
man acls by dood, vord and llougll.
21
VoIilion, vlicl is viII, is llo dociding faclor in aII our
2O
3s!cholo!6 ?rief @ourse, soo claplor on AThe Stream of @onsciousness.A
21
Angullara Nikya III 415.
11
aclivilios, good or iII. Bamma is llo aclion or sood. Tlo roaclion, llo offocl, or fruil is knovn as
kamma&ipka. VoIilion may bo good or bad, so aclions may bo vloIosomo or unvloIosomo
according lo lloir rosuIls. Tlis ondIoss pIay of aclion and roaclion, causo and offocl, sood and
fruil, conlinuos in porpoluaI molion, and llis is bocoming (bha&a),Ca conlinuaIIy clanging
procoss of llo psyclo-plysicaI plonomona of oxislonco discussod oarIior. Man acls llrougl
body, spoocl and mind, aclions bring aboul roaclions. Craving (ta+h, Skl. tDE+), our llirsl,
vlicl is a faclor of llo mind, givos riso lo doods, doods produco rosuIls, rosuIls in lurn bring
aboul nov dosiros, nov craving and llirsling. Tlo procoss of causo and offocl, aclions and
roaclions, is naluraI Iav. Il is a Iav in ilsoIf vill no nood for a Iav-givor. An oxlornaI agoncy
llal rovards and punislos llo good and oviI doods of man las no pIaco in Buddlisl llougll.
Man is aIvays clanging oillor for good or for iII. Tlis clanging is unavoidabIo and doponds
onliroIy on lis ovn viII and aclion. Tlis is moroIy llo univorsaI naluraI Iav of llo consorvalion
of onorgy oxlondod lo llo moraI domain.
Il may bo obsorvod, from a psycloIogicaI poinl of viov, llal Buddlism doos nol supporl llo
idoa of roponlanco, for il viII nol do any good lo onosoIf or ollors. According lo Buddlism
vrong-doing is nol rogardod as a sin, for llal vord is foroign lo llo loacling of llo Buddla.
Tloro is no sucl llings as broaking llo Buddlas Iav bocauso lo vas nol a Iav-givor, an
arbilralor or polonlalo vlo punislod llo bad and rovardod llo good doods of boings. Tlo door
of llo dood is rosponsibIo for lis ovn aclions, lo suffors or onjoys llo consoquoncos of doods,
and il is lis concorn oillor lo do good or lo do bad. Il musl aIso bo slalod llal aII aclions, good
or iII, do nol nocossariIy maluro. Onos good kamma may suppross llo oviI kamma and vico
vorsa. Wo musl aIso undorsland llal llo Buddlisl doclrino of kamma is nol falaIism, is nol a
pliIosoplicaI doclrino lo llo offocl llal luman aclion is nol froo, bul nocossariIy dolorminod by
molivos vlicl aro rogardod as oxlornaI forcos acling upon llo viII, or prodolorminod by God.
Tlo Buddla noillor subscribod lo llo lloory llal aII llings aro unaIlorabIy fixod, llal aII llings
lappon by inovilabIo nocossily, llal is slricl dolorminism, (ni!ata(&ada) nor did lo uploId llo
lloory of compIolo indolorminism (adhiccasamuppanna). According lo Buddlism lloro is no Iifo
aflor doall or Iifo boforo birll indopondonl of kamma or voIilionaI aclions. Kamma is llo
coroIIary of robirll, robirll, on llo ollor land, is llo coroIIary of kamma. Birll procodos doall,
and doall on llo ollor land, procodos birll, and llo pair llus accompany oacl ollor in
unbrokon succossion. SliII lloro is no pormanonl soIf or souI or fixod onlily llal passos from
birll lo birll. Tlougl man comprisos a psyclo-plysicaI unil of mind and mallor, llo psyclo
or mind is nol a souI or soIf, in llo sonso of an onduring onlily, somolling roady mado and
pormanonl. Il is a forco, a dynamic conlinuum, capabIo of sloring up momorios nol onIy of llis
Iifo bul aIso of pasl Iivos.
To llo scionlisl mallor is onorgy in a slalo of slross, clango villoul roaI subslanco. To llo
psycloIogisl llo psyclo is no moro a fixod onlily. And vlon llo Buddla omplalicaIIy slrossod
llal llo so-caIIod boing or individuaI is bul a combinalion of plysicaI and monlaI forcos or
onorgios, a clango vill conlinuily, did lo nol anlodalo modorn scionco and psycloIogy by
lvonly fivo conlurios`
An individuaI oxislonco is llus a succossion of clango, somolling llal comos inlo boing and
passos avay nol romaining llo samo for lvo consoculivo momonls. Tlis psycloplysicaI
organism, llougl, undorgoos incossanl clangos, croalos nov psyclo-plysicaI procossos ovory
inslanl, llus prosorving llo polonliaIily for fuluro organic procossos and Ioaving no gap
bolvoon ono momonl and llo ollor. Wo Iivo and dio ovory momonl of our Iivos. Il is moroIy a
coming inlo boing and passing avay Iiko llo vavos of llo soa.
Tlis clango of conlinuily vlicl is palonl lo us in llis Iifo doos nol coaso al doall. Tlo mind
fIux conlinuos incossanlIy. Il is llo dynamic mind-fIux llal is lormod as kammic onorgy. Tlis
12
miglly forco, llis viII lo Iivo, koops Iifo going. Tlus llis porpoluaI slroam of consciousnoss
(&i**+a(sota) goos on villoul ond so Iong as llal myriad-facod llirsl (ta+h) in llo company of
ignoranco (a&i--), llo crovning corruplion of aII our madnoss, gonoralo il.
AII forms of appolilo aro incIudod in ta+h: grood, llirsl Iusl, burning, yoarning, Ionging,
incIinalion, affoclion, lousoloId Iovo aro somo of llo many lorms llal donolo ta+h, vlicl, in
llo vord of llo Buddla, Ioads lo bocoming (bha&a(netti). Bocoming vlicl manifosls ilsoIf as
dukkha, as sufforing, fruslralion, confIicls, painfuI oxcilomonl, unsalisfaclorinoss, is our ovn
oxporionco. Boings in lloir inlonso llirsl for oillor possossion or llo salisfaclion of dosiros,
bocomo bound lo llo vlooI of oxislonco, aro lvislod and lorn bolvoon llo spokos of agony, and
socuroIy cIoso llo door lo finaI doIivoranco.
Tlo onomy of llo vloIo vorId is Iusl llrougl vlicl aII oviI comos lo Iiving boings. Il is nol
onIy grood for and allaclmonl lo pIoasuro causod by llo sonsos, voaIll and proporly, and by
llo visl lo dofoal ollors and conquor counlrios, bul aIso allaclmonl lo idoas, viovs, opinions
and boIiofs (dhamma(ta+h) vlicl oflon Ioads lo caIamily and doslruclion and brings unloId
sufforing lo vloIo nalions, in facl lo llo vloIo vorId. Tlis lanl , llis craving of man, is llroo-
foId, and llo mind is urgod lo acl undor llo infIuonco of lloso llroo lypos of lanl . Wlonovor
craving for objocls is connoclod vill sonso pIoasuros il is caIIod sonsuous craving (kma(ta+h).
Wlon il is associalod vill llo boIiof in olornaI porsonaI oxislonco, llon il is caIIod craving for
oxislonco, for bocoming (bha&a(ta+h). Il is llo dosiro for conlinuing, lo oxisl for ovor, soIf-
prosorvalion (-,&itukma). Wlon craving is associalod vill llo boIiof in soIf-anniliIalion, il is
caIIod craving for non-oxislonco, for doslruclion (&ibha&a(ta+h). llo llroo-foId ta+h or craving
may bo comparod vill llal of llo Iroudian concoplion of llo eros, libido, and thanatos.
According lo Buddlism many aro llo dofiIomonls (kilesa) of llo mind, bul llo rool causos of
aII oviI aro: Iusl or craving, lalrod or iII viII, doIusion or ignoranco (lobha, dosa, moha). Tloy aro
llo molivo forcos by vlicl man acls. Aclions porformod llrougl lloso dofiIomonls bring aboul
ropoalod oxislonco, for il is said Willoul abandoning Iusl, lalo and doIusion ono is nol froo
from birll.
22
Wlon a porson lolaIIy oradicalos llo lrio lo is Iiboralod from llo slackIos of
sa0sra, ropoalod oxislonco. Ho is froo in llo fuII sonso of llo vord. Ho no Iongor las any quaIily
vlicl viII causo lim lo bo roborn as a Iiving boing, bocauso lo las roaIisod Nibbna, llo onliro
cossalion of bocoming (bha&a nirodha)% lo las lranscondod common or vorIdIy aclivilios, and las
raisod limsoIf lo a slalo abovo llo vorId vliIo yol Iiving in llo vorId, lis aclions aro issuo-Ioss,
aro kammicaIIy inoffoclivo, for lloy aro nol molivalod by llo lrio, by monlaI dofiIomonls. Ho is
immuno lo aII oviI, lo aII dofiIomonls of llo loarl. In lim lloro aro no molivaling undorIying
londoncios (anusa!a)% lo las givon up boll good and oviI (pu**a(ppa pah,na)
58
% lo is nol vorriod
by llo pasl, llo fuluro, nor ovon llo prosonl. Ho cIings lo nolling in llo vorId, and so is nol
lroubIod. Ho is nol porlurbod by llo vicissiludos of Iifo. His mind is unslakon by conlacl vill
vorIdIy conlingoncios, lo is sorrovIoss, lainlIoss and socuro (asoka0, &ira-a0, khema0)
5'
. Tlus
Nibbna is a slalo roaIisabIo in llis vory Iifo (dihadhamma(nibbna). Tlo llinkor, llo inquiring
mind, viII nol find il difficuIl lo undorsland llis slalo vlicl can bo posluIalod onIy of llo
Aralal and nol of any ollor boing oillor in llis vorId or in llo roaIm of loavonIy onjoymonl.
As llo Buddla las so cIoarIy poinlod oul: Wlalovor lloro is of oviI, connoclod vill oviI,
boIonging lo oviI, aII issuo from mind (IiloraIIy, mind procodos llom aII: mano pubbaama).
Wlalovor lloro is of good, connoclod vill good, boIonging lo good, aII issuo from mind.
25
22
Angullara Nikya II I.6.
23
Dlammapada 39.
24
MangaIa sulla, Sullanipla 27O.
25
Angullara Nikya I.VI. 6.8, I.VI. 7.9.
13
Honco llo nood for man lo scruliniso lis ovn mind vill a viov lo undorslanding lov llo
luman mind vorks, lov llouglls ariso and pass avay. As Sigmund Iroud says:
IsycloIogicaI clangos onIy como aboul vory sIovIy. If lloy occur quickIy and suddonIy il is
a bad sign. Knoving good llouglls as good, and oviI as oviI, an allompl slouId bo mado lo
provonl llo arising of oviI and unvloIosomo llouglls nol yol arison, lo abandon llo oviI
llouglls aIroady arison, lo produco and dovoIop good llouglls llal lavo nol yol arison, and lo
mainlain llo good llouglls aIroady arison. Tlis is llo funclion of Rigll Lfforl (samm &!ma), a
doing in llo mind: lo provonl, lo abandon, lo dovoIop and mainlain (sa0&ara, pahna, bh&an ,
anurakkhana).
5:
Tlus in Buddlism ovon ollics is sludiod from llo psycloIogicaI poinl of viov.
Tlis omplasis on rigll offorl by llo Buddla oxpIains in unmislakabIo Ianguago llal Buddlism
is nol a pliIosoply of possimism, a loacling for llo foobIo-mindod vlo Iook al llings from llo
mosl unfavourabIo poinl of viov, bul llal il is a lruo varriors roIigion.
Hard il is lo givo up vlal Iuros and loIds us in llraII, and lard il is lo oxorciso llo oviI spirils
llal launl llo luman loarl in llo slapo of unvloIosomo llouglls. Tloso oviIs aro llo
manifoslalion of Iusl, lalo and doIusion discussod oarIior. InliI ono allains llo vory crosl of
purily by conslanl lraining of llo mind, ono cannol dofoal lloso losls compIoloIy. Tlo moro
abandoning of oulvard llings, fasling and so forll, lloso do nol lond lo purify a man, lloso
llings do nol mako a man loIy and larmIoss. SoIf lorluro is ono oxlromo vlicl llo Buddla in
lis firsl procIamalion of llo dlamma casl off as vrong, and so aIso did lo rojocl sonsuaI
induIgonco caIIing il ignobIo. Avoiding lloso lvo oxlromos llo Buddla rovoaIod lo llo vorId
llo MiddIo Way, llo Ancionl Iall, vlicl sliII bockons llo voary piIgrim lo llo lavon of
Nirvanas socurily and poaco.
Virluo, conconlralion and visdom or insigll (s,la, samdhi, pa**) aro llo cardinaI loacling
vlicl, vlon fuIIy cuIlivalod, raiso man from Iovor lo liglor IovoIs of monlaI Iifo, Ioad lim
from darknoss lo Iigll, from passion lo dispassion, from lurmoiI lo lranquiIIily. Tloso llroo aro
nol isoIalod roaclions, bul inlograI parls of llo pall. Tlis idoa is cryslaIIisod in llal ofl-quolod
bul ovor frosl admonilion of llo Buddlas of aII agos:
27
Sabba ppassa akara+a0
Busalassa upasampad
Sacitta pari!odapana0
=ta0 ?uddhnassana0
Tlo giving up of aII oviI
Tlo cuIlivalion of llo good
Tlo cIoansing of onos mind
Tlis is llo Buddlas loacling.
I llink vo lavo nov sufficionlIy doaIl vill llo psycloIogicaI aspocls of Buddlism. In
concIusion I visl lo lako your minds back lo llo inlroduclory paragrapl in llis laIk vloro I
slalod llal llo Iifo slory of Sir Baron }ayaliIaka riclIy iIIuslralos llo povor of llo luman mind.
Tlo ono Iosson llal vo aII can Ioarn from lis uniquo Iifo is llal vo can improvo and dovoIop our
minds on llo Iinos indicalod in Buddlisl psycloIogy. Moro Ioarning borofl of llo oIovaling and
purifying infIuonco of a mind lrainod in llo Buddlisl vay of Iifo carrios us novloro. Iol us
lopo llal llo Iifo slory of Sir Baron }ayaliIaka, and llis laIk inspirod by llal Iifo slory, viII loIp
us lo riso abovo llo passions and projudicos, groal and smaII, vlicl bosol us al ovory lurn in
Iifo, and inlroduco us lo lloso liglor roaIms of nobIo Iiving vlicl llo Buddla las boon al pains
lo omplasiso. May vo aII, Ioading llal liglor Iifo, allain llo bIiss of Nibbna.
26
Angullara Nikya. II 15, (sullas 13, 14).
27
Dlammapada, v 183.
14
Bo Ioving and bo pilifuI
And voII conlroIIod in virluos vays,
Slronuous, bonl upon llo goaI,
And onvard ovor bravoIy pross.
Tlal dangor boll in daIIianco Iio,
Tlal oarnoslnoss is suro and safo,
Tlis vlon you soo, llon cuIlivalo
Tlo LigllfoId Iall, so slaII yo loucl,
28
So mako your ovn, llo DoallIoss Way.
29
28
Toucli. o. `roaIizo'.
29
3salms of the ?rethren, 979, 98O.
15